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Title: Summer 07 lecture 3


1
   Summer 07 lecture 3
  • The continuing oil contest
  • The Lobster Summit fish and missiles
  • Mexico and America
  • Arabia and the Holy Lands
  • The History of Religion and Empire
  • Biofuels
  • Japan and Saudi Arabia
  • Japan and Russia
  • EDGE Projects

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5
Caspian Sea OilEstimated Total Capacity 141
Billion bbls
6
Existing and Proposed Pipelines
7
Missiles in Czech Republic and Poland against
Iran or Russia?
8
Putin Outdoes Bush _ in Fishing
  • KENNEBUNKPORT, Maine (AP) - Trying to defrost
    U.S.-Russia relations, Russian President Vladimir
    Putin graciously said the bass he caught on a
    fishing trip Monday with President Bush was a
    team effort.''
  • But he followed up the compliment with a small
    gaffe. Putin assigned the wrong number to the
    presidency of Bush's father, former President
    George H.W. Bush.
  • We had a very nice fishing party this
    morning,'' Putin said. We caught one fish, but
    that was a team effort, and we let it go to the
    captain.''
  • He was referring to Bush's 83-year-old dad, who
    was at the wheel of the boat. Putin mistakenly
    said he was the 42nd president of the United
    States, not the 41st.
  • Neither Bush seem bothered, and the current
    president said it was very thoughtful'' of
    Putin to share credit for the catch.
  • A fine catch,'' the president said about the
    striped bass that his father said was about 30
    inches long.
  • You had to take the former president's word for
    it.
  • Mind you, the fish that we caught, we've let it
    free,'' Putin said.

9
But What About Those Missiles
  • On Putin's missile defense ideas, Bush said "I
    think it's very sincere. I think it's innovative.
    I think it's strategic. But as I told Vladimir, I
    think that the Czech Republic and Poland need to
    be an integral part of a system."
  • Last month, Putin surprised Bush in Germany by
    proposing a Soviet-era early warning radar in
    Azerbaijan as a substitute for the radar and
    interceptors the United States wants to place in
    Poland and the Czech Republic. Washington has
    been clear it doubts the Azerbaijan facility is
    up to becoming a substitute.
  • The Russian leader fleshed out his suggestion on
    Monday.
  • Putin proposed possibly modernizing the
    Azerbaijan station. He suggested bringing more
    European nations into the decision-making process
    about how the shield is structured, and maybe
    incorporating a radar system in southern Russia.
    He suggested information-exchange centers in
    Moscow and possibly Brussels as a way to
    strengthen the Washington-Moscow national
    security relationship.
  • "The relationship of our two countries would be
    raised to an entirely new level," Putin said.

10
Putin hails newly opened Bolivar center as he
meets Chavez in Moscow
NOVO OGARYOVO, June 28 (RIA Novosti) - Russian
President Vladimir Putin hailed the opening of a
Simon Bolivar cultural center in Moscow as he
ushered Venezuelan leader Hugo Chavez into his
dacha Thursday for talks expected to focus on
economic and defense cooperation. "This is a
place where Russian citizens can better
familiarize themselves with Latin America and its
culture," Putin said as he opened the talks at
his Novo Ogaryovo retreat, outside Moscow.
Earlier in the day, Chavez attended a
ribbon-cutting ceremony for Moscow's Bolivar
center, named after the South American
revolutionary leader he says is his main
inspiration. Using his trademark anti-U.S.
rhetoric, he stressed the importance of defying
Washington's dominance of global affairs,
including cultural. "The empire must understand
that it cannot dominate the world," Chavez said.
11
THE OCCUPATION
12
Nobel laureates condemn Iraq oil law, U.S.
Published June 20, 2007 at 531 PM
  • BAGHDAD, June 20 (UPI) -- Six Nobel Peace Prize
    Laureates weighed in on the proposed Iraq oil
    law, worried Iraq's citizens will lose out, and
    urging the United States to back off. The
    laureates, half of the 12 women ever to win the
    peace prize, said they are opposed to the law,
    fearing it will lead to poor contract terms for
    the Iraqi people and potentially lucrative
    contracts for foreign oil companies while the
    country is both under occupation and enduring a
    civil war.
  • "The Iraq oil law could benefit foreign oil
    companies at the expense of the Iraqi people,
    deny the Iraqi people economic security, create
    greater instability, and move the country further
    away from peace," Betty Williams, Mairead
    Corrigan Maguire, Rigoberta Menchu Tum, Jody
    Williams, Shirin Ebadi and Wangari Maathai wrote
    in a statement posted on their Web site,
    nobelwomensinitiative.org.

