Information Systems Analysis and Design - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Information Systems Analysis and Design PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 1b660e-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Information Systems Analysis and Design

Description:

Describe alternative hardware and software solutions that a project team might ... A general accounting system records the financial status of a business by ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:75
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 106
Provided by: steve1730
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Information Systems Analysis and Design


1
Information Systems Analysis and Design
Information Systems
Section A
CHAPTER 9
PARSONS/OJA
Page 442
2
Information Systems Analysis and Design
Chapter 9
Chapter PREVIEW
  • Describe how information systems help
    organizations fulfill their missions, deal with
    threats, and take advantage of opportunities
  • Contrast and compare the characteristics of
    office automation systems, transaction processing
    systems, management information systems, decision
    support systems, and expert systems
  • Describe various models for the system
    development life cycle (SDLC)

Page 443
3
Information Systems Analysis and Design
Chapter 9
Chapter PREVIEW
  • List the activities that take place in each phase
    of the system development life cycle
  • Apply the PIECES framework to classify problems
    that reduce the effectiveness of an information
    system
  • Describe alternative hardware and software
    solutions that a project team might typically
    consider
  • Explain the differences between unit testing,
    integration testing, system testing, and
    acceptance testing

Page 443
4
Information Systems Analysis and Design
Chapter 9
Chapter PREVIEW
  • Describe the advantages and disadvantages of
    direct conversion, parallel conversion, phased
    conversion, and pilot conversion
  • Explain the feedback mechanism that helps system
    operators identify and fix bugs

Page 443
5
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Information Systems in Organizations What is
an information system?
  • An information system collects, stores, and
    processes data to provide useful, accurate, and
    timely information, typically within the context
    of an organization
  • The term information system always refers to a
    system that uses computers, and usually includes
    communications networks

Page 444
6
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Whats the official definition of
organization?
  • An organization is a group of people working
    together to accomplish a goal
  • Any organization that seeks profit by providing
    goods and services is called a business
  • Some organizations are formed to accomplish
    political, social, or charitable goals that do
    not include amassing profit
  • These organizations are known as nonprofit
    organizations

Page 444
7
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Whats the official definition of
organization?
  • Every organization has a goal or plan thats
    often referred to as its mission
  • A mission statement describes not only an
    organizations goals, but also the way in which
    those goals will be accomplished

Page 444
8
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Whats the official definition of
organization?
Page 444
9
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Who uses information systems?
  • An information system is used by the people in an
    organization and its customers
  • Not everyone in an organization uses an
    information system in the same way
  • An organizational chart depicts the hierarchy of
    employees in a typical organization
  • Workers are the people who carry out the
    organizations mission
  • Managers determine organizational goals and plan
    how to achieve those goals

Page 445
10
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Who uses information systems?
  • This emphasis on long-range and future goals is
    referred to as strategic planning
  • Mid-level managers set incremental goals that can
    be achieved in a year or lessa process referred
    to as tactical planning
  • Low-level managers are responsible for scheduling
    employees, ordering supplies, and other
    activities that make day-to-day operations run
    smoothlya process referred to as operational
    planning

Page 445
11
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Who uses information systems?
Page 445
12
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
How do information systems help the people in
an organization?
  • An information system can help the people in an
    organization perform their jobs more quickly and
    effectively by automating routine tasks
  • One of the major functions of an information
    system is to help people make decisions in
    response to problems
  • All problems are not alike, but they can be
    classified into three types structured,
    semi-structured, and unstructured

Page 446
13
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
How do information systems help the people in
an organization?
  • An everyday, run-of-the-mill, routine problem is
    called a structured problem
  • A semi-structured problem is less routine than a
    structured problem
  • An unstructured problem requires human intuition
    as the basis for finding a solution
  • An information systems ability to assist with
    problem solving and decision making depends on
    the data that it collects and then makes available

Page 446
14
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
How do information systems help organizations
carry out their missions?
  • Most organizations exist in a rapidly changing
    and competitive environment, where many
    opportunities and threats can be effectively
    handled only by using computers
  • To be successful in its mission, an organization
    must respond effectively to opportunities and
    threats.
  • An organization has a choice of three
    fundamental responses

