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ISM 5316 Project and Change Management

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Often ad-hoc or temporary. Often distributed (geographically) Start and end dates ... interim checkpoint in project life cycle. Project Life Cycle. Defines ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ISM 5316 Project and Change Management


1
ISM 5316 Project and Change Management
  • Fall 2000
  • Week 1 Introduction

2
Course Structure and Resources
  • Course Web site
  • http//ruby.fgcu.edu/courses/cbeise
  • Schwalbe text (note Appendices)
  • Project Management Institute (PMI) BOK
  • http//www.pmi.org
  • Software Engineering Institute (SEI)
  • http//www.sei.cmu.edu
  • Selected Readings on reserve on-line
  • WebCT

3
Week 1-2 Learning Objectives
  • You should be able to
  • Explain the need for Project Management (PM)
  • Explain the relationship between PM and
    organizational change
  • Compare traditional management to PM structures
  • Define project and explain how projects differ
    from on-going organizational operations
  • List and define PM tasks and activities
  • List skills needed by a Project Manager

4
  • You should be able to
  • List and define the project management knowledge
    areas
  • Describe a generic project life cycle and its
    phases
  • Distinguish between project organization
    structures
  • List and describe project management processes
  • Summarize the software development (SD) process
  • Discuss challenges in adapting PM to SD

5
Traditional Organizational Focus
  • Mass production
  • Efficiency
  • Functional organization
  • specialization to concentrate skills
  • Hierarchical control
  • Inflexible
  • hard to change

6
Organizational Change
  • Increased competition
  • Sophisticated, customized products
  • Faster time-to-market
  • Globalization
  • More frequent adapting to change
  • More flexibility needed
  • Quality focus

7
Traditional Organization Structures
  • Hierarchical reporting relationships
  • Hierarchical communication, coordination
  • Specialization gt efficiency, not flexibility
  • Pyramid model

8
Pyramid Model
Flattening
Top Mgt
Middle Mgt
Operations mgt
workers
Customers
workers
Organization Structure
Top Mgt
Upside Down
9
Project Teams
  • Diversity of knowledge needed
  • Cross-functional
  • Self-directed
  • Often ad-hoc or temporary
  • Often distributed (geographically)
  • Start and end dates

10
Traditional Management Skills
Organizing
Leading
Staffing
Controlling
Planning
11
Project Management Body of Knowledge
Cost
Time
Integration Communication Coordination
People
Risk
12
Organizations as Systems
  • A project takes place within the context of an
    organization
  • Organizations are viewed from multiple
    perspectives
  • structure
  • culture (people and symbols)
  • politics
  • All must be considered in managing projects

13
What is a Project?
  • Performed by people
  • Constrained by limited resources
  • Planned, executed, and controlled
  • Temporary, with a defined start and end
  • The objective is a unique product or service
  • progressively elaborated
  • Has stakeholders with multiple needs

14
Project Management Knowledge Areas
  • Scope
  • work included and excluded
  • Time
  • activities, sequencing, estimation, scheduling
  • Cost
  • budgeting, resource planning
  • Quality
  • satisfying stated needs and objectives
  • Integration
  • planning, coordination, change control
  • Communication
  • storing, retrieving, disseminating project
    information
  • Risk Management
  • identifying and responding
  • Procurement Management
  • acquiring external resources
  • Human Resource Management

15
PM Terms and Definitions
  • Program
  • multiple related projects managed and coordinated
    as a group for increased benefit
  • Application area
  • technology or industry
  • Deliverable
  • tangible, verifiable work product
  • Fast-tracking
  • overlapping project phases
  • Milestone
  • interim checkpoint in project life cycle

16
Project Life Cycle
  • Defines start and end of project
  • Divided into phases for control
  • Each phase has defined work product(s)
  • Project Life Cycle definitions
  • feasibility study (may be separate)
  • what work done in each phase
  • who should be involved
  • cyclical risk, staffing, cost

17
Generic Project Life Cycle
  • Feasibility
  • Concept
  • Development
  • Acquisition
  • Implementation
  • Close-out

18
Systems Development Life Cycle SDLC
  • Business Planning
  • System Analysis
  • System Design
  • System Development
  • System Implementation
  • Evaluation and Maintenance

19
Variations on SDLC
  • Waterfall model
  • linear steps, deliverables after each step
  • Spiral model
  • iterative, deliverables after each iteration
  • Incremental model
  • progressive development
  • each increment adds enhancements
  • (Prototyping method used in each model)