13
NAFTA
Real minimum wages, 1970-1997a Indices 1975 or
1991 100
14
Mexico
  • It is one of the G20 developing nations
  • It is part of the Security Council of the UN
  • The only economy in the world with preferential
    trade access to the European Union, U.S.A.,
    Canada and six Latin-American countries.

15
WTO Talks Break Down EU and U.S. Blame India,
Brazil (Update3)
  • June 21 (Bloomberg) -- Negotiations among four
    major World Trade Organization governments
    collapsed today, increasing the likelihood of
    failure in efforts to produce an agreement that
    would add billions of dollars to the global
    economy.
  • Since discussions began on June 19, Brazilian
    Foreign Minister Celso Amorim and Indian Commerce
    Minister Kamal Nath didn't move an iota from
    the point we started at two years ago,'' U.S.
    Agriculture Secretary Mike Johanns told
    journalists in the German city outside Berlin.
    We stretched and they grabbed. I could have
    done cartwheels off the roof of this building and
    I'm still not sure I would have got a response.''
  • Amorim and Nath said talks derailed because the
    U.S. and the EU refused to improve their farm-aid
    offers. The numbers presented by the U.S. on
    domestic subsidies exceeded those demanded by the
    so-called G20 alliance of farm commodity-
    exporting nations while the EU's tariff-cut
    offers were insufficient, Amorim said.

16
Expanding third world Interest
  • Nath said the U.S. offered to cap its overall
    spending on trade-distorting domestic support at
    17 billion. As leaders of the G20, which also
    includes China and Argentina, India and Brazil
    are pushing for an annual U.S. spending limit of
    no more than 15 billion.
  • Correct the Flaws
  • The Bush administration now spends 10.8 billion
    a year on support payments that distort market
    prices to American farmers, Nath said. A ceiling
    of 17 billion would represent a 50 percent
    increase,'' he told journalists.
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
  • "The recent WTO negotiating process has been less
    than transparent and participatory," protested
    the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of
    States (ACP), the African Group, and the Least
    Developed Countries (LDCs), which together make
    up the Group of 90 (G90) developing countries,
    which emerged during the fifth WTO ministerial
    conference held in Cancun, Mexico in 2003.

17
World Exports
18
World Imports
19
What does Mexico export?
  • Oil and oil products
  • Electricity
  • Natural Gas
  • Manufactured goods
  • Corn
  • Textiles
  • Workforce
  • Silver
  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Coffee
  • Cotton
  • Etc.

20
NAFTA
  • As U.S.A. have much control on their agricultural
    stock prices through subsidies, Mexico has not
    been able to have good benefits in this heading.
    But, it is important to remember that the price
    is subsidized.
  • The price of U.S. corn is 88.48 USD/ton against
    105.8 USD/ton of Mexican corn.
  • If the WTO outlawed the subsidies from
    agriculture, Mexico could now compete against an
    almost 120.00 USD/ton U.S.A. corn price.

21
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22
Taxes
  • Even though Mexican illegal migrants pay taxes,
    they dont receive their correspondent
    devolutions.
  • In the heading of non-given back taxes and
    non-paid pensions to Mexican migrants, the U.S.
    government is avoiding the payment of about 5
    billion dollars.