Page 447
15
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
How do information systems help organizations
carry out their missions?
Click to start
Page 447
16
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
How do information systems help organizations
carry out their missions?
  • First, it can become better at what it does by
    cutting costs, lowering prices, improving its
    products, offering better customer service, and
    so on
  • A second response is to change the structure of
    an industry
  • As a third response, an organization can create a
    new product
  • As organizations respond to opportunities and
    threats, they change. It can be important to
    understand the nature of coming changes

Page 447
17
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
How do information systems help organizations
carry out their missions?
Page 448
18
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Do organizations require different kinds of
information systems?
  • Because organizations have different missions,
    face different threats, and encounter different
    opportunities, they require different kinds of
    information systems

Page 448
19
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Office Automation Systems Can an information
system automate routine office tasks?
  • An office automation system automates, or
    computerizes, routine office tasks
  • Office automation systems can be used by workers
    and managers at all levels of the organizational
    hierarchy

Page 448
20
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Transaction Processing Systems Whats a
transaction?
  • A transaction is an exchange between two parties
    that is recorded and stored in a computer system

Page 449
21
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
What is a transaction processing system?
  • A transaction processing system (TPS) provides a
    way to collect, process, store, display, modify,
    or cancel transactions
  • Early transaction processing systems used batch
    processing to collect and hold a group of
    transactions for processing until the end of a
    day or pay period
  • Most modern transaction processing systems use
    online processing. Such systems are often
    referred to as OLTPS (online transaction
    processing systems)

Page 449
22
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
What is a transaction processing system?
  • A TPS can commit to a transaction and permanently
    update database records only if every step of the
    transaction can be successfully processed
  • If even one step fails, however, the entire
    transaction fails and the records must roll back
    to their original state

Page 449
23
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
What is a transaction processing system?
Click to start
Page 449
24
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
What are common examples of transaction
processing systems?
  • A point-of-sale (POS) system records items
    purchased at each cash register, and calculates
    the total amount due for each sale
  • An order-entry/invoice system provides a way to
    input, view, modify, and delete customer orders
  • A general accounting system records the financial
    status of a business by keeping track of income,
    expenses, and assets
  • An e-commerce system collects orders and
    processes credit card payments

Page 450
25
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
What are the limitations of transaction
processing systems?
  • Most transaction processing systems reporting
    capabilities are limited
  • Managers need more sophisticated reports to help
    them understand and analyze data

Page 450
26
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Management Information Systems What is a
management information system?
  • A management information system (MIS, pronounced
    EM EYE ESS) refers to a type of information
    system that uses the data collected by a
    transaction processing system, but manipulates
    that data to create reports that managers can use
    to make routine business decisions in response to
    structured problems

Page 450
27
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
What is a management information system?
Click to start
Page 450
28
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
What is a management information system?
  • One of the major goals of an MIS is to increase
    the efficiency of managerial activity
  • A summary report combines or groups data and
    often shows totals
  • An exception report contains information that is
    outside of normal or acceptable ranges
  • Scheduled reports follow a fixed format and are
    produced according to a preset timetable
  • An ad hoc report is a customized report,
    generated to supply specific information not
    available in scheduled reports

Page 451
29
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
What is a management information system?
Page 451
30
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
How does an MIS differ from a TPS?
  • Whereas a TPS simply records data, an MIS can
    consolidate data by grouping and summarizing it

Page 451
31
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
What are the limitations of a management
information system?
  • A traditional MIS is based on the data collected
    by a transaction processing system
  • The reports generated by an MIS are limited by
    the processing capabilities of the database
    software.
  • The MIS cannot typically be used to create models
    or projections

Page 451
32
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Decision Support Systems Whats a decision
support system?
  • A decision support system (DSS) helps people make
    decisions by directly manipulating data,
    analyzing data from external sources, generating
    statistical projections, and creating data models
    of various scenarios
  • A special type of decision support system, called
    an executive information system (EIS), is
    designed to provide senior managers with
    information relevant to strategic management
    activities based on information provided by the
    organizations database

Page 452
33
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Whats a decision support system?
  • A DSS does not make decisions, however. That
    task remains the responsibility of the human
    decision maker
  • A decision model is a numerical representation of
    a realistic situation
  • A decision query is a question or set of
    instructions describing data that must be
    gathered to make a decision
  • A DSS typically includes modeling tools so
    managers can create a numerical representation of
    a situation and explore what-if alternatives

