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International Quality

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Title: International Quality


1
Mapping The LandscapeHow RFID is Revolutionising
The World Around US
  • Alfio Grasso
  • Deputy Director
  • Auto-ID Lab, ADELAIDE
  • UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE

2
Objective
  • RFID Basics
  • History
  • Rising from the ashes!
  • Current Status
  • EPCglobal
  • ISO
  • Regulatory
  • Future

3
RFID Basics
4
Tag reading
The black spot
Reader Tx typically 1W, 6dB gain Antenna But
propagation loss, resulting Rx at Tag typically
µW On tag, RF energy used for DC power and
modulation More loss back to Reader Rx Therefore
a very weak reply is obtained
5
RFID Tags
  • Tags
  • Attached to objects or items
  • Contains electronics (chip), and antenna
  • Most are passive (no power source)
  • Active tags have a battery

6
Matrics (Symbol) TagsClass 0
7
Alien Technology TagsClass 1 Gen 1
8
Intermec Tags18000-6TB
9
Gen 2
10
RFID Readers
  • Readers
  • Contains electronics, Tx, Rx and control
  • Connected to antenna(s)
  • mostly external
  • Energise tags (passive tags)
  • Commands tags (wake up active tags, enables
    management of the tag population)
  • Receive tag replies

11
RFID Readers
12
Gen 2 Compliant Readers
13
RFID Antenna(s)
14
Host CPU
  • Application
  • Do something with the tag information
  • Potential to generate massive amounts of data
  • Once installed it costs virtually NOTHING to read
    a tag!
  • Real time data gt real time decisions
  • OHIO (Zero Human Involvement Operations)
  • Term defined by John Greaves, CHEP International

15
History
  • RFID concept in WWII
  • Steady development ever since

16
Early UHF work
  • 1979 Surface Acoustic Wave RFID
  • University of Adelaide, University of New South
    Wales
  • TABTEK, X-cyte (XCI)
  • MircroDesign
  • 1988 Modulated Backscatter Technology
  • Discrete diodes
  • ISD
  • Amtech
  • Late 90s single chip UHF RFID
  • SCS
  • Philips
  • IBMgtIntermec

17
ISO
  • SC31 established in 1996
  • Automatic Identification and Data Capture
    Techniques
  • SC31/WG4
  • RFID for Item Management
  • 1st meeting 26-28 August 1998
  • SC31/WG4/SG3
  • Air Interface
  • 1st meeting 12th Jan 1999
  • UHF activity started in 2000
  • Ad-hoc meeting in September 2000
  • 18000-6 WD by Dec 2001
  • 18000-6 CD Sept 2002
  • FCD BRM Sept 2003
  • 18000-6 Published 2004

18
Key Events
  • Auto-ID Center, formation and EPC (2000)
  • RFID Chair at University of Adelaide, April 2001
  • Adelaide Auto-ID Lab, established 2002
  • Gillette purchase (2003)
  • WALMART mandate (2003)

19
Metamorphous
  • Auto-ID Center
  • Terminated 31/10/2003
  • Spawned two organisations
  • Auto-ID Labs
  • MIT, Cambridge (UK), Adelaide, Fudan (China),
    Keio (Japan), St Gallen/ETHZ (Switzerland) and in
    2005 ICU (Korea)
  • EPCglobal

20
2000 Players
  • Matrics
  • Founded 1999
  • Product July 2002
  • Symbol
  • Alien
  • Founded 1995
  • Cheap Tag Program, 2001
  • Product Q1 2002
  • Impinj
  • Founded 2000
  • Auto-ID Center HAG 2003
  • C1G2 chip 8 Apr 2005
  • EPCglobal certified 14 Sep 2005
  • Partnered with Texas Instruments

21
Why Now!
  • Recent improvements in tag and reader technology
  • Better performance
  • Easier deployment and maintenance
  • Better use of existing infrastructure and
    technologies
  • Improvements in tag and reader manufacturing
  • Cheaper tags and readers
  • Industry standardisation
  • EPCglobal and ISO

