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TEACHING AND ASSESSING THE LANGUAGE OF SOCIAL SUCCESS

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Title: TEACHING AND ASSESSING THE LANGUAGE OF SOCIAL SUCCESS


1
TEACHING AND ASSESSING THE LANGUAGE OF SOCIAL
SUCCESS
  • Tricia S. Jones, Ph.D.
  • Temple University
  • tsjones_at_temple.edu
  • Tel/fax 215-204-7261/6013
  • School Psychology Conference
  • March 6, 2009

2
Objectives
  • Introducing basics of nonverbal communication
  • Understand nonverbal communication skills as
    central to emotional competence
  • Recognizing nonverbal social skills deficits
    dyssemia and impacts on children
  • Review Assessments for dyssemia
  • DANVA
  • Emory Dyssemia Index
  • Link nonverbal skills to effective conflict
    management
  • Demonstrate some activities for developing
    nonverbal competence in children

3
What is this person communicating?
4
Nonverbal Communication
  • NVC non-linguistic communication
  • can be universal
  • can be spontaneous or strategic
  • Multi-channel and simultaneous

5
THE MEHRABIAN EQUATION
55
38
7
words
6
Dimensions of Nonverbal Communication
  • Two dimensions
  • Involvement/Immediacy
  • Involvement is the indication of level of
    engagement in interaction
  • Immediacy is the indication of the degree of
    liking or disliking of other
  • Dominance/independence is an indication of
    status, control or lack of control

7
1. Kinesics Body movement
Types of Nonverbal Communication
  • Emblems- substitutes for spoken words
  • Illustrators-support spoken words
  • Affect displays- emotions
  • Regulators- regulate interaction
  • Adaptors- behaviors/actions dealing with social
    anxiety (self object)
  • Posture-body orientation stance

8
2. Proxemics study of how we use and manage
space
Types of Nonverbal Communication
  • Edward T. Hall identified 4 cultural distances in
    US
  • Intimate space 0-18
  • Personal space 18 4
  • Social space 4 - 12
  • Public space 12 and greater
  • What happens if someone is inappropriately in our
    space?

9
3. Vocalics Use of voice. Vocal sounds that are
not words
Types of Nonverbal Communication
  • Quality of the voice
  • Volume how soft or loud voice is
  • Pace/rate how quickly or slowly we speak
  • Intonation inflection, accent
  • Pitch high to low
  • Segregates uh-huh, shhh, mmm
  • Silence/pauses

10
Types of Nonverbal Communication 4. Haptics Use
of touch
  • Where are we permitted to touch others?
  • How does this change by relationship?
  • With what impact?
  • What is the meaning of the touch?
  • What are your comfort zones for touch?
  • How is touch used to convey
  • dominance/control?
  • liking/involvement?
  • Rules of touch relate to
  • Culture
  • Context
  • relationship

11
Properties, Nature Function of Nonverbal
Communication
  • Intentionality (one of the key principles)
  • Nonverbal behaviors can be communicated
    intentionally or unintentionally.
  • Nonverbal behavior can be perceived as being
    communicated intentionally and/or
    unintentionally.
  • What are the possible consequences of this? Does
    it matter?

12
IMPLICATIONS
  • Communication can occur even when a person does
    not intend to send a message (Seinfeld example)
  • Whether we intend it or not, people may attach
    meaning to our nonverbal behavior

13
Dimensions of Nonverbal Communication
Kinesic Proxemics/ Vocalics
Chronemics Haptics
  • ? Talk time
  • Ability to interrupt
  • Power to decide
  • Use of silence
  • ? relaxed
  • Expansive gestures
  • Affect
  • Attentive
  • ? More better space
  • Ability to invade others space
  • Louder
  • Faster
  • deeper

Dominance/ Independence
  • ? Forward leaning
  • Attentive
  • Positive affect
  • less expansive gestures
  • ?Distance between speakers
  • Touch returned

Involvement/ Immediacy
  • Louder
  • Faster
  • variety
  • Adhere to politeness norms

14
NVC the Language of Social Success
  • Nonverbal Communication is primary channel for
    communicating and understanding relational
    messages
  • Palo Alto Group, Watzlawick, Beavin and Jackson
    Pragmatics of Human Communication
  • Nonverbal Communication critical to person
    perception and attributions
  • Blink, Gladwell, etc.

