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Rococo Art


Pilgrimage to Cythera by Jean-Antoine Watteau, captures the frivolity and ... Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684 1721) is generally considered the first great Rococo painter. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rococo Art

Rococo Art
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The Definition of Rococo
  • describes a movement in the arts in the early
    18th century, in France .
  • derived from the French words "rocaille", meaning
    "rock work" and coquille meaning shell work
  • a decorative style most often used in interior
    design, painting, architecture, and sculpture.

Rococo Features
  • Continuous undulating(??) curves (??)
  • Lack of symmetry (??), with restless and fluid
  • Pastel colors , a lighthearted mood
  • Twisting naturalistic ornament in marquetry(????)
  • Pierced and jagged scallop(??) shells
  • Flickering flames
  • Fanciful treatment of forms in nature

Historical Background
  • During the age of Enlightenment, a time when new
    ideas about human existence were introduced.
    Rococo art is the visual representation of the
    optimism people felt in response to that .
  • After the heavy works created in the Baroque
    style, artists were ready for a change.

  • Louis XIV was succeed by the Duke of Orleans
    (regent for the minor Louis XV ) in 1715, who was
    know for enjoying the privileges of his office,
    moving social life away from the formal courts
    and into salons. This attitude was continued with
    the following reign of Louis XV.

Historical Development
  • France

At the end of his reign, rich Baroque
designs give way to lighter elements with more
curves and natural patterns .
The1730s represented the height of Rococo
development in France , The style spread from
architecture and furniture to painting and
sculpture. exemplified by the works of
Antoine Watteau François Boucher
Louis XIV
Duke of Orleans
Louis XV
The King's Bedroom , Versailles Palace.
Hôtel de Soubise
The Embarkation for Cythera, Jean-Antoine
Madame de Pompadour, François Boucher
Germany German Rococo was applied with enthusiasm
to churches and palaces, particularly in the
south, while Frederician Rococo developed in the
Kingdom of Prussia.
Amalienburg (exterior)
Hall of Mirrors, Amalienburg
Frederician Rococo
  • Frederician Rococo is a form of rococo, which
    developed in Prussia during the reign of
    Frederick the Greatand combined influences from
    both France and the Netherlands.

Sans Souci Palace
Italy In Italy, the late Baroque styles of
Boromini and Guarini set the tone for Rococo in
Turin, Venice, Naples and Sicily, while the arts
in Tuscany and Rome remained more wedded to
  • Rococo was always thought of as the "French
    taste" and was never widely adopted as an
    architectural style
  • However, its influence was strongly felt in such
    areas as silverwork, porcelain, and silks.
  • Thomas Chippendale transformed English furniture
    design through his adaptation and refinement of
    the style. most of the
  • Rococo pieces use a French whorl
  • foot. All of the legs are cabriole .

Rococo Revival in American(1840-1870)
  • The Rococo Revival style is much bolder than its
    18th century model. Ornament is carved in higher
    relief, and decorative detail is usually far more
    realistic. Rococo Revival examples are usually
    smaller than 18th-century prototypes .

Rococo Art
  • Rococo Architecture Inner Design
  • Rococo Painting Music
  • Rococo Dress

The Rococo Architecture
  • At the outset the Rococo style represented a
    reaction against the ponderous design of Louis
    XIVs Palace of Versailles and the official
    Baroque art of his reign. Several interior
    designers, painters, and engravers, among them
    Pierre Le Pautre, J.-A. Meissonier, Jean Berain,
    and Nicolas Pineau, developed a lighter and more
    intimate style of decoration for the new
    residences of nobles in Paris.

  • In the Rococo style, walls, ceilings, and
    moldings were decorated with delicate
    interlacings of curves and countercurves based on
    the fundamental shapes of the C and the S, as
    well as with shell forms and other natural
    shapes. Asymmetrical design was the rule. Light
    pastels, ivory white, and gold were the
    predominant colours.

