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Literacy for Learning

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Title: Literacy for Learning


1
Literacy for Learning
  • Mel Riddile, Ed.D.
  • riddilem_at_principals.org

2
Mel Riddile - NASSP
  • Mel Riddile
  • riddilem_at_principals.org

3
Carnegie.org/literacy
4
When we leave here today
  • Believe Students can succeed!
  • Why We must teach literacy skills.
  • Hope We can raise student achievement!
  • CommitmentWe will teach literacy skills.

5
The education pipeline loses young people at many
points along the path.
For every 10 who start H.S.
Fewer than 7 will get a diploma in 4 years
4 will enroll in college the fall semester after
graduation
Fewer than 2 will complete a 2 or 4 year degree
within 150 of the required time.
6
Achievement Gap
Majority
Minority
7
Believe
8
Do you believe?
  • An eighteen-year-old who is not college-ready
    today has effectively been sentenced to a
    lifetime of marginal employment and second-class
    citizenship.
  • Wagner and Keegan, 2006

9
Do you believe?
  • The most important things are usually the most
    difficult!

10
Do you believe?
  • Labels limit learners

11
Do you believe?
All students can learn
12
Teachers
2/3
13
Principals
2/5
14
Achievement Gap
Expectation Gap
Majority
Minority
15
On-Target - College- and workplace-ready
1/5
16
Dropouts
Successful students dont drop out!
17
Why literacy!
Students learn and grow
18
Why literacy!
Literacy is about students, not adults!
19
Our mission
We must do for other peoples children what we
would want done for our own.
20
Vision
If you dont have a vision for what your students
can achieve, who does?
21
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22
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23
DNA
  • Every school has its own!

24
HOPE
25
Hope
  • You can do it too!
  • With the same students

26
Hope
  • You can do it too!
  • With the same students
  • With the same staff

27
Failing School
  • February 2000
  • Stuart is a failing school.

28
Essential Questions
  • Can a failing school succeed?
  • Can the culture of a school change?
  • Can the changes be sustained?

29
One School
30
J.E.B. Stuart High School
31
Demographics
  • 93 minority
  • 66 second language learners
  • 70 poverty
  • 30 mobility rate

32
An international student body
  • Stuart has no ethnic majority
  • 40 Hispanic
  • 12 White
  • 14 Middle Eastern
  • 21 Asian
  • 10 Black
  • 3 Other

33
An international student body
  • 88 countries
  • 66 languages

34
Indicators of poor performance Academic
Achievement
  • High D and F rates
  • 76 or 3 of 4 students read below grade level
  • Passed only 1 of 11 end-of-course exams in 1998
  • SATs were the lowest in school system
  • Low expectations
  • Two schools in one

35
Indicators of poor performance Student Behavior
  • Poor attendance
  • 89 attendance 24 days per year
  • system average was 95
  • Poor discipline but high suspension rates
  • Gang problems
  • Drop-ins
  • Retention Rate
  • Declining enrollment in elective programs

36
AYP
37
Roadblocks
  • No one will graduate.
  • Just keep us out of the papers.
  • I never raised test scores
  • Failing school
  • Why do you want to know their reading levels?
  • Fist pounding
  • Thats what we hired you to do!
  • You must be cheating!

38
Alignment
  • Principals can profoundly influence student
    achievement by leading school change, but they
    cannot turn schools around by themselves. SREB

39
Alignment
  • District leaders need to create working
    conditions that support and encourage change for
    improved achievement, rather than hindering
    principals abilities to lead change. -SREB

40
Four years later
41
  • This is not a Hollywood movie set!

42
Important to note
  • Demographics remained consistent for a decade.
  • No changes in boundaries
  • No magnet programs

43
Over a nine year period there was continuous
progress.
  • Reading scores rose from 64 to 94
  • Same student population
  • Same teachers

44
Over a nine year period there was continuous
progress.
  • Algebra scores rose from 32 to 98
  • Same student population
  • Same teachers

45
Over a nine year period there was continuous
progress.
  • History scores rose from 27 to 96
  • Same student population
  • Same teachers

46
Breakthrough High Schools
47
J.E.B. Stuart High School
  • Your school is a national model that others can
    only attempt to emulate. Your high school is one
    of a few in America that is actually
    accomplishing what many educators are trying to
    do, helping students from disadvantaged
    backgrounds beat the odds against them.
  • Dr. Gerald N. Tirozzi
  • Executive Director
  • NASSP