Page 452
34
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Whats a decision support system?
Click to start
Page 452
35
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
What kinds of decisions can a DSS handle?
  • A DSS can be used to tackle diverse problems
    because it contains a good selection of decision
    support tools

Page 453
36
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
What are the limitations of a DSS?
  • A DSS helps people manipulate the data necessary
    to make a decision, but does not actually make a
    decision
  • A DSS is appropriate in situations where it is
    used by trained professionals

Page 453
37
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Expert Systems and Neural Networks What is an
expert system?
  • An expert system, sometimes referred to as a
    knowledge-based system, is a computer system
    designed to analyze data and produce a
    recommendation, diagnosis, or decision based on a
    set of facts and rules
  • The facts and rules for an expert system are
    typically derived by interviewing one or more
    experts, and then incorporated into a knowledge
    base
  • The knowledge base is stored in a computer file
    and can be manipulated by software called an
    inference engine

Page 453
38
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
What is an expert system?
Page 453
39
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
What is an expert system?
Click to start
Page 454
40
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
What kinds of decisions can an expert system
make?
  • An expert system is not a general-purpose problem
    solver or decision maker
  • Each expert system is designed to make decisions
    in a particular area or domain.

Page 454
41
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
How are expert systems built?
  • Expert systems can be created with a computer
    programming language or an expert system shell
  • An expert system shell is a software tool that
    contains an inference engine and a user interface
    that provides a way to enter facts and rules

Page 454
42
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Can an expert system deal with uncertainty?
  • Using a technique called fuzzy logic, an expert
    system can deal with imprecise data by asking for
    a level of confidence

Page 454
43
Information Systems
Section A
Chapter 9
Is it possible to build an expert system
without an expert?
  • An expert system begins with a set of facts and
    rules. But if the rules are not known, an
    computer can learn how to make decisions based
    on hundreds or thousands of lightning-fast trial
    and error attempts
  • A neural network uses computer circuitry to
    simulate the way a brain might process
    information, learn, and remember

Page 455
44
Information Systems Analysis and Design
Systems Analysis
Section B
CHAPTER 9
PARSONS/OJA
Page 456
45
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
Planning Phase How does an information system
project begin?
  • An information system project begins with a
    planning phase
  • The goal of these activities is to create a
    Project Development Plan
  • This planning document includes
  • A short description of the project, including its
    scope
  • A justification for the project
  • A list of project team participants
  • A schedule for the project, including an outline
    of its phases

Page 456
46
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
How does an information system project begin?
Page 456
47
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
Assemble Project Team Who supervises the
development project?
  • An Information Systems department, or IS
    department, is the wing of a business or
    organization responsible for developing and
    maintaining the computers, data, and programs for
    an information system
  • Some organizations refer to the IS department as
    the IT (Information Technology) department or MIS
    (Management Information Systems) department

Page 456-457
48
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
Who supervises the development project?
  • Most IS departments are headed by a chief
    information officer (CIO)
  • A computer professional called a systems analyst
    is responsible for analyzing information
    requirements, designing new information systems,
    and supervising their implementation

Page 457
49
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
Who participates in the process of building an
information system?
  • A system development project team is a group of
    people who are assigned to analyze and develop an
    information system
  • In addition to the project team, other members of
    the organization might be asked to participate
  • A widely accepted technique called joint
    application design (JAD) is based on the idea
    that the best information systems are designed
    when end users and systems analysts work together
    on a project as equal partners

Page 457
50
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
Justify Project Why are new information
systems developed?
  • The justification for a new information system
    usually emerges from a serious problem with the
    current system, or from an opportunity to improve
    an organizations products or services using
    technology

Page 457
51
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
Why are new information systems developed?
Page 458
52
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
System Development Life Cycle How does the
project team know what to do?
  • The project team typically proceeds according to
    a system development methodology chosen by the IS
    department