23
About NAFTA
  • I think that the solidarity, the cooperation and
    the commitment with democracy, with human rights,
    is something that we did not find in our trade
    agreement of North America, that is something we
    would like to include in the EUFTA 9.
  • (Vicente Fox)

24
ARABIA
25
League of Arab Nations
26
THE HOLY LANDS
27
The History of God by Karen Armstrong
28
The Last Week The Confrontation between Rabbi
Jesusand the System of Dominationin Jerusalem
29
Debt for Education and Development
30
New Orleans
31
The Christian Right History Repeats
ItselfECE510 EDGEMarch 20, 2006
  • Andrew Gilpin

32
The Early Christian Church
  • Christian church illegal until Constantine in the
    4th Century AD
  • Upon legalization, alliance with the Emperor
    brought power and opportunity
  • Unlikely Constantines motives were altruistic,
    but this is debated
  • Church was widespread and a possible opportunity
    for Rome

33
Early Diversity
  • Prior to and immediately following acceptance by
    Rome, Church was diverse
  • Gnostics, mystics
  • Great variance in opinion regarding the nature of
    God
  • Uniformity and hierarchy probably viewed by
    Constantine as advantageous
  • Definitely advantageous to Church leaders
  • Increased power and wealth
  • Violence and suppression ensued in an effort to
    develop this uniformity

34
Development of Convention
  • Council of Nicea and other meetings to develop
    dogma and define heresy
  • Development of hierarchal structure
  • Suppression of Gnostics, Donatists, etc.
  • Selection of approved scriptures
  • Later, codification of the stature of females
  • We must conclude that a husband is meant to rule
    over his wife as the spirit rules over the
    flesh.
  • St. Augustine (post-Nicea)
  • Hypatia was hacked to death by orthodox monks in
    the early years because she presumed, against
    Gods commandments, to teach men.

35
The Dark Ages (400-1,000 AD)
  • With fall of Rome, Church was established
    authority, and used it
  • Byzantine plague blamed on failure to adhere to
    Christian belief - suppressed science and
    medicine
  • Book burning Alexandria Library torched
  • By 5th Century, John Chrysostom, Greek Father of
    the Church, declared
  • Every trace of the old philosophy and literature
    of the ancient world has vanished from the face
    of the earth.
  • Art suppressed Roman and Greek art destroyed
    (used to make lime for churches)

36
But Were Profitable
  • In Dark Ages, Church increased in wealth
  • Banned lending
  • Money brought violence and corruption
  • Between 891 and 903 AD, Rome saw no less than 10
    popes.
  • Simony selling clerical office
  • Indulgences Sold forgiveness of sins
  • Secular leaders sought divine endorsement,
    further increasing prestige and power of Church

37
Middle Ages (1,000-1,500 AD)
  • Church remained extremely powerful
  • Suppressed Greek and Arab thought
  • More book burnings
  • Non-religious art or literature suppressed or
    banned
  • Suppression and outlawing of literacy for
    commoners
  • Illegal to read Scriptures
  • Underground trade in translated Bibles (subject
    to death penalty if caught)

38
Middle Ages (1,000-1,500 AD)
  • In response to corruption, sects began to spring
    up
  • Waldensians, Bruys, Lussannes, etc.
  • Brutally suppressed
  • Church developed own justice system in part to
    deal with divergent views and sects, defining
    heresy to its own benefit
  • Forged ancient documents to justify and form
    basis
  • Analog in Islamic Sharia laws

39
Middle Ages (1,000-1,500 AD)
  • Wars provided shared cause and diverted
    attention
  • Crusades (lt1,000,000 dead)
  • Murder of Jews and Byzantines on the way to
    Palestine
  • Sacking of all cities encountered, even Belgrade
    and Constantinople
  • Atrocities a source of friction to this day
  • With failure of Crusades
  • Cathars, Templars

40
Middle Ages (1,000-1,500 AD)
  • Inquisition
  • Persecution of Jews
  • Church-appointed inquisitors
  • Confiscation of heretic wealth
  • Mercy by secular rulers rewarded with
    excommunication by Church
  • Inquisition in Asia and New World
  • Papal edict in 1493 justified war on those who
    refused to convert to Christianity

41
Reformation (1,500 1,750 AD)
  • Protestant/Catholic wars
  • St. Bartholomew Massacre
  • Thirty Years War
  • English Wars, etc, etc
  • Protestant rule as suppressive as Catholic
  • Introduced pleasure as sin
  • Still a prominent Christian trait (original sin,
    Catholic guilt)
  • Said one Protestant in 1554 if ye make at your
    pleasure such things as to drive devils
    away..what need have ye of Christ?