48
Stuart High SchoolAwards and Recognition
Changing America A High School Melting Pot
49
Stuart High SchoolAwards and Recognition
50
Stuart High SchoolAwards and Recognition
One of the original six Breakthrough High
Schools One of thirty-nine schools featured in
Breaking Ranks II The only Virginia school
51
Stuart High SchoolAwards and Recognition
Model High School
52
Stuart High SchoolAwards and Recognition
53
Stuart High SchoolAwards and Recognition
54
Rather be B-A-D...
than be embarrassed
55
Stuart High School Attendance
56
Suspension rates
57
1997-98 ninth grade retention rate?
  • 14

58
2004-05 ninth grade retention rate?
  • 3

59
These changes were not easy
  • Time
  • Focus
  • Hard Work

60
Demography is not destiny!
61
State Scores by Free Reduced Lunch
62
State Scores by Free Reduced Lunch
63
Demography is not destiny!
64
R A G S Reading Attendance Grades Safe
School
65
Why Literacy
66
Literacy
The gateway skill.
67
Literacy for Learning
  • Raise Student Achievement
  • Improve Teaching
  • Promote long-term, sustainable, schoolwide change

68
Why literacy?
  • Needs not wants
  • Most important
  • Most difficult change
  • Most impact

69
Why literacy?
  • Raise achievement for all students
  • Most difficult change

70
Why literacy?
  • A schoolwide literacy effort will result in
    substantial changes in the beliefs, attitudes,
    and culture of the school.
  • Focus on students
  • Focus on teaching
  • Focus on improvement of each and every student
    DIFFERENTIATION

71
Why literacy?
"We don't face issues as heavy as slavery, but
what about failing to teach a seventeen year-old
living in poverty to read? "Is that not a moral
issue of great proportions when you extrapolate
from that one child and realize the insidious
consequences for both the individual and the
society."
72
Why not literacy?
  • No need
  • No time
  • Know-how

73
Time
74
Time
  • Time to learn
  • Time to teach

75
If the first assumption we make is false, then
every behavior after that is wrong.
76
Time
Dr. Lauren Resnick Institute for Learning Univ.
of Pittsburgh
77
It's not about ability!
Dr. Lauren Resnick Institute for Learning Univ.
of Pittsburgh
78
Effort
creates
Ability
79
Given time,
all students can learn.
80
If time is held constant, this is what student
achievement will look like a bell curve.
81
Time
  • Maximizing learning time is one of the most
    effective means for increasing student
    achievement.

82
Time
  • Mindset

83
Time
  • Outliers

84
Time
  • 10,000 hours
  • 243 days
  • Math
  • KIPP Schools

85
Time
  • Disrupting Class

86
Time
  • Average 1,500
  • College 2,100
  • Working 600

87
Time
  • By age 3
  • College 48M
  • Working 13M

88
Time
  • By age 3
  • College-incalculabe cognitive advantage
  • Working-persistent deficit

89
Time
90
Time
  • Two-thirds of the achievement gap between lower-
    and higher-income youth can be explained by
    unequal access to summer learning opportunities.
    (Alexander et al, 2007)

91
Time
  • Most students lose about two months of
    grade-level equivalency in mathematical
    computation skills over the summer months.
    (Cooper, 1996).

92
Time
  • Low-income students also lose more than two
    months in reading achievement, while their
    middle-class peers make slight gains (Cooper,
    1996).

93
Time
  • When this pattern continues throughout the
    elementary school years, lower income youth fall
    more than two and one-half years behind their
    more affluent peers by the end of fifth grade.

94
Time
95
Utilizing the Lexile FrameworkCumulative Effect
of Summer Learning Loss
Fairchild, R. McLaughlin, B. Brady, J. (2006).
Making the Most of Summer A Handbook on
Effective Summer Programming and Thematic
Learning. Baltimore, MD Center for Summer
Learning.
3rd Grade
4th Grade
2nd Grade
1st Grade
Kindergarten
96
Time
  • Extended
  • courses
  • day
  • week
  • school year

97
Achievement Gap
98
Time Gap
99
Time
Time is relevant. Outcomes are absolute.
100
Old
Time is a constant. Achievement is a variable.
101
New
Time is a variable. Achievement is a constant.
102
  • If we keep doing what we have always done, we
    will keep getting what we have always gotten.