22
RFID Market To Reach 7.26Bn In 2008
  • A new market research report covering RFID from
    2005 to 2015, researched by IDTechEx.
  • Bottom line is that this years global market for
    RFID including tags, systems and services is
    1.94 billion but it will be driven by demand and
    new laws to 26.90 billion in 2015.
  • 1.8 billion RFID tags have been sold to 2005.
  • Passive tags 410 million (car clickers)
  • Active tags 1390 million (cards)
  • Key volume applications for RFID technology
  • access cards for the financial, security and
    safety markets
  • automotive and passenger transport sector
  • smaller markets in leisure, libraries, laundry
    and healthcare.

As reported in IDTechEX 11 April 2005
23
More Trends
  • 3.1 billion tags will be used for pallets and
    cases in 2006.
  • By 2008
  • 6.8 billion tags for Item level tagging
    (especially by pharmaceuticals) and tagging of
    baggage, animals, books, tickets and other non
    retail markets
  • But 15.3 billion tags for pallets/cases
  • The market for RFID interrogators will reach
    1.14 billion in 2008 for EPC interrogators and
    0.75 billion in the same year for other
    interrogators, such as Near Field Communication
    interrogators.
  • Forecasts by territorial region show that by 2010
    48 of RFID tags by numbers will be sold in East
    Asia, followed by 32 to North America.

As reported in IDTechEX 11 April 2005
24
Current Status
  • EPCglobal
  • ISO
  • Regulatory

25
EPCglobal Standards Development Process
26
EPCglobal structure
27
Membership Aug 2005
28
Standards Development Process
29
Working Groups
  • Business Steering Committee (BSC)
  • Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG)
  • Healthcare and Life Sciences (HLS)
  • Transport and Logistics (TLS)
  • Technical Steering Committee (TSC)
  • Hardware Action Group (HAG)
  • Software Action Group (SAG)

30
FMCG Working Groups
  • Data Exchange
  • European Adoption Programme (EAP)
  • Pilot and Implementation (PI)
  • Reusable Transport Items (RTI)
  • Strategic Planning
  • Tag and Inlay Standards
  • Asian Adoption Program (AAP)

31
HLS Working Groups
  • Strategy
  • Policy
  • Process
  • Information
  • Technology
  • Research

32
TLS - Working Groups
  • Transportation
  • Four walls
  • Import Export Clearance
  • Integration

33
HAG Working Groups
  • Class 1 Generation 2 (Work completed)
  • Gen 2 Testing Certification
  • Joints Requirements Group for Item Level Tagging
  • Others planned

34
SAG Working Groups
  • Reader Protocol
  • Reader Management
  • Filtering and Collection
  • ONS
  • Security
  • Tag Data Translation
  • EPCIS Phase 2
  • Tag Data Standards

35
Future Working Groups ?
  • Automotive
  • Aerospace
  • Electronics
  • Biologics

36
EPCglobal Technical Standards
  • Hardware Action Group
  • Software Action Group

37
EPCglobal network roles and interfaces
38
EPC Event Layers
39
EPCIS Concepts
40
Capture Application
41
Gen 2
42
Inlay Costs
  • Alien C1G1
  • US0.129 Qty gt 1m - 13 Sept 2005
  • Avery Dennison C1G2
  • US0.079 Qty gt 1m - 20 Sept 2005
  • Inlay is the functional part of the tag
  • Includes the integrated circuit and antenna
  • Usually "converted" to a tag
  • by being placed in a plastic sleeve, adhesive, or
    other housing that allows it to be stuck to
    items.
  • The final tag cost is therefore considerably more
    than that of the bare inlay, often by two or
    three times.