42
Reformation (1,500 1,750 AD)
  • Witch Hunts (1,300-1,800)
  • 906 AD, the Church issued the Canon Episcopi
    which decreed the belief in witchcraft was
    heresy.
  • Belief in a hope of intervention in ones plight
    on earth was seen as heresy, and eventually was
    seen as witchcraft
  • In part a result of the centuries long practice
    of the Church to vilify women
  • Churches developed wicked opposites of Church
    structures and customs
  • Crones and loss of customs
  • Churches licensed healers
  • Churches way of eliminating opposing thought or
    customs

43
Witch Hunts
  • Germany is almost entirely occupied with
    building fires for the witches. Switzerland has
    been compelled to wipe out many of her villages
    on their account. Travelers in Lorraine see
    thousands and thousands of stakes to which
    witches were bound.
  • Belief carries on to present day
  • Examples in Germany, France, Mexico
  • Breadth and length of witch hunting and attendant
    crimes nearly without precedent

44
THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • "The world is my country, all mankind are my
    brethren, and to do good is my religion."
  • Thomas Paine
  • Historically, Churches allowed science and
    philosphy to bolster Church positions and dogma,
    but eventually Church lost control
  • Rationalism, Deism resulted

45
THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • American Revolution
  • 1st Amendment to Constitution strictly limited
    the ability of religion to impact government or
    the people
  • The purpose of separation of church and state is
    to keep forever from these shores the ceaseless
    strife that has soaked the soil of Europe with
    blood for centuries.
  • Madison

46
Jatropha Biomass Energy for the Future
  • Deven Leigh
  • 6/2/2007

47
Jatropha History1
  • Jatropha originated in South America, where from
    ancient times extracts from its leaves and seeds
    were used as medicines. Jatrophas medical
    qualities derive from curcin, a chemical present
    in the plant's shoots and leaves, which is
    effective as an antiseptic but can be poisonous
    if ingested in large quantities.
  • Learning of its medicinal qualities when they
    came to South America in the 16th century,
    Portuguese sailors took jatropha to Africa and
    India. It now grows from the forests of Brazil to
    the tropical islands of Fiji. In Africa it is
    widely used as a hedge to protect crops from
    foraging livestock, who avoid the leaves.
    Jatropha is still used as a traditional medicine
    in India, Africa, and the Philippines.

48
Jatropha Benefits2
  • Oil provides energy for light, transportation,
    and cooking.
  • Jatropha is a natural fence (leaves are poisonous
    to animals).
  • The Jatropha plant improves the soil and prevents
    erosion.
  • Jatropha biomass starts a year after first
    planting, and is at a maximum after 5 years.
  • Glycerin, a by product of Jatropha oil, can be
    used to produce soap.

49
Jatropha Benefits1
  • Under optimum conditions jatropha seeds can yield
    up to 40 oil content.
  • Trees have a lifespan of up to 30 years.
  • Jatropha does not need irrigation and can grow in
    sand.
  • After Crushing the seeds for oil, the leftover
    seed mass is used as excellent fertilizer.

50
Jatropha Benefits3
  • Small farms can easily introduce the oil into
    their local communities.
  • Creation of a sustainable biofuel economy that
    would relieve poverty.
  • The biomass market will provide job opportunities
    for the local community.

51
Jatropha Benefits5
  • The carbon dioxide absorption is 8 Kg. per tree
    per Year and can be converted into Carbon Credit
    Certificates.
  • Side note The New York Mercantile Exchange plans
    to offer contracts for trading carbon dioxide,
    the main greenhouse gas blamed for global
    warming, and other heat-trapping emissions.
    (http//www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18591849/ May 10,
    2007)

52
Jatropha Disadvantages
  • The Jatropha Curcas nut and oil are inedible, but
    its price is not distorted by competing food
    uses.
  • Potential gender conflicts.
  • Second income to make soap.
  • If there is too little water, the plant will not
    produce the nut.