103
  • Same lessons
  • Same methods
  • Same setting
  • Same time frame

104
Same results
105
Why literacy?
Some students need more time!
106
Why literacy?
We cannot learn from what we cannot read.
107
2005-06 Lexile Framework for Reading
StudySummary of High School Textbook Lexile
Measures
Interquartile Ranges Shown (25 - 75)
1400
1300
1200
Text Lexile Measure (L)
1100
1000
900
800
ELA
Science
Social Studies
Arts
CTE
Math
Subject Area Textbooks
108
Authentic Literacy
1. Reading 2. Writing 3. Thinking 4. Discussing
109
What did it take?
  • Trial and Error

110
Breaking Ranks II
111
If your school is
  • High Minority
  • High Poverty
  • Second-language learners
  • Student mobility

112
If you want to..
  • Raise student achievement
  • Make AYP
  • Close the Achievement Gap
  • All graduates college- and workplace ready

113
We set a goal
  • All graduates are college- and workplace-ready

114
Is there a difference between college-ready and
workplace-ready?
115
2005-06 Lexile Framework for Reading Study
Summary of Text Lexile Measures
Interquartile Ranges Shown (25 - 75)
1600
1400
1200
Text Lexile Measure (L)
1000
800
600
High School Literature
College Literature
High School Textbooks
College Textbooks
Military
Personal Use
Entry-Level Occupations
SAT 1, ACT, AP
Source of National Test Data MetaMetrics
116
Our schools are not the schools we knew!
117
Factory Model
118
Factory Model - Sorting
119
Mass Customization gt costs more
120
School leaders are asked to do more and more with
less and less.
121
High Leverage Points
122
Lexile
123
Lexile Framework
  • Semantic Difficulty
  • Syntactic Complexity

124
Lexile Framework
  • Lexile.com

125
Lexiles
126
Lexiles as a part of the discussion
  • Made it real
  • Drew connections
  • Practical
  • Accelerated progress

127
If our school was a hospital
128
If our school was a hospital
  • Would we use the same treatment with all
    patients?
  • Would we wonder why some never improved?
  • Would we treat patients with no diagnostic
    information?
  • Would we allow illnesses to go untreated?
  • Would we treat illnesses as early as possible?
  • With chronic problems, would we emphasize
    prevention?

129
..poor readers would receive critical care.
130
Every teacher uses language to teach and learn.
131
We cannot learn from what we cannot read.
132
In the 21st Century
Literacy skills are a must.
133
Learn to Read and thenRead to Learn
Adapted from Tim Cynthia Shanahan, Harvard
Review, Spring 2008
134
Myths
135
Kids cant read.
136
Literacy and reading are the same thing.
137
Education has declined.
138
The issue is not that U.S. education quality has
declinedBut the economy is changing much faster
than the schools have improved. Many people
including roughly half of the recent graduates
have an education that is no longer in demand.
139
Myths
The key to solving the literacy problem is to
ensure that all students are reading at grade
level by the end of 3rd grade.
140
Myths
Some grades in school are more important than
others.
141
Myths
What school year would be the best to take off?
142
Literacy programs are for struggling learners.
143
Only low performers benefit from literacy
programs.
144
All students learn at the same rate.
145
Myths
Adolescents cant learn to read proficiently.
146
The more you read the better you read.
147
Literacy is a waste of money.
148
The economics of literacy
  • The economic payoffs of teaching reading and
    writing skills are much higher than anything else
    we teach.
  • Labor Economist and Northeastern University
    Professor
  • Dr. Paul Harrington

149
Literacy Must Dos
150
(No Transcript)
151
10 Literacy Musts
  • Make literacy a priority
  • Policy
  • Instructional Consistency
  • Assessment
  • Tiered Interventions

152
10 Literacy Musts
  • Literacy Leader
  • Literacy Council
  • Professional Development
  • Technology Integration
  • Monitor and Measure Progress

153
Policies that support literacy
  • Alignment
  • State
  • District
  • K-12
  • School

154
Policy supports literacy
  • State - Teacher Certification and
    Re-certification
  • School Division - K-12 Emphasis - Strategies
  • Read Alouds/Think Alouds
  • Vocabulary
  • Graphic Organizers
  • School
  • Reading Across the Curriculum
  • Ongoing Professional Development