Source RFID Update
43
Tag Costs
  • RSI ID Technologies
  • Finished, fully-validated, ready-to-use Gen2 RFID
    labels
  • Under US0.149, Qty gt 1m 22 Sept 2005

Source RFID Journal 23 Sept
44
Gen 2 - Reader Costs
  • Applied Wireless Identifications (AWID)
  • MPR-3014
  • EPCglobal Gen 2 certified
  • 4 antenna port reader WITH 4 antennas
  • US1,000 each .

Source RFID Update 26 Sept 2005
45
Gen 2 Compliance Certificates
  • Reader Vendors
  • Alien Technology
  • Applied Wireless Devices (2)
  • Impinj
  • Intermec Technologies (2)
  • MaxID Group
  • Symbol Technologies
  • ThingMagic

46
Gen 2 Compliance Certificates
  • Chip Vendors
  • Impinj Inc.
  • Monza

47
Gen 2 Compliance Certificates
  • Test Centres
  • Pacific RFID Performance Solutions Hsinchu,
    Taiwan
  • Kimberly-Clark Corp. Auto-ID Sensing Technologies
    Performance Test Center USA
  • METRO Group AG/GS1 Germany RFID Test Center,
    Germany
  • RFID Research Center, University of Arkansas, USA

48
Gen 2 Chip Suppliers
  • Impinj
  • Monza
  • 96 epc
  • ST Microelectronics
  • XRAG2
  • Supports KILL
  • 432-bit memory (2 offerings)
  • Three memory banks (64 bits TID, 304 bits for EPC
    code and 64 bits reserved)
  • Four memory banks (128 bits user, 64 bits TID,
    176 bits for EPC code and 64 bits reserved).
  • US0.07, Qty gt 100,000
  • Philips
  • Texas Instruments

49
ISO Standards
50
RF Regulations
  • Regulators
  • Classify RFID as Industrial, Scientific and
    Medical use
  • ISM bands
  • 125-134 kHz (ISO 18000-2)
  • 13.56 MHz or HF (ISO 18000-3)
  • 433 MHz (ISO 18000-7)
  • 860 to 960 MHz or UHF (ISO 18000-6)
  • 2.45 GHz (ISO 18000-4)
  • 5.8 GHz (no ISO standard)

51
(No Transcript)
52
Other RFID Standards
  • ISO_IEC_18000-1
  • Reference architecture and definition of
    parameters to be standardized
  • ISO_IEC_TR_18001
  • Application requirements profiles
  • ISO_IEC_18046
  • RFID Tag and Interrogator Performance Test
    Methods
  • ISO_IEC_TR_18047-2
  • Test methods for air interface communications
    below 135 kHz
  • ISO_IEC_TR_18047-3
  • Test methods for air interface communications at
    13,56 MHz
  • ISO_IEC_TR_18047-4
  • Test methods for air interface communications at
    2.45 GHz
  • ISO_IEC_TR_18047-6
  • Test methods for air interface communications at
    860 to 960 MHz
  • ISO_IEC_TR_18047-7
  • Test methods for air interface communications at
    433 MHz
  • ISO_IEC_19762
  • Harmonised Vocabulary
  • ISO_IEC_24710

53
Other Relevant ISO Standards
  • ISO_IEC_15418
  • EAN/UCC Application Identifiers and Fact Data
    Identifiers and Maintenance
  • ISO_IEC_15424
  • Data Carrier Identifiers (including Symbology
    Identifiers)
  • ISO_IEC_15434
  • Transfer syntax for high capacity ADC media
  • ISO_IEC_15459-Parts 1 2
  • Unique identification of transport units
  • Part 1 General
  • Part 2 Registration procedures
  • ISO_IEC_15961
  • Data protocol application interface
  • ISO_IEC_15962
  • Data protocol data encoding rules and logical
    memory functions
  • ISO_IEC_15963
  • Unique identification for RF tags