Liverpool Scone Castle???????
  • A few anti-architectural hints rapidly evolved
    into full-blown Rococo at the end of the 1720s
    and began to affect interiors and decorative arts
    throughout Europe. From France the Rococo style
    spread in the 1730s to the Catholic
    German-speaking lands.The richest forms of German
    Rococo are in Catholic Germany.

the Cathedral, Cádiz
Nymphenburg ???
Vierzehnheiligen ???????
Wieskirche ????
  • Inaugurated in some rooms in Versailles, it
    unfolds its magnificence in several Parisian
    buildings (especially the Hôtel Soubise). In
    Germany, French and German artists (Cuvilliés,
    Neumann, Knobelsdorff, etc.) effected the
    dignified equipment of the Amalienburg near
    Munich, and the castles of Würzburg, Potsdam,
    Charlottenburg, Brühl, Bruchsal, Solitude
    (Stuttgart), and Schönbrunn.

Schönbrunn ???
Hôtel Soubise?????
  • In England, one of Hogarth's set of paintings
    forming a melodramatic morality tale titled
    Marriage à la Mode, engraved in 1745, shows the
    parade rooms of a stylish London house, in which
    the only rococo is in plasterwork of the salon's
    ceiling. Palladian architecture is in control.
    Here, on the Kentian mantel, the crowd of Chinese
    vases and mandarins are satirically rendered as
    hideous little monstrosities, and the Rococo wall
    clock is a jumble of leafy branches.

Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo
  • In general, Rococo is an entirely interior style,
    because the wealthy and aristocratic moved back
    to Paris from Versailles. Paris was already built
    up and so rather than engaging in major
    architectural additions, they simply renovated
    the interiors of the existing buildings.

  • Solitude Palace in Stuttgart and Chinese Palace
    in Oranienbaum, the Bavarian church of Wies and
    Sanssouci in Potsdam are examples of how Rococo
    made its way into European architecture.

The Inner Design
  • The lighthearted themes and intricate designs of
    Rococo presented themselves best at a smaller
    scale than the imposing Baroque architecture and
    sculpture. It is not surprising, then, that
    French Rococo art was at home indoors. Metalwork,
    porcelain figures,frills and especially furniture
    rose to new pre-eminence as the French upper
    classes sought to outfit their homes in the now
    fashionable style.

  • During the Rococo period, furniture was
    lighthearted, physically and visually. The idea
    of furniture had changed a lot. Furniture could
    be easily moved around for gatherings, and many
    specialized forms came to be. Changes in design
    of these chairs ranges from cushioned detached
    arms, lengthening of the cushioned back and a
    loose seat cushion.
  • Furniture was also freestanding to accentuate the
    lighthearted atmosphere and versatility. Mahogany
    was widely used in furniture construction of its
    strength, resulting in the absence of the
    stretcher. Also, using mirrors hung above
    mantels became ever more popular in light of the
    development of unblemished glass.

  • In a full-blown Rococo design, like the Table
    d'appartement, by German designer J. A.
    Meissonnier, any reference to tectonic form is
    gone even the marble slab top is shaped. Apron,
    legs, stretcher have all been seamlessly
    integrated into a flow of opposed c-scrolls and
    "rocaille." The knot of the stretcher shows the
    asymmetrical "contraste" that was a Rococo

  • In France the style remained somewhat more
    reserved, since the ornaments were mostly of
    wood, or, after the fashion of wood-carving, less
    robust and naturalistic and less exuberant in the
    mixture of natural with artificial forms of all

  • English Rococo tended to be more restrained.
    Thomas Chippendale's furniture designs kept the
    curves and feel, but stopped short of the French
    heights of whimsy. The most successful exponent
    of English Rococo was probably Thomas Johnson.

The ballroom of the Catherine Palace
The Rococo Basilica at Ottobeuren (Bavaria)
  • In those places, Rococo is fully in control,
    sportive, fantastic, and sculptured forms are
    expressed with abstract ornament using flaming,
    leafy or shell-like textures in asymmetrical
    sweeps intimate Rococo interiors suppress
    architectonic divisions of architrave, frieze and
    cornice for the picturesque, the curious, and the
    whimsical, expressed in plastic materials and
    above all stucco. Walls, ceiling, furniture, and
    works of metal and porcelain present a unified
    ensemble. The Rococo palette is softer and paler
    than the Baroque tastes.

Furniture Show
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  • Painting
  • music

  • Though Rococo originated in the purely decorative
    arts, the style showed clearly in painting.
  • These painters used delicate colors and curving
    forms, decorating their canvases with cherubs and
    myths of love.