15
Key Skills in Emotional Competence/ Social and
Emotional Learning
Recognizing ones emotions and values as well as
ones strengths and limitations
Managing emotions and behaviors to achieve ones
goals
Making ethical, constructive choices about
personal and social behavior
Forming positive relationships, working in
teams, dealing effectively with conflict
Showing understanding and empathy for others
16
Emotional Awareness
  • Ability to identify, label, and articulate ones
    own emotions
  • Ability to accurately decode the emotional
    expressions of others
  • Ability to appreciate that
  • people experience
  • multiple emotions
  • simultaneously

17
Emotional Perspective Taking
  • Emotional perspective taking understanding how
    someone feels about what is happening
  • Empathy ability to feel what someone else is
    feeling
  • Caring taking action to reduce the negative
    experience of the other

18
Strategic Expression
  • Controlling impulses
  • Delaying gratification
  • Masking emotions
  • Helping yourself feel better

19
Nonverbal Social Skills as Critical
  • All of the key skills of emotional competence
    that deal with social interaction presume the
    ability to effectively communicate nonverbally
  • Encoding and decoding nonverbal cues
  • Contextual sensitivity

20
Link Between SEL and Academic Achievement
  • Zins, Weissberg, Wang Walberg (2004), Building
    Academic Success on Social and Emotional Learning
    (SEL) What Does the Research Say?
  • Higher math, literacy and social studies skills
  • Higher achievement test scores and grades
  • Greater reading comprehension
  • Better problem solving and planning ability
  • Higher academic motivation

21
Link Between SEL and Pro-social Behavior
  • Fewer absences and improved attendance
  • Reductions in aggression and disruptive behavior
  • Verbal aggression
  • Physical aggression
  • Aggressive orientation
  • Higher class participation and involvement in
    peer activities

22
Important Web Resources for SEL
  • www.casel.org Collaborative for Academic Social
    and Emotional Learning, a great all-purpose site
  • www.csee.net The Center for Social and Emotional
    Education focuses on providing research
    information about the effectiveness of SEL
  • www.Edutopia.org George Lucas Educational
    Foundation provides video and CD-Rom resources
    --learning modules ready for downloading and use.

23
Why is this Important for School Psychologists?
  • Nonverbal social skills are learned primarily
    during infancy through elementary school years
  • Most schools do not teach nonverbal social skills
    and should
  • Teaching SEL requires teaching nonverbal
    communication competence

24
Examples of NVC Skills in 3-10 year olds
  • 3-5 year-olds develop ability to label emotional
    expressions.
  • Conceal and falsify displays of emotion by age
    3-4
  • Elementary school children learn to follow rules
    of space and touch
  • Elementary school children learn to show and
    read cues of liking and disliking
  • Begin using and deciphering non-literal messages
    at age 4 (kidding and sarcasm).

25
Nonverbal Social Skills Deficits
  • Poor NVC skills may reflect a learning deficit
    called Dyssemia.
  • Inability to read emotions may be due to mild
    autism -- Aspergers Syndrome.
  • Nonverbal social skills disorders are associated
    with ADHD and ADD.
  • Research indicates that education and training
    make a difference

26
Dyssemia
  • Dyssemia is a difficulty in using nonverbal
    signs or signals.
  • Dyssemic children
  • Have difficulty sending and reading nonverbal
    cues of emotion, space, and liking/disliking
  • Dont understand how to engage in social
    interaction
  • Are often seen as weird or off-putting by
    other kids (and even teachers and adults)

27
Dyssemia How Common Is It?
  • About 10 of children and adults have dyssemia
  • About 7-10 of children and adults are eusemic
    (have extraordinary ability to read and use
    nonverbal social cues)
  • The vast majority (80) of children and adults
    fall somewhere in between
  • Most children will benefit from learning
    effective nonverbal communication

28
Great Books on Nonverbal Social Skills and
Dyssemia
29
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS DYSSEMIA ON OPRAH
30
ASSESSMENT WITH DANVA
31
Diagnostic Assessment of Nonverbal Ability (DANVA)
  • Tests receptive (decoding) and expressive
    (encoding) nonverbal abilities on four subscales
  • Facial expressions
  • Paralanguage/voices
  • Postures
  • Gestures