54
Regulatory
55
(No Transcript)
56
ITU Region 1 (EU and Africa)EN300-220 EN302-208
  • CEPT countries
  • 869.4 - 869.65 MHz 500mW erp DClt10
  • 865.6 - 867.6 MHz 2W erp LBT
  • South Africa
  • 869.4 - 869.65 MHz 500mW erp
  • 915.2 - 915.4 MHz 8 W eirp
  • Note all of the above operate in lt 250kHz
    channels

57
ITU Region 2 (Americas)FCC Part 15.247
  • USA, Canada and Mexico
  • 902 - 928 MHz 4W EIRP FHSS, 500kHz wide
    channels permitted relaxed emission
    requirements within the whole band.
  • Central South America
  • Generally similar to North America but varies
    from country to country.

58
ITU Region 3 (Asia)
  • Australia
  • 918 - 926 MHz 1W EIRP
  • 920 926 MHz 4W EIRP
  • Experimental
  • Strict conditions apply
  • New Zealand
  • 864 - 868 MHz 4W EIRP
  • Elsewhere in Asia
  • Generally follow CEPT some exceptions below
  • China 917 to 922 2W ERP
  • Hong Kong 865-868 2W ERP 920-925 4W EIRP
  • Japan 952 - 954 MHz 4W EIRP (licensed)
  • Malaysia 919-923 MHz, 2W ERP
  • Singapore 866-869 MHz 0.5W ERP 923-925 2W ERP
    (licence)
  • South-Korea 910 914 MHz
  • Taiwan 922-928 1W ERP (indoor) 0.5W (outdoor)

59
Australian 4W RFID licence
60
Experimental Licence
  • The original licence for RFID
  • 1W EIRP, 918 to 926 MHz
  • Experimental 4W EIRP Licence
  • Granted to GS1 Australia
  • 12 July 2005
  • Operates from 920 to 926 MHz
  • Only licence that will be granted
  • Statistics needed to determine possible
    interference to Vodaphone
  • Receiver base station at 915 MHz

61
GS1 Contact
  • For details contact Fiona Wilson
  • fwilson_at_gs1au.org

62
Future?
63
Future
  • RFID deployed in supply chains
  • Anything that is mobile is a candidate
  • RFID used for item management
  • Retail, Pharmaceutical, Asset Management, Access,
    Airline Baggage, Credit Cards, Money, Food
    Traceability, Security, Authentication, etc.
  • Integrated Mobile Phone
  • Connected to internet
  • RFID reader

64
RFID and Sensors
  • RFID with sensors
  • Ubiquitous Sensors
  • Bio-sensors and RFID
  • VeriChip
  • Ubiquitous Health

65
Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA)
25th Sept 2005
  • ISA combines three systems
  • GPS for location
  • Video recognition of speed signs
  • RFID devices in speed signs which transmit
    information to passing cars.

66
New Technologies
  • MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems )
  • Printed Organic Electronics
  • Atomic Electronics

67
New Technologies - 2
  • Smart Dust or eGrains (Smart Stones)
  • Tiny smart processors
  • Wirelessly connected to each
  • Invisible network, ad-hoc
  • Sharing data
  • Reporting sensor information

68
Conclusions
69
Conclusions
  • RFID is NOW
  • Gen 2 available, inlays less than 10 cents
  • Many RFID related Standards Published
  • Many people working on those standards
  • gt 1500 people within EPCglobal workgroups
  • Multi-vendor support for the standards
  • Conformance documents being published/developed
  • UHF band opening up
  • Many GS1 countries already have band allocations
  • Australia well placed (2nd best in the world)
  • 4W EIRP
  • 12 by 500 kHz wide channels
  • Future RFID
  • Limited by Imagination

70
Further Information
  • Alfio Grasso
  • Deputy Director
  • Auto-ID Lab, Adelaide
  • General Manager
  • RFID Automation
  • University of Adelaide
  • Web www.rfidautomation.org
  • Email alf_at_rfidautomation.org
  • Ph (08) 8303 6473
  • Mob 0402 037 968
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