Page 458
53
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
What is a system development life cycle?
Page 458
54
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
What is a system development life cycle?
  • A system development life cycle (SDLC) an outline
    of a process that helps develop successful
    information systems
  • The original waterfall SDLC approaches each phase
    as a discrete step in the development process
  • A modified waterfall SDLC allows overlap between
    SDLC phases.
  • An iterative SDLC allows phases to repeat, if
    necessary, as the project progresses

Page 458-459
55
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
What is a system development life cycle?
Page 459
56
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
How do different SDLCs affect project
development?
  • The structured methodology focuses on the
    processes that take place within an information
    system
  • The information engineering methodology focuses
    on the data that an information system collects
    before working out ways to process that data
  • The object-oriented methodology treats an
    information system as a collection of objects
    that interact with each other to accomplish tasks

Page 459
57
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
How do different SDLCs affect project
development?
  • A methodology called rapid application
    development (RAD) proceeds with the project team
    creating a series of prototypes that users can
    evaluate
  • Different SDLCs also affect the project schedule
  • The tools for analyzing and designing an
    information system are directly related to the
    methodology

Page 459
58
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
Analysis Phase What happens in the analysis
phase?
  • The goal of the analysis phase is to produce a
    list of requirements for a new or revised
    information system

Page 460
59
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
Study the Current System Is it really
important to understand the current system before
planning a new system?
Page 460
60
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
Is it really important to understand the
current system before planning a new system?
  • Typically, a new information system is designed
    to replace a system or process that is already in
    place
  • It is important to study the current system to
    understand its strengths and weaknesses before
    planning a new system

Page 460
61
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
How does the project team discover what happens
in the current system?
  • Some members of the project team might have
    first-hand experience with the current system
  • They can often provide an overview of the system
  • To obtain additional information about the
    current system, the project team members can
    interview the people who use the system, or
    observe the system in action

Page 460
62
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
Determine System Requirements How does the
project team determine what the new system should
do?
  • System requirements are the criteria for
    successfully solving the problem or problems
    identified in an information system
  • They also serve as an evaluation checklist at the
    end of the development project, so they are
    sometimes called success factors

Page 461
63
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
How does the project team document system
requirements?
  • The project team can use a variety of tools to
    diagram the current system and specify what it
    does
  • It can be difficult, however, to maintain this
    documentation as the project progresses
  • A CASE tool (computer-aided software engineering
    tool) is a software application that is designed
    for documenting system requirements, diagramming
    current and proposed information systems,
    scheduling development tasks, and developing
    computer programs

Page 461
64
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
How does the project team document system
requirements?
Click to start
Page 461
65
Systems Analysis
Section B
Chapter 9
What marks the end of the analysis phase of the
SDLC?
  • The analysis phase concludes when the project
    team produces a written report that documents its
    findings
  • The System Requirements Report typically contains
    diagrams that illustrate what the new information
    system should do

Page 462
66
Information Systems Analysis and Design
Systems Design
Section C
CHAPTER 9
PARSONS/OJA
Page 464
67
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
Design Phase What happens in the design phase?
  • In the design phase of the SDLC, the project team
    must figure out HOW the new system will fulfill
    the requirements specified in the System
    Requirements Report

Page 464
68
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
Identify Potential Solutions How does the
project team come up with solutions?
  • There might be more than one way to solve the
    problems and meet the requirements identified in
    the analysis phase of the SDLC
  • The project team should identify several
    potential hardware and software solutions by
    brainstorming and researching case studies on
    Web sites and in computer magazines

Page 464
69
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
What kinds of hardware alternatives are
available?
  • A myriad of hardware options are available for
    information systems
  • Mainframes, servers, and personal computers are
    the most commonly used components, but in some
    information systems, handhelds, or even
    supercomputers, play a role

Page 464
70
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
What level of automation and computerization
will be required?
  • The project team should consider the pros and
    cons of different levels
  • Centralized or distributed processing
  • Centralized processing is when data is processed
    on a centrally located computer
  • Distributed processing is when processing tasks
    are distributed to servers and workstations
  • Network technology

Page 465
71
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
What level of automation and computerization
will be required?
Page 465
72
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
What kinds of software alternatives are
available?
  • The project team might consider software
    alternatives, such as whether to construct the
    system from scratch, use an application
    development tool, or commercial software
  • Creating an information system from scratch
    using a programming language can take many months
    or years
  • An application development tool is essentially a
    type of software construction kit containing
    building blocks that can be assembled into a
    software product