20
(No Transcript)
21
Resources per Phase
Intermediate Phases
Cost, Staffing Levels
Final Phase
Initial Phase
Time ----------------------gt
22
Stakeholders
  • Project manager
  • primary responsibility
  • Customer (users)
  • Performing organization (developers, team)
  • Sponsor
  • financial resources
  • External vs. internal
  • Manage expectations
  • Resolve conflicting objectives
  • Prioritize needs
  • Make customer highest priority

23
Project Organization Structures
  • Functional
  • traditional hierarchical management systems
  • makes project management more difficult
  • Projectized
  • derive revenues from projects
  • OR manage operations via projects
  • systems (financial, etc.) designed for projects
  • co-located team members (vs. specialization)
  • Matrix
  • weak --gt strong (functional --gt projectized)

24
A Project Process
  • A Series of actions bringing about a result
  • Performed by people
  • Describe and organize work (project process)
  • OR
  • Specify and create the product (product process)
  • Project and product processes overlap
  • Cant define scope without understanding how
    product is created or developed

25
Process Group Interactions
Initiating
Planning
Executing
Controlling
Closing
26
Process Groups
  • Linked by results they produce
  • Output of one is input to another
  • Overlapping activities
  • Process group interactions go across project
    phases

27
Process Groups
Initiating
Planning
Executing
Controlling
Closing
28
Initiating
  • Commits the organization to begin the next phase
    of the project
  • Initiation is repeated at the start of each phase
  • Business needs are re-examined

29
Process Groups
Initiating
Planning
Executing
Controlling
Closing
30
Planning Processes
  • Amount of planning is proportional to scope of
    project
  • Core planning processes
  • scope definition
  • activity definition, sequencing, documenting
  • schedule development
  • resource planning
  • cost estimating and budgeting

31
Core Processes Interacting
Facilitating Processes Provide Support
32
Facilitating (Supporting) Processes in Planning
  • Quality relevant standards
  • Organizational
  • roles, responsibilities, reporting relationships
  • Staff Acquisition
  • Communication stakeholders, needs
  • Risk identify, quantify, plan response
  • Procurement and solicitation planning

33
Process Groups
Initiating
Planning
Executing
Controlling
Closing
34
Executing Processes
  • Performing planned activities
  • Quality assurance
  • Team development
  • Information communication
  • Solicitation and source selection
  • Contract administration

35
Process Groups
Initiating
Planning
Executing
Controlling
Closing
36
Controlling Processes
  • Measure project performance
  • Identify variances
  • Adjust plan if needed
  • Take preventive action
  • Change control
  • Schedule, cost, quality control
  • Performance reporting
  • Risk response

37
Process Groups
Initiating
Planning
Executing
Controlling
Closing
38
Closing Processes
  • Administrative
  • generate, record, and disseminate information
  • document what was learned for future use
  • distribution of leftover resources
  • re-assignment of project team members
  • Contract Close-out
  • contract settlement
  • resolve open items

39
Project Personnel Skills
  • Technical
  • Political
  • Problem-oriented (vs. discipline-oriented)
  • Goal-oriented (vs. putting in hours)
  • Flexibility, adaptability
  • High self-esteem
  • can handle failure, risk, uncertainty, unexpected
  • can share blame and credit

40
PM Characteristics
  • Leadership shared commitment
  • Generalist, facilitator, coordinator
  • Communicator
  • Credibility technical, administrative
  • Political sensitivity
  • Conflict sense, confront, resolve
  • Can deal with stress, chaos, ambiguity
  • Planning and follow-through
  • Ethical dilemmas

41
Software Development (SD) Projects
  • Software Engineering
  • application of PM methods to SD
  • Challenges
  • art or science?
  • time and cost estimation
  • rapid changes in technology
  • IT human resources
  • scarce
  • costly

42
Object-Oriented (OO) Software Development
  • Potential benefits
  • reusability of software components
  • faster development of new systems
  • more flexibility in changing systems
  • (to adapt to organizational change)
  • Limitations
  • new tools and techniques
  • less experience
  • more hype

43
For Next Time
  • Investigate course resources
  • Do week 1 and 2 readings
  • Write a 1-2 page narrative explaining the 5 most
    common reasons for Project Failure
  • Write a 1-2 page narrative explaining why project
    management is a critical factor in fostering
    change in organizations
  • Send your classmates an e-mail telling them about
    yourself esp. what you could contribute to a
    team project, at crn80039_at_eagle.fgcu.edu
  • Check your e-mail daily!
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