53
Jatropha Curcas to Oil
  • Kick Start Oil Press

54
Jatropha Curcas to Biodiesel1
  • D1 20 Modular Biodiesel Refinery.
  • The D1 20 can produce 8,000 tons of biodiesel per
    year from rapeseed, soy, palm or jatropha biomass.

55
Jatropha Curcas Specs
  • Source The Biomass Project, 2000. Curcas Oil
    Methyl Ester. Nicaragua.

56
Jatropha Curcas Specs
57
Biodiesel Advantages6
  • Higher cetane numbers of biodiesel compared to
    the petroleum diesel indicates potential for
    higher engine performance.
  • Superior lubricating properties of biodiesel
    increases functional engine efficiency.
  • Higher flash point makes them safer to store.
  • Biodiesel is oxygenated so its use dramatically
    reduces toxic air emissions compared to petroleum
    diesel.

58
Biodiesel Disadvantages
  • Modifications are required for the vehicles.
  • High CFPP (cold filter plugging point) values
  • Solidification and clogging of the fuel system at
    low temperatures (around 0C).
  • Can introduce additives to curb CFPP.
  • Rubber seals, gaskets, and hoses made before 1994
    should be replaced when using B100.

59
Jatropha Biodiesel Economics4
  • 375 kilograms per hectare for soybeans in the
    United States (280 gallons per acre).
  • 1,000 kilograms per hectare of rapeseed in Europe
    (740 gallons per acre).
  • 3,000 kilograms per hectare of Jatropha (2,226
    gallons per acre) in India.

60
Jatropha Biodiesel Economics4
61
Biodiesel and the Environment
  • Biodiesel is considered "climate neutral" because
    all of the carbon dioxide released during
    consumption had been sequestered out of the
    atmosphere during crop growth.
  • Combustion of one liter of diesel fuel results in
    the emission of about 2.6 kilograms of CO2.

62
Jatropha in Haiti2
  • 70 of Haitis population still lives in the
    rural areas of the country.
  • 78 of the Haitian population live on less than
    2 a day.
  • Insecurity in Haiti is primarily due to the lack
    of job opportunities.
  • President Rene Preval and his government are
    working to ensure Haitis economic sustainability
    (Jatropha pilot programs).
  • Jatropha is indigenous to Haiti.

63
Jatropha Energy Policy for Haiti
  • Government to create energy market for Jatropha.
  • Local communities unite to grow small farms of
    Jatropha to produce biodiesel (most of the poor
    are farmers).
  • Build peace with the Dominican Republic through
    biofuel market.
  • Pilot Program Government gives 5 to 10 Ha of
    land to farmers to grow Jatropha.

64
Jatropha in India9
  • Most comprehensive National Program on promoting
    Jatropha.
  • Jatropha projects started in 1991.
  • The rail line between Mumbai and Delhi is planted
    with Jatropha and the train itself runs on 15-20
    biodiesel.
  • India is experimenting with more than 20
    different types of trees to produce biodiesel.

65
Jatropha Over Other Biomass in India7
  • low cost of seeds
  • high oil content
  • small gestation period
  • growth on good and degraded lands
  • growth in low and high rainfall areas
  • seeds can be harvested in non-rainy season
  • plant size is making collection of seeds more
    convenient.

66
Biodiesel in the USA8
  • Half of U.S. biodiesel production capacity is
    designed for soybean oil.
  • The other half is from recycled restaurant
    cooking oil, earning biodiesel a reputation for
    having a french-fry smell.

67
Make Your Own Jatropha Oil
  • Procedure
  • Obtain the jatropha seeds.
  • Sun dry the seeds or roast them for 10 minutes.
  • Press the seeds to get the oil.
  • Purify the oil by using filters very slow.
  • The purification process can be accelerated
    tremendously by boiling the oil with 20 water.
  • Use the oil in a diesel generator.