Page 466
73
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
What kinds of software alternatives are
available?
  • Commercial software for an information system is
    usually a series of pre-programmed software
    modules, supplied by a software developer,
    consulting company, or value-added reseller (VAR)
  • A turnkey system is essentially an information
    system in a box which consists of hardware and
    commercial software designed to offer a complete
    information system solution
  • A turnkey system must be extensively evaluated to
    determine whether it can satisfy system
    requirements

Page 466
74
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
Evaluate Solutions and Select the Best How
does the team choose the best solution?
  • To determine the best solution the project team
    devises a list of criteria for comparing each of
    the potential solutions
  • Each criterion is assigned a weight to indicate
    its importance. The project team then evaluates
    the criteria for each solution and assigns raw
    scores
  • Sound complicated? It isnt, especially if the
    project team uses a decision support worksheet

Page 467
75
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
How does the team choose the best solution?
Raw scores indicate how well each solution meets
each criterion.
The highest weights indicate the most important
criteria.
A list of criteria includes features and factors
that are important to the success of the
information system.
A weighted score is obtained by multiplying the
weight by the raw score.
The solution with the highest total is the best
choice.
Page 467
76
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
Select Hardware and Software How does the
project team find the right hardware and software
for the new information system?
  • Once the project team selects a solution, the
    next task is to select the hardware and software
    needed to implement the solution
  • The method for selecting the hardware, software,
    and vendor depends on the project teams
    understanding of what is required for the solution

Page 467
77
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
Whats an RFP?
  • A request for proposal (RFP) is a document that
    describes the information system problem and the
    requirements for the solution

Page 468
78
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
Whats an RFQ?
  • A request for quotation (RFQ) is a request for a
    formal price quotation on a list of hardware and
    software

Page 468
79
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
How does the project team evaluate an RFP or
RFQ?
  • The project team can evaluate RFPs or RFQs by
    constructing a decision table similar to the one
    used for evaluating solutions

Page 469
80
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
Develop Application Specifications What
happens after the project team selects a solution?
  • Exactly what happens next in the system design
    phase depends on the type of solution selected
  • If the project team selected a solution that
    requires custom programming, the teams systems
    analysts will create a set of application
    specifications

Page 469
81
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
What happens after the project team selects a
solution?
Page 469
82
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
Why werent the specifications developed as
part of the requirements report?
  • Detailed application specifications can be
    developed only after the hardware and software
    for an information system are selected

Page 469
83
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
What happens to the completed specifications?
  • Application specifications are similar to the
    pages of an architectural blueprint that show the
    detailed plan for electrical wiring or plumbing
  • In a large information systems project, the
    specifications are given to a programming team or
    application developer who creates the software
  • In a small information systems project, you as
    the user might develop your own specifications

Page 470
84
System Design
Section C
Chapter 9
Obtain Approval to Implement the New System
When can the project team actually begin to build
the new information system?
  • In the design phase of the SDLC, the project team
    chooses a solution, selects hardware and
    software, and designs detailed application
    specifications
  • Before the solution is implemented, the project
    team typically must seek approval from management

Page 470
85
Information Systems Analysis and Design
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
CHAPTER 9
PARSONS/OJA
Page 471
86
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
Implementation Phase What happens during the
implementation phase?
  • During the implementation phase of the SDLC, the
    project team supervises the tasks necessary to
    construct the new information system

Page 471
87
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
Purchase and Install Hardware and Software
Does a new information system typically require
new hardware?
  • Most new information systems require new
    hardware, which can either replace old equipment,
    or be connected to existing equipment

Page 471
88
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
How about new software?
  • Many information systems require new software,
    such as a commercial application, a programming
    language, an application development tool, or an
    expert system shell

Page 471
89
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
Create Applications After the project team
installs the new hardware and software, whats
the next step in the implementation phase?
  • The next step in the implementation phase depends
    on the software tools selected for the project
  • Software customization is the process of
    modifying a commercial application to reflect the
    needs of a particular organization
  • The process of designing, entering, and testing
    the rules in an expert system is referred to as
    knowledge engineering

Page 472
90
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
Test Applications How can the team ensure that
a new information system works?
  • A rigorous testing process is the only way to
    make sure that a new information system works

