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The Council of Europe

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Under what circumstances was the Council of Europe created? What were/are its aims ... Human rights commentator. Human rights observance. The CoE: Other bodies ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Council of Europe


1
The Council of Europe
  • IR 2001 International Organisations in Europe
    Week 12

2
CoE Questions
  • Under what circumstances was the Council of
    Europe created?
  • What were/are its aims and objectives?
  • How does the Council of Europe work?
  • What are its relations with other European
    organisations?
  • What role has it played with EU enlargement?
  • Is the Council of Europe an effective institution?

3
(No Transcript)
4
The Council of Europe History
  • Historical Context
  • End of the Second World War
  • Common Security
  • Democracy building
  • Cold War
  • East vs. West
  • Opposing Ideologies
  • Global governance
  • United Nations

5
The Council of Europe History
  • Winston Churchill (Zurich 1946)
  • Hague Conference 1948
  • An attempt, never previously made in history, to
    combine effective executive international action
    at the governmental level with democratic
    consultation, not democratic control (Boothby
    1952).
  • Purpose
  • Resolutions
  • Divergences

6
The Council of Europe History
  • Founding States
  • 1949 Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy,
    Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and
    the UK
  • Enlargement
  • 1949 Greece (suspended 1969-74) and Turkey
    (barred from PACE 1981-84)
  • 1951 GDR, Iceland, Switzerland and Finland
  • 1989 Finland and CEECs

7
The CoE Aims and Objectives
  • Democratic Peace Theory
  • Pre-1989
  • Democratic governance
  • Standardise social and legal practices
  • Promote a European identity
  • Post-1989
  • Human rights watchdog
  • CEECs integration
  • Epistemic community

8
The CoE Role in Europe
  • Early Problems
  • Organisational overlap
  • Policy implementation
  • Indifference

9
The CoE How does it work?
  • Committee of Ministers
  • 46 Seats
  • Foreign Ministers or ambassadors
  • Main policy-making body
  • Parliamentary Assembly
  • 315 seats
  • From 46 national parliaments
  • A deliberative body
  • Human Rights watchdog

10
The CoE How does it work?
  • Committee of Ministers
  • Secretariat International Civil Service
  • Ministers meet once a year (Confidential)
  • Discuss anything but national defence
  • Deputies meet once a week
  • Responsibilities

11
The CoE How does it work?
  • Parliamentary Assembly
  • Parliamentary representation
  • Political groups
  • The Bureau
  • The Standing Committee
  • The Joint Committee
  • Assembly Committees
  • PACE Flash Presentation

12
The CoE Other bodies
  • European Court of Human Rights (1959)
  • European Convention on Human Rights (1950)
  • Takes on the cases of individuals against
    member-states.
  • Ex. Zhdanok v. the Republic of Latvia
  • Protocol 11 (1998)
  • Composition

13
The CoE Other bodies
  • Commissioner for Human Rights
  • Strasbourg 1997 (adopted 1999)
  • Aims
  • Human rights education
  • Human rights commentator
  • Human rights observance

14
The CoE Other bodies
  • Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the
    Council of Europe
  • Basis Link between decentralisation and
    democracy
  • Knowledge Sharing
  • Advising body
  • Observer body
  • Works with EU regarding regional policy

15
The CoE Treaties and Conventions
  • Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and
    Fundamental Freedoms European Convention on
    Human Rights
  • Right to Life
  • Prohibition of Torture
  • Prohibition of Slavery or Forced Labour
  • Right to Security
  • Right to Fair Trial
  • Etc…

16
The CoE Treaties and Conventions
  • Framework Convention on the Protection on
    National Minorities
  • Link between discrimination and insecurity
  • Right to equality before the law
  • Right to maintain and develop their own culture
  • Promote mutual understanding
  • Right to receive information in minority language
  • Etc…

17
The CoE Other issues
  • Legal Affairs
  • Local Policy
  • Democracy through Law
  • Public Health
  • Migration
  • Education
  • Sport

18
The CoE Relations with EU
  • CoE EU
  • Co-operation formalised in 1997
  • Regular meetings between EU presidents and CoE SG
    and President
  • Links between the CoE Secretariat and EU
    Commission, spawning joint programmes in CEECs
  • Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Albania
  • Baltic States

19
The CoE Relations with OSCE
  • COE OSCE
  • Combining the legal to the political
  • Similar aims
  • Extension of the Human rights regime
  • Institutional links
  • CoE has observer status in OSCE bodies
  • Co-op on the ground with OSCE HCNM and Missions
  • Baltic States
  • Moldova
  • Former Yugoslavia

20
The CoE Relations with EU/OSCE
  • Problems
  • Inter-institutional overlaps
  • Duplication
  • Small state complaints
  • From burden-sharing to encroachment
  • Division of labour?
  • OSCE
  • EU

21
The CoE EU enlargement
  • European Commission
  • Regular Reports
  • CoE and OSCE seen as watchdogs
  • The CoE as a veto player (Tsebelis)

22
The CoE Relations with US/Canada
  • United States
  • Scepticism
  • Major issue Death Penalty
  • Major issue ECHR
  • Canada
  • Willing co-operation

23
CoE Conclusion
  • Under what circumstances was the Council of
    Europe created?
  • What were/are its aims and objectives?
  • How does the Council of Europe work?
  • What are its relations with other European
    organisations?
  • What role has it played with EU enlargement?
  • Is the Council of Europe an effective institution?
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