  • Pilgrimage to Cythera by Jean-Antoine Watteau,
    captures the frivolity and sensuousness of Rococo
    painting. (1721, Louvre)

Jean-Antoine Watteau
  • Jean-Antoine Watteau (16841721) is generally
    considered the first great Rococo painter. He had
    a great influence on later painters , including
    François Boucher (17031770) and Jean-Honoré
    Fragonard (17321806), two masters of the late
    period. Even Thomas Gainsborough's (17271788)
    delicate touch and sensitivity are reflective of
    the Rococo spirit.

Jean-Antoine Watteau
Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
  • Portraiture was also popular among Rococo
  • Some works show a sort of naughtiness or impurity
    in the behavior of their subjects, showing the
    historical trend of departing away from the
    Baroque's church/state orientation.
  • Landscapes were pastoral and often depicted the
    leisurely outings of aristocratic

Self-portrait in a Straw Hat, 1782.
Élisabeth-Louise Vigée-Le Brun
  • Birth nameMarie Élisabeth-Louise Vigée
  • Born16 April 1755)Paris, France
  • Died30 March 1842 (aged 86)Paris, France
  • Nationality France
  • FieldPainting
  • MovementRococo

Self-portrait, painted at Florence, 1790
Charles Alexandre de Calonne, by Élisabeth
Vigée-Le Brun
Portrait of Marie Antoinetet by Élisabeth
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  • Thomas Gainsborough

  • The rococo music style itself developed out of
    baroque music, particularly in France. It can be
    characterized as intimate music with extremely
    refined decoration forms.
  • Exemplars include Jean Philippe Rameau and
    Louis-Claude Daquin.

  • Rameau's musical works may be divided into four
    distinct groups, which differ greatly in
    importance a few cantatas a few motets for
    large chorus some pieces for solo harpsichord or
    harpsichord accompanied by other instruments
    and, finally, his works for the stage, to which
    he dedicated the last thirty years of his career
    almost exclusively.

Les Fêtes d'Hébé
  • Boucher's painting (above) provides a glimpse of
    the society which Rococo reflected. "Courtly"
    would be pretentious in this upper bourgeois
    circle, yet the man's gesture is gallant.
  • The stylish but cozy interior, the informal
    decorous intimacy of people's manners, the
    curious and delightful details everywhere one
    turns one's eye, the luxury of sipping chocolate
    all are "gallante."

Rococo Dress
  • The delicate frothiness (????)of the Rococo was
    reflected in clothing styles. From the 1720s
    until the Revolution, French taste dominated
    Europe. The Rococo style spread to England,
    Spain, central Europe, and even into Russia.

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  • Clothing in Rococo period moved away from the
    stiff showy Baroque fashions to a light, graceful
    style. The luxurious silk fabrics were in single
    colors, delicately patterned and elaborately
    embroidered(??), and in the typical pastel shades
    (???????)of the time.

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Materials and Sources
  • calico???, a fine-woven high quality printed
  • muslin??, a soft cotton gauze
  • satins ?? smooth silk

  • Since the Elizabethan period, womens dress had
    involved some form of Corset and Pannier
  • Wide hoops and corsets shaped the slender body,
    balanced on a bell-shaped skirt.

  • The Corset fronts were open,decorated with rows
    of gathers (??)or bows. The skirt front was also
    split in the center front, revealing a matching
    petticoat(?????). Necklines(??) were very low,
    and the ruffled edge of the chemise(???????)
    could be seen. Sleeves were tight-fitting to the
    elbow, and finished with tiers of lace

  • Court dress retained some of its earlier
    formality in the richness of the fabrics and
    embellishment(?????). This dress has the loose
    pleated(??) back of the gown(??) combined with a
    fitted Corset in the front.

  • During the 18 century, the Rococo dressing is
    centered with the female clothing. And the male
    dressing also has some reform in fashion.

  • Male dress include the coat, breeches and the

  • Coats continued to be full-skirted, and reach to
    the knee, they were collarless, and buttoned from
    neck to hem.
  • Breeches were cut moderately full, and closed at
    the front with a buttoned flap, called a
  • The waistcoat also extended to the knee, and was
    of rich brocades(?????).

  • The difference between dress and full dress was
    one of quality of fabric, the dress coat being of
    plain velvets(??) or wools, while the full dress
    coat was done up in brocade(?????)and
    embroidery(??). Buttons and fake buttonholes were
    featured on the fronts of coats.

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