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Concentrating Solar Power: Technology and Market Development


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Title: Concentrating Solar Power: Technology and Market Development

Concentrating Solar PowerTechnology and Market
Dr. Thomas R. Mancini Concentrating Solar
Power Program Manager Sandia National
Laboratories Sponsored by the Mechanical
Engineering Department and the Initiative for
Renewable Energy and the Environment February
7, 2007
Outline of Presentation
  • Overview of CSP technologies and markets
  • Sandia National Laboratories
  • CSP technologies and RD needs
  • Magnitude of the SW Resource
  • Cost of technology and where it can go
  • Markets and government incentives
  • Current projects in the U. S. and the world

National Security
  • Core Purpose to help our nation secure a
    peaceful and free world through technology.
  • Highest Goal to become the laboratory that the
    United States turns to first for technology
    solutions to the most challenging problems that
    threaten peace and freedom for our nation and the

Five Mission Areas
  • Nuclear weapons
  • Nonproliferation andassessments
  • Military technologiesand applications
  • Homeland security
  • Energy and infrastructure assurance

Sandia Workforce
Over 8,500 employees Over 1,500 PhDs over 2,500
MS/MA Over 700 on-site contractors 2.3 billion
FY05 operating budget
Energy-Related Activities
  • Clean power for peace and prosperity
  • Energy efficiency and renewables
  • Water initiatives
  • Nuclear power research
  • Infrastructure protection
  • Waste legacy
  • Hydrogen research

What are CSP technologies?
Concentrating Solar Power Solar Thermal
Electric Power
  • Power Towers
  • Trough Electric Systems
  • Dish Stirling Systems

SunLabs Role
  • SunLab is a virtual laboratory
  • The DOE CSP Programs at Sandia and NREL
  • We work with industry to do RD on CSP components
    and systems
  • Market Development Activities
  • A resource and advisors to western governments,
    legislatures, regulatory commissions
  • Consultants to contractors, developers
  • Reality brokers on the status of technologies
    for investors and developers

Sandias NSTTF
CSP Characteristics
  • Distributed Power
  • (kWs to MW's)
  • on-grid (e.g., line support)
  • stand-alone, off-grid
  • Dispatchable Power
  • (50s to 100s of MW's)
  • Utility-scale intermediate power
  • Peaking power in some applications

Troughs Towers
Dispatchability of Electricity Through storage
or hybridization. Conventional technology
Generally, made of glass, steel, gears, turbines,
etc. allows rapid manufacturing scale-up, low
The Value of Storage Dispatchable Power
Solar Resource
  • Storage/hybridization provide
  • decoupling of energy collection and generation
  • lower costs because storage is cheaper than
    incremental turbine costs
  • higher value because power production can match
    utility needs

Generation w/ Storage
Molten-Salt Power Tower
Power Tower or Central Receiver
Energy collection is uncoupled from power
Solar Two Results
Molten-Salt Power tower technology was success-
fully demonstrated at Solar Two and all of the
test objectives were met.
  • Receiver design validated
  • Receiver ? 88
  • ? of Storage gt 98
  • Dispatchability demonstrated for gt 6 days
  • 40MW (equivalent) Solar Tres plant prop. in Spain

PS 10 Steam Cycle
Once-through steam boiler similar to Solar 1
PS 10 Power Tower
PS 10 Plant Operational Fall 2006. Construction
started on first PS 20 Plant.
Power Tower Components
Storage Tanks
Steam Generator
Current MS Power Tower Design
  • For a 100 MW MS Power Tower Plant
  • Collector Area 144,000 m2
  • 13 hours of thermal storage
  • Annual Solar-to-electric conversion 14
  • Annual Capacity factor 75
  • Field operating temperature 565 C
  • Conventional Rankine steam turbine
  • Water cooled

SEGS Plants
  • Solar Electric Generating Stations (SEGS) 354 MW
  • Total annual average solar-to-electric efficiency
    at 12.
  • Plants use conventional equipment and are
    hybridized for dispatchability (25)

Total reflective area gt 2.3 Mill. m2 More than
117,000 HCEs 30 MW increment based on regulated
power block size
SEGS Deployment and Production
Solar Electric Generation Stations (SEGS)
Deployment and power production 1985 2002.
More Than 18 Years of Reliable Operation
  • Averaged 80 on-peak capacity factor from solar
  • Over 100 with fossil backup
  • Could approach 100 from solar with the addition
    of thermal energy storage.