68
Resources
  • www.d1plc.com/agronomy.php
  • www.haitiinnovation.org/node/1386
  • www.csis.org/media/csis/congress/ts070319mendelson
    _forman.pdf
  • www.jatrophaworld.org/15.html
  • www.svlele.com
  • www.treeoilsindia.com/products.htm
  • http//edition.cnn.com/2007/TECH/science/04/02/bio
    fuel.debate/
  • DOE/GO-102001-1434 September 2001

69
Resource Papers
  • Case Study Jatropha Curcas Hartlieb Euler
    David Gorriz, 60314 Frankfurt, Germany, April 04,
    Page 24 to 32
  • Reducing Rural Poverty through Increased Access
    to Energy Service, United Nations Development
    Programme, UNDP Mali office, BP 120, Bamako,
    Mali, 2004

70
The commissioner general H.E. Ahmed Hamza Bedaiwi
officially welcomed the guests and introduced Mr.
Omar Ahmed Bahlaiwa, Chairman of the Committee
for the Development of International Trade, who
presented a seminar A prospect of the Saudi
EconomyFinally, the Commissioner General
invited the guests to enjoy Arabic food.Saudi
Arabia Pavilion was honored to receive so many
distinguished guests, such as Mr. Yonekura,
President of Sumitomo Chemicals, heads of other
major companies, and high rank officials of
organizations such as Aichi Prefecture, Toyota
group, Nagoya International Center, Nagoya City,
Abdul Latif Jameel Company, and our friends from
Toyone and other Pavilions of the Expo.
Japan and Saudi Arabia
71
Joint Statement between the Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia and Japan
  • HE Mr. Shinzo Abe held meetings with the
    Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah
    Bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud and His Royal Highness
    (HRH) Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud the
    Crown Prince, Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of
    Defense and Aviation and Inspector General. The
    leaders of both countries expressed their
    heartfelt satisfactions with the great
    development of the bilateral relations. Both
    sides issued the following statement towards the
    development of the strategic multilayered
    partnership between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    and Japan.
  • Both sides expressed their willingness to enhance
    high-level political dialogs between them
    including ones between the Foreign Ministers of
    the two countries.
  • Both sides shared the view that further
    development of economic relations is a main
    driving force towards the development of the
    strategic relations between Saudi Arabia and
    Japan, while noting with satisfaction the recent
    development of economic and commercial activities
    between the two countries. Both sides affirmed
    that utmost efforts should be made by both
    government and private sectors for the sake of
    comprehensive development of their economic
    relations. For that purpose, the leaders of both
    countries, in collaboration with the private
    sector, decided to start an active initiative to
    establish a pertinent and specialized joint Task
    Force with the objectives of facilitating
    industrial investment opportunities in both
    countries, making the best use of resources
    available in both countries including financial,
    institutional resources and technologies.

72
  • Both sides welcomed the ongoing negotiations to
    conclude the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between
    Japan and Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Both
    sides share the view that early conclusion of
    this agreement will further enhance the economic
    relations between the two parties.
  • Both sides shared the view on the importance of
    strengthening and enhancing their cooperation in
    the fields of economy, investment , aviation ,
    environment, culture, education and science and
    youth and sports, to enhance their partnership.
    To this end, both sides welcomed the conclusion
    of the draft agreement on the air services in
    February 2007. Both sides emphasized the
    importance of the early conclusion of the
    negotiations regarding the agreement for
    liberalization, promotion and protection of
    investments between the two countries. Both sides
    decided to facilitate support and encourage the
    studying of Saudi students in the universities
    and technical institutes in Japan and the
    Japanese side welcomed the tremendous increase of
    these Saudi students.
  • Both sides reaffirmed the importance of the
    stability of the world oil market. The Japanese
    side expressed its appreciation and understanding
    for the Saudi Arabia's balanced oil policy, which
    is a secure and reliable source for providing oil
    supplies to the international markets in general,
    and to the Japanese market in particular. In this
    regard, both sides praised the Second Asian
    Ministerial Energy Roundtable meeting for
    ministers of oil, energy and transportation which
    will be held in Riyadh from 14-16/4/1428 H
    corresponding to 1-3 May 2007, jointly hosted by
    Saudi Arabia and Japan, while stressing the
    significance to further promote bilateral
    cooperation in energy, based upon mutually
    complementary relationship between Saudi Arabia,
    with its largest hydrocarbon resource in the
    world, and Japan, with its advanced
    energy-related technologies. The Saudi side
    expressed its intention to continue to assure
    stable oil supply to Japan, and the Japanese side
    expressed its appreciation for this.

