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Title: Beverly%20Trayner%20btrayner@esce.ips.pt


1
Beverly Trayner btrayner_at_esce.ips.pt
  • Escola Superior de Ciências Empresariais
  • Setúbal, Portugal
  • Institute of Education, University of London

2
The impact of global changes on the English
language
  • And the teaching of English for Specific Purposes

3
Introduction
  • "The English language ceased to be the sole
    possession of the English some time ago"
  • (Salmon Rushdie published in Imaginary Homelands)

4
Teaching English in Higher Education in Portugal
  • Our students are neither immersed in, nor do they
    necessarily aspire to become part of, the
    academic or professional communities based in
    English speaking countries.

5
Main themes
  • The impact of global changes on the English
    language
  • Discourse communities
  • Communities of Practice
  • Teachers role as gate-keeper
  • Constructive alignment
  • Course design framework

6
The impact of global changes on the English
language
  • Within 10 years, there will be more L2 speakers
    than L1 speakers and within 50 years there could
    be up to 50 more.

  • (Crystal, 1997130)

7
The three circles of English
Expanding circle
Inner circle
Outer circle
8
Three circles
  • Inner circle e.g. USA, UK
  • 320 380 million
  • Outer circle e.g. Singapore
  • 150 - 300 million
  • Expanding circle e.g. China, Russia
  • 100 1,000 million

9
Englishes
  • Global English (Crystal, 1997)
  • English as an International and Intranational
    Language (Truchot, 1997)
  • English as a company language (ibid.)
  • English as an International Language
  • (Pennycook,
    1994)

10
Lingua franca
  • transglossic
  • standardisation
  • adaptation
  • non-adaptation
  • a mix of strategies (inter-lingual)

11
Reasons for learning English
  • Join expert communities
  • Communicate with other members of those
    communities from different linguistic and
    cultural backgrounds
  • Cooperate as members in international modes of
    communication

12
Global changes and the teaching of English
  • Discourse communities
  • Communities of practice
  • Genre

13
Discourse communities
  • Discourse communities share
  • common purposes for using language
  • methods for exchanging information
  • membership of a group
  • (Applied linguistics, Swales, 1990, Johns,
    1997)

14
Entry into a discourse community
  • Members must create their (oral and written)
    texts in the same way as other members of that
    community do. In order to do so, "they have to
    adopt the cognitive patterns of the community
    members".
    (Pogner, 1997)

15
Communities of practice
  • shared practice includes the explicit
  • ...the language, the tools, the documents, the
    images, the symbols ...
  • and the tacit
  • ...the implicit relations, the tacit
    conventions, the subtle cues ... the embodied
    understandings, the underlying assumptions, the
    shared worldviews
  • (Sociology of
    Work, Wenger, 1998)

16
Genres
  • a class of communicative events, the members of
    which share some set of communicative purposes.
    These purposes are recognised by the expert
    members of the parent discourse community, and
    thereby constitute the rationale of the genre.
    This rationale shapes the schematic structure of
    the discourse and influences and constrains
    choice of content and style
    (Swales 1990)

17
Genre/discourse/rationale
  • The rationale of the genre shapes and is shaped
    by the discourse, content and style of the
    discourse community or community of practice.
  • Members of these communities come from different
    linguistic and cultural backgrounds.
  • Rationale is mostly expressed in English

18
  • We are moving away from the
  • "overarching dominance of anglophone
    native-speakerism, from consuming attention to
    the ritualistic surfaces of their texts, from an
    authoritative and received world view of academic
    and technical text.
  • (Swales, 1997)

19
Global changes in Higher Education
  • Economic and managerial considerations
  • Students from different social and economic
    backgrounds
  • Students expect value for money/teachers more
    accountable
  • Courses expected to respond to needs of the
    workplace

20
Deep and surface learning
  • Surface learning low cognitive activities
  • Deep learning a need to engage in the task
    appropriately and meaningfully, so the student
    tries to use the most appropriate cognitive
    activities for handling it."
  • (Biggs, 1999)

21
Constructive alignment
  • "If students are to learn desired outcomes in a
    reasonably effective manner, then the teacher's
    fundamental task is to get student to engage in
    learning activities that are likely to result in
    their achieving those outcomes."
    (Shuell, cited in Biggs, 1999)

22
Desired outcome
  • Our desired outcome is that students are prepared
    to participate in the social, cultural and
    cognitive aspects of discourse communities and
    communities of practice (which for most students
    in the professional world will be mostly
    transglossic)

23
The GAP framework
  • Genre-Aligned Practices
  • (Mavor and Trayner, 1999)

24
GAP step one
  • Inquire into the conceptual structure
    underpinning the community of practice

25
Gap step two
  • Identify and choose representative practice and
    genres as the course objective and final assessed
    of practice (FAP)

26
GAP step three
  • Align communicative micro-tasks and activities,
    relevant specific lexis and grammatical
    structures, reading texts and appropriate tasks
    and learning strategies to the FAP.

27
Conclusion DIGA!
  • Dynamic Discourse
  • Interdisciplinary Inquiry
  • Gatekeeping Genre
  • Aligned and Active pedagogy!
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