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to Botany

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Introduction. to Botany. Introduction to Botany. Botany ... Conifers cones instead of flowers. Spruce, pine and fir. Cacti. Do not appear to have leaves ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: to Botany


1
Introduction to Botany
2
Introduction to Botany
  • Botany study of plants

3
Introduction to Botany
  • Plants-sometimes difficult to define a plant
  • Algae, protist, plant????

4
Introduction to Botany
  • Most roots, stems and leaves
  • Exceptions
  • Conifers cones instead of flowers
  • Spruce, pine and fir
  • Cacti
  • Do not appear to have leaves
  • Modified leaves

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6
Introduction to Botany
  • Scientific Method ( 3 requirements)
  • 1) Information gained only through controlled
    experimentation.
  • Info not accepted automatically
  • Must be subject to proof
  • This aspect separates science from religion

7
Introduction to Botany
  • Scientific Method ( 3 requirements)
  • 2) Only phenomena that can be observed are
    studied
  • Concepts that can never be examined are rejected

8
Introduction to Botany
  • Scientific Method ( 3 requirements)
  • 3) All theories must be tested
  • If they cannot be viewed with available means,
    they must be viewed with skepticism

9
Introduction to Botany
  • Scientific Method
  • 7 steps
  • 1. Identify problem/ ask question
  • 2. Gather info./ research
  • 3. Hypothesis
  • 4. Experiment
  • 5. Analyze and record data
  • 6. Draw conclusion/ form theory
  • 7. Repeat or test theory

10
Introduction to Botany
  • Origin and evolution of plants
  • Life began 3.5 BYA
  • Evolution change over time due to mutations and
    natural selection

11
Introduction to Botany
  • Origin and evolution of plants
  • 1. Early prokaryote
  • Before nuclei
  • 2. Early eukaryote with nucleus
  • True nuclei
  • W/out chloroplasts or mitochondria
  • None exist today
  • DNA became surrounded by membrane

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Introduction to Botany
  • Origin and evolution of plants
  • 1. Early prokaryote
  • 2. Early eukaryote with nucleus
  • 3. Eukaryote w/ mitochondria(symbiosis)
  • Ingested, but could not digest bacteria
  • Bacteria absorbed food
  • Leaked out high energy compounds

14
Introduction to Botany
  • Origin and evolution of plants
  • 1. Early prokaryote
  • 2. Early eukaryote with nucleus
  • 3. Eukaryote w/ mitochondria(symbiosis)
  • 4. Eukaryote w/ mitochondria and chloroplasts
    (symbiosis)
  • Ingested but could not digest cyanobacterium
  • Cyanobacterium? protected
  • Leaked out carbohydrates from photosynthesis

15
Introduction to Botany
  • Origin and evolution of plants
  • 1. Early prokaryote
  • 2. Early eukaryote with nucleus
  • 3. Eukaryote w/ mitochondria(symbiosis)
  • 4. Eukaryote w/ mitochondria and chloroplasts
    (symbiosis)
  • 5. Algae and Plants

16
Introduction to Botany
  • Not all organisms evolved at same rate
  • Not all features of a single organism evolve at
    the same rate

17
Introduction to Botany
  • Not all organisms evolved at same rate
  • Not all features of a single organism evolve at
    the same rate
  • Relictual features-seem relatively unchanged
  • Algae 1 BYO
  • Ferns 150 MYO
  • Conifers 120 MYO

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19
Introduction to Botany
  • Not all organisms evolved at same rate
  • Not all features of a single organism evolve at
    the same rate
  • Relictual features
  • Derived features-have recently evolved
  • Flowering plants 90-100 MYO

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21
Introduction to Botany
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Can have up to 17 divisions

22
Introduction to Botany
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Division Bryophyta
  • Mosses
  • Division Pteridophyta
  • Ferns
  • Division Coniferophyta
  • Conifers ( cone bearing )
  • Division Anthophyta
  • Flowering plants

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27
Introduction to Botany
  • Plant diversity
  • Plants have developed characteristics that have
    adapted them to their specific habitat

28
Introduction to Botany
  • Plant diversity
  • Over 400,000 spp
  • Several hundred thousand extinct

29
Introduction to Botany
  • Alternative adaptations
  • For any type of environment, several types of
    adaptations can be successful
  • Frozen soil lack of water
  • Drop leaves (deciduous trees)
  • Shoots die back (bulbs stay alive underneath)
  • Narrow leaves and thick cuticles (evergreens)

30
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31
Introduction to Botany
  • Alternative adaptations
  • For any type of environment, several types of
    adaptations can be successful
  • Frozen soil lack of water
  • Evergreen ? modified leaves ? needles
  • Environments exist as gradients
  • Not just hot-cold/ wet-dry/ etc.

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33
Homework
  • Wednesday
  • Plant Rapid Cycling Brassicas
  • Thursday
  • Water plants
  • Quiz
  • Directions for lab drawings
  • Survey of Kingdom Plantae lab
  • Friday
  • Complete lab
  • Homework review worksheet
  • Monday
  • Review for exam
  • Tuesday
  • Test
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