73
  • Both sides decided that the international
    community should adopt appropriate measures
    against a possible global warming, based on the
    principle of common but differentiated
    responsibilities as stated in the international
    agreements on climate change. In this regard, the
    Japanese side expressed its willingness to
    develop its cooperation in both levels of
    government and private sectors to promote the
    clean development mechanism (CDM) that
    contributes to combating the possible global
    warming as well as achieving sustainable
    developments in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Both
    sides reaffirmed the importance of the roles of
    the private sectors in both countries for
    promoting CDM projects.
  • Both sides stressed the importance of continuing
    to hold, periodically and when necessary,
    meetings of the Joint Committee between the two
    countries, and instructed the Joint committee, of
    which the 9th meeting will be held in Riyadh on
    May 1, 2007, to follow up the outcomes of this
    visit. Both sides recognized the importance and
    significance of enhancing cooperation between
    private sector in both countries and highlighted
    the holding of "the Japan-Saudi Arabia Business
    Forum", which was addressed by HE Mr. Shinzo Abe,
    and both sides welcomed the fruitful outcomes of
    the 8th meeting of the Japan-Saudi Business
    Council in February.
  • Both sides shared the view on the importance of
    enhancing and developing their cooperation in the
    field of technical cooperation and vocational
    training and recognized the positive role played
    by the specialized Japanese agencies in this
    field.
  • Both sides stressed the importance of the
    Saudi-Japanese joint efforts to achieve peace and
    stability throughout the Middle East as follows

74
  • With regard to the Middle East peace process,
    both sides reaffirmed that a just and
    comprehensive solution to the Arab-Israeli
    conflict based on the internationally legitimate
    resolutions would be the bedrock of the stability
    in the Middle East and would eliminate a main
    source of tension and the threat to international
    peace and security. In this connection, both
    sides stressed their support for the creation of
    an independent and viable Palestinian state,
    stressing the importance of the Arab Peace
    Initiative as approved at the Beirut Summit in
    2002 and confirmed by the Arab Summit in Riyadh
    in 2007 and the Roadmap. The Japanese side highly
    appreciated the efforts by the Custodian of the
    Two Holy Mosques, King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz
    Al-Saud as seen in the Mecca Agreement in
    February 2007. Both sides welcomed the
    announcement of the formation of a government of
    the Palestinian national unity on March 16, 2007.
    Both sides called on the international community
    to facilitate and increase their assistance to
    the Palestinian people while confirming to
    continue their assistance to the Palestinians.
    The Saudi side expressed its appreciation for
    Japan's efforts in supporting the Middle East
    peace process, such as the concept of the
    "Corridor for Peace and Prosperity."
  • Reaffirming their commitment to assist the Iraqi
    people to realize their aspirations for a better
    future, both sides decided to coordinate with
    each other more closely to bring security,
    stability and territorial integrity of Iraq and
    to promote national unity and equality among all
    categories of the Iraqi people. Both sides
    confirmed that the national reconciliation ,
    along with the disbandment of all armed militant
    groups, would be an important bedrock for the
    stability of Iraq, and stressed the need to
    respect the unity, sovereignty and independence
    of Iraq The Saudi side expressed its appreciation
    for Japan's significant contributions for the
    reconstruction and stability of Iraq, including
    the holding of a "Seminar on National
    Reconciliation in Iraq" in March 2007.

75
  • As for Lebanon, both sides stressed the
    importance of the solidarity with Lebanon and of
    providing political and economic support to the
    Lebanese government that preserves the national
    unity, security, stability and sovereignty of
    Lebanon over its entire territory. Both sides
    called upon all the Lebanese groups and forces to
    the national dialogue, on the basis of similarity
    among all the Lebanese people as well as on the
    basis of what has been achieved in building a
    national consensus to resolve the political
    crisis in Lebanon and to preserve its unity,
    security and independence.
  • Both sides stressed the importance of urging all
    the states in the Middle East to accede to the
    Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear
    Weapons and making the Middle East a region free
    from all weapons of mass destruction and their
    delivery means in conformity with relevant
    internationally legitimate resolutions. Both
    sides placed a great emphasis upon the importance
    of a diplomatic solution to the Iranian nuclear
    issue, and urged Iran to comply with the United
    Nations Security Council Resolutions 1696, 1737
    and 1747 and to cooperate constructively with the
    International Atomic Energy Agency.
  • Both sides expressed hope that progress will be
    made on the Six-Party Talks and in the talks
    between Japan and North Korea on bilateral
    issues, including early resolution of the
    abduction issue.

76
  • Both sides condemned terrorism in all its forms
    as a threat to international peace and security,
    and confirmed that the international community
    must be united in the fight against terrorism. In
    this regard, both sides reaffirmed their
    commitment to the firm application of the
    thirteen conventions and protocols on
    counter-terrorism and the related United Nations
    Security Council resolutions. The Japanese side
    valued the initiatives made by the Kingdom of
    Saudi Arabia in the fight against terrorism,
    including the International Conference on
    Counter-Terrorism held in the month of February
    2005 in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in which
    Japan also participated. Both sides stressed the
    importance of the recommendations of the
    conference, including the proposal of the
    Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques to establish an
    international center to combat terrorism, as well
    as the urgent need to conclude the negotiations
    of the Comprehensive Convention on International
    Terrorism to promote international cooperation on
    counter-terrorism.
  • Both sides shared the view that the United
    Nations must be comprehensively reformed to
    reflect new realities of the 21st century,
    recognizing the increasingly important role of
    the United Nations in promoting world peace,
    stability and prosperity. Both sides also
    affirmed cooperation toward renewing and
    revitalizing the UN organs including the General
    Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and
    Social Council and the Secretariat, particularly
    underlining the significance of early reform of
    the Security Council as an essential element of
    overall reform of the UN. The Saudi side also
    expressed its support for Japan's permanent
    membership in the Security Council, when the
    expected reforms of the Security Council include
    the enlargement of its membership. The Japanese
    side expressed its deep gratitude for the support
    provided by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

77
  • HE Mr. Shinzo Abe expressed his deep
    appreciations for the hospitality and good
    reception accorded to him and his accompanying
    delegation, and extended an invitation to the
    Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques to visit Japan
    at a time of mutual convenience.
  • Riyadh, April 28th, 2007

78
Russia-Japan territory dispute needs acceptable
solution -Lavrov-1
  • YUZHNO-SAKHALINSK (Far East), June 3 (RIA
    Novosti) - A mutually satisfactory solution to
    the Russia-Japan territorial dispute should be
    sought, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov
    said Sunday.
  • Lavrov visited June 3 the disputed southern Kuril
    islands, which Japan claims to be part of its
    territory.
  • "We are prepared to look for a solution that is
    mutually acceptable, meets the interests of the
    peoples of Russia and Japan and relies on
    realities. The inviolability of the World War II
    results are such realities," Lavrov said.
  • The long-running dispute over four southern
    islands annexed by the Soviet Union at the end of
    the Second World War has prevented Russia and
    Japan from signing a peace treaty that would
    formally end their WWII hostilities, and has been
    a major obstacle to closer cooperation between
    the two nations in areas such as energy.

79
Study topics
  • Peter Ecuador and U.S. oil Trade
  • Ryan World Trade Bio-diesel
  • Guadalupe Mexican American Development
  • Mina Japan Science and World Trade
  • Clark Israel, Palestine, Arabia
  • Kuang-Ya China and Global Warming
  • Sally Engineering Trade Development
  • Marco India Poverty and Development
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