Page 472
91
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
What is application testing?
  • Application testing is the process of trying out
    various sequences of input values and checking
    the results to verify that the application works
    correctly
  • As each application module is completed, it
    undergoes unit testing to ensure that it operates
    reliably and correctly
  • When all modules have been completed and tested,
    integration testing is performed to ensure that
    the modules operate together correctly

Page 472
92
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
What is application testing?
  • A test area is a place where software testing can
    occur without disrupting the organizations
    regular information system
  • When a problem is discovered during unit testing
    or integration testing, the team must track down
    the source of the problem and correct it
  • System testing ensures that all hardware and
    software components work together correctly

Page 472-473
93
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
Finalize Documentation What is the
documentation for an information system?
  • The documentation for an information system can
    be roughly categorized as system or user
    documentation
  • System documentation describes the feature of the
    system
  • User documentation describes how to interact with
    the system to accomplish specific tasks

Page 473
94
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
Train Users How do employees learn how to use
the new information system?
  • In preparation for using a new information
    system, users need extensive training, which
    might include software orientation, hardware
    operation, data entry, and backup procedures
  • Training sessions can be conducted by members of
    the team or professional trainers
  • A procedure handbook is a type of user
    documentation that contains step-by-step
    instructions for performing a specific task

Page 473
95
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
Convert Data What happens to the data from the
old system?
  • The data for a new information system might exist
    in card files, file folders, or an old
    information system
  • When converting data from a manual system to a
    computer system, the data can be typed or scanned
    electronically into the appropriate storage media
  • When converting data from an existing computer
    system to a new system, a programmer typically
    writes conversion software to read the old data
    and convert it into a format that is usable by
    the new system

Page 473-474
96
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
Covert to New System How does a business
switch from the old information system to the new
system?
  • System conversion refers to the process of
    deactivating an old information system and
    activating the new one
  • A direct conversion means that the old system is
    completely deactivated and the new system is
    immediately activated
  • A parallel conversion avoids some of the risk
    because the old system remains in service while
    some or all of the new system is activated
  • In a phased conversion, the new system is
    activated one module at a time

Page 474
97
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
How does a business switch from the old system
to the new system?
  • A pilot conversion works well in organizations
    with several branches that have independent
    information processing systems
  • The new information system is activated at one
    branch
  • If the system works correctly at one branch, it
    is activated at the next branch

Page 474
98
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
When is the new information system formally
live?
  • A new or upgraded information system undergoes a
    final test called acceptance testing
  • Acceptance testing is designed to verify that the
    new information system works as required

Page 474
99
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
Maintenance Phase What happens during the
maintenance phase?
  • The maintenance phase of the SDLC involves
    day-to-day operation of the system, making
    modifications to improve performance, and
    correcting problems
  • The maintenance phase of the SDLC is the most
    expensive because it lasts until the system is
    retired

Page 475
100
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
What happens during the maintenance phase?
Page 475
101
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
Who is responsible for system maintenance?
  • The system operator performs system backups and
    data recovery, monitors system traffic, and
    troubleshoots operational problems
  • The systems programmer is the operating system
    guru
  • In an information system that is centered on a
    microcomputer network, a network manager or
    network specialist is typically responsible for
    day-to-day operations and system maintenance

Page 476
102
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
Why do maintenance activities include user
support?
  • Even after-in-depth training, employees sometimes
    forget procedures, or have difficulty when they
    encounter a new set of circumstances
  • Many organizations establish a help desk to
    handle end-user problems
  • The help desk is staffed by support specialists

Page 476
103
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
Why do maintenance activities include user
support?
Page 476
104
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
Does an information system change during the
maintenance phase?
  • The term maintenance phase is a bit misleading
  • Changes during the maintenance phase typically
    include the following
  • Upgrades to operating system and commercial
    software
  • User interface revisions
  • Application software revisions
  • Hardware replacements
  • Security upgrades

Page 477
105
Implementation and Maintenance
Section D
Chapter 9
When does the maintenance phase end?
  • The maintenance phase continues until an
    information system is no longer cost effective,
    or until changes in the organization make the
    information system obsolete

Page 477
About PowerShow.com