Mount Pinatubo Volcano
CA Energy Crisis
SCE Summer On-Peak Weekdays Jun - Sep 12 noon -
6 pm
Nevada Solar One
  • 64 MW Capacity
  • 357,200m² Solar Field
  • 30 Minutes Thermal Storage
  • Minimal Fossil fuel
  • Long term PPA signed with Nevada Power
  • EPC Notice to Proceed January 2006
  • Startup April 2007

Nevada Solar One Technical Characteristics
  • Annual electricity production estimated to be 140
    - 150GWh

1-MW Organic Rankine Cycle Plant at APS
APS Saguaro Solar Plant
Trough Components
Trough Collector
Current Trough Design
  • For a 100 MW Trough Plant
  • E-W tracking collector, Area 724,000 m2
  • No Storage, No hybrid operation
  • Annual Solar-to-electric conversion 12
  • Annual Capacity factor 29
  • Field operating temperature 391 C
  • Conventional Rankine steam turbine
  • Water cooled

CSP Dish Stirling Systems
  • Technology Features
  • High efficiency (Peak gt 30 net
  • Annual Efficiency 22 25
  • Modularity (10, 25kW)
  • Autonomous operation
  • High-Efficiency Stirling Engine

RD focus is on Reliability improvement, engineer
ing for mass production and cost reduction.
Dish Stirling Components
Current Dish Stirling Design
  • For a 100 MW Dish Stirling Plant
  • Require 4,000 25-kW systems
  • Modularity at single unit size
  • Hybridization is possible (NG, H2, LFG, etc.)
  • Annual Solar-to-electric conversion 24
  • Annual Capacity factor 29 (solar only)
  • Field operating temperature 750 C
  • 25 kW Kinematic Stirling engine
  • Closed-radiator cooling system

RD Needs of CSP
  • Materials
  • Selective surfaces for external receivers in
    towers and dishes
  • Optical materials that are cheaper than glass but
    still provide long life operation
  • High-temperature materials for tower and dish
  • Thermal storage materials
  • Working fluids for troughs and towers

R D Needs of CSP
  • Advanced Component Designs
  • Cheaper solar concentrators (dishes, troughs,
    heliostats) -- without compromising current
    levels of performance
  • More efficient receiver designs
  • Advanced power cycles for all three technologies
    simpler, more efficient, more reliable, etc.
  • Installation, operation and maintenance issues
    concentrator cleaning, concentrator alignment

DNI Solar Resource in the Southwest
Screening Approach
  • Filters applied
  • Direct-normal solar resource.
  • Sites gt 6.75 kwh/m2/day.
  • Exclude environmentally sensitive lands, major
    urban areas, etc.
  • Remove land with slope gt 1.
  • Only contiguous areas gt 10 km2

Data and maps from the Renewable Resources Data
Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Unfiltered Data with Transmission Overlay
Resources gt 6.75 kWh/m2/day
Add Land Use Exclusions
Add Slope lt 1
CSP Deployment Potential
Bottom Line Almost 7,000 GW Available Resource
(Total U. S. Capacity is 950 GW)
Project Costs
  • Sometimes represented as /kW installed 3000
    to 4000 per kW
  • Sometimes represented as the Levelized Cost of
    Energy (LEC) from a plant (includes financing,
    OM, profit, over the lifetime of the plant etc.)
  • These are large power projects requiring 4 5
    years to develop and deploy.
  • Financing terms
  • Plant ownership
  • Incentives
  • Proximity to/capacity of substation
  • Ownership/cost of land
  • Capacity of power lines

Cost of CSP
  • Cost Reductions to Bridge the Gap
  • Plant Size
  • Deployment
  • Financing
  • RD

Current Technology Cost .11/kwh (real) .16/kwh
Cost Goals .05-.07/kwh (real) .08-.10/kwh
Source WGA Solar Task Force Summary Report
CSP Reference Plant
Breakdown of LEC for 100 MWe Reference System
  • Parabolic Trough Technology Proxy for CSP
  • Current solar technology
  • Rankine cycle plants
  • 6-hours of thermal energy storage
  • Finance Assumptions
  • Based on IPP financing

Cost of CSP Electricity
Effect of Plant Size
2006 Nexant Study Optimum Size 250MWe For
Current Technology
Parabolic Trough Plant, 6-hours Thermal Energy
Storage, IPP Financing, 10 ITC
Cost of CSP Electricity
Effect of Incentives (IPP Financing)
Effect of Deployment
Cost of CSP Electricity
Based on Experience from Existing Plants (354MWs
in California)
Markets in the West
  • The DOE Energy Information Agency predicts for
    the Western U. S. the addition of 86 GW of
    capacity over the next 20 years
  • Most of this is expected to be met with the
    addition of coal and natural gas fired generation
  • Western states have demonstrated interest in
    developing renewable resources
  • In many ways, states are more proactive than the
    federal government in providing incentives for
    solar energy development

Government Incentives for CSP
  • Federal Incentive applicable to CSP
  • Investment Tax Credit of 30 through end of 2008
    (working on an 8 10 year extension)
  • Loan guarantee program
  • State Incentives for CSP
  • Renewable Portfolio Standards
  • Solar set asides
  • State production tax credits
  • Property and sales tax relief
  • Possible state loan guarantee programs

CSP Development in Arizona
Potential Benefits to the State of Arizona
  • IF Arizona builds 1 GW of the 4 GW WGA target
  • --- and---
  • the economic impact analysis for California is
    relevant for Arizona
  • --- then ---
  • 2 - 4 billion private investment in State
  • 3,400 construction jobs 250 permanent solar
    plant jobs
  • 0.5 billion increase in state tax revenues
  • 5.8 billion increase in gross State output

WGA Solar Task Force
In February 2005, the Western Governors
Associations (WGA) commissioned a number of Task
Forces to explore creation of 30 GW of clean
energy in WGA states. The Solar Task Force
presented a report to the Steering Committee on
December 8, 2005.
  • The CSP recommendations of the Solar Task Force
  • 4 GW of CSP deployment are reasonable
  • Extend the 30 Federal ITC
  • Exempt sales and property taxes on solar power
  • Allow longer-term Power Purchase Agreements
  • Encourage State PUCs, utilities, and project
    developers to aggregate plant orders and project
    bids to accelerate CSP scale-up cost reductions

Projects in SW U. S.
  • 1 MW trough/ORC in Arizona (APS, Solargenix)
  • 64 MW trough electric project in Nevada (Nevada
    Power, Solargenix) in construction, compl. April
  • 500 MW (option to 850 MW) Dish Stirling plant in
    Southern California (SCE, SES). (Agr. signed Aug
  • 300 MW (option to 900 MW) of Dish Stirling plants
    in Southern CA (SDGE, SES). (Agr. signed in Sep
  • 250 MW SW Utility Consortium in planning
  • Others rumored by not announced

Projects Around the World
  • Algeria Abener, 30 MW trough fuel saver 75M
    and it must provide 5 solar fraction annually.
  • Egypt Bids for the 150 MW Kuraymat trough plant
    are due November 2006.
  • South Africa ESKOM in Phase V of molten-salt
    power tower development currently performing an
  • Israel SOLEL signed a contract for a 150 MW
    trough plant.
  • Mexico Bids expected in December 2006 for the
    30 MW solar trough project at Agua Prieta in
  • Spain Estimates are that 2 GW or more of CSP
    plants are in the planning stages. SOLUCAR
    started operation of PS 10 power tower and
    construction of the 20 MW PS 20 the first of
    three 50 MW ANDASOL trough plants with 7.5 hours
    of molten-salt thermal storage is under

CSP Worldwide Deployment Plans
4.56 GW
  • The quality and quantity of solar resource in the
    SW U. S. is exceptional.
  • LEC from CSP currently ranges from about 0.12 to
    0.16/kwh (depending on the size of solar plant,
    the solar resource, and mix of incentives, etc.).
  • CSP resources are located near transmission and
    near to existing and growing loads.
  • A window of opportunity is opening in the SW U.
    S. and around the world for the deployment of CSP
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