155
Vocabulary
  • General Vocabulary
  • - Everyday language
  • Specialized Vocabulary
  • - Multiple meanings in different content areas
  • Technical Vocabulary
  • - Specific to a field of study (concerto,
    photosynthesis)

156
Consistent Instruction
157
Standard Practices
Every profession has standard practices and
procedures. Why not teaching?
158
Consistent Teaching Practices
  • All classes have a beginning
  • Bell work
  • Essential/Guiding Question
  • All classes have an activating strategy.
  • All classes a have and end - closure.
  • All students are actively engaged.
  • All teachers regularly check for understanding.
  • Homework is the application of learned/mastered
    course content.
  • Literacy strategies are imbedded throughout the
    curriculum.
  • Technology is integrated throughout the
    curriculum.

159
B-E-E-P Model
160
BEEP A Model of Instructional Delivery
161
Assessment
162
Assessment
  • Differentiation
  • Is it important to you?

163
Assessment
  • Differentiation
  • Do you want your doctor to differentiate
    treatment?

164
Assessment
  • Differentiation
  • Could a doctor treat a patient without data on
    performance?

165
Assessment
  • Differentiation
  • How can teachers differentiate instruction
    without data?

166
Evaluation
  • If you dont test
  • You dont know what to teach.

167
Assessments
  • Annual
  • Many good assessments
  • Matched to your population
  • Reported by Lexile

168
Assessments
  • Annual
  • Frequency determined by severity
  • Decisions are not based on a single data point.

169
Diagnostic Assessments
  • All incoming ninth graders.
  • Regularly assess all ninth and tenth graders.
  • Annually assess all students.
  • Frequently assess at risk students.

170
Diagnostic Assessments
  • Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test
  • Annual Spring Testing
  • ID Students
  • Set up classes
  • Needs of population
  • Select resource materials
  • IRI

171
Assessment
Monitor Progress Intervene
Monitor Progress Intervene
Monitor Progress Intervene
Improve Instruction
Improve Instruction
Improve Instruction
172
Sooner
Assessment
Monitor Progress Intervene
Monitor Progress Intervene
Monitor Progress Intervene
Improve Instruction
Improve Instruction
Improve Instruction
173
Tiered Interventions
174
RTI
175
Tiered Interventions (all students)
  • Primary - Reading Across The Curriculum
  • Secondary Web-based
  • Tertiary -Reading Classes
  • ESL
  • Special Education
  • Communications
  • Tier 3 Intervention

Targeted
Intensive
176
Targeted Interventions
Primary
  • Reading Across The Curriculum

Web-based
900
Secondary
Literacy Course
650
Tier 3
Tertiary
177
Targeted Interventions
Highest
  • Reading Across The Curriculum

100
Web-based
5
Literacy Course
5
Tier 3
Lowest
178
Literacy Leader
179
Partnership
180
Literacy Council
181
Build Capacity
182
Build Capacity
Once you get good people in the door, you had
better offer them something good. Fullan 2008
183
Build Capacity
It is our responsibility to teach them what we
want them to know and be able to do.
184
Professional Development
  • Ongoing
  • Job-embedded
  • Content specific

185
What is the role of teacher?
186
Teachers use language to teach their course
content.
187
Content teachers teach the language of their
subject.
188
Technology
189
Technology Integration
  • High Interest
  • Motivates
  • Engages
  • Individualizes
  • Differentiates
  • At bats
  • Low-threat environment

190
Technology Integration
  • Blackboard compatible
  • Achieve 3000
  • Read 180
  • Online testing
  • Library Services

191
At the secondary level
Literacy is like a transplanted organ. We must
take anti-rejection medication.
192
Monitor Progress (Is it working?)
  • Annual Pre- and Post-Testing
  • Program Audit
  • Evaluation
  • Mid-Course Corrections

193
Summary
194
  • Great schools are not a matter of circumstance.
    Great schools are a matter of will.
  • Mel Riddile

195
  • Teachers in great high schools are not working
    harder than teachers in other schools.
  • Dr. Willard Daggett

196
  • Schools cannot exceed the quality of their
    teachers.
  • Michael Fullan, Six Secrets

197
Mel Riddile riddilem_at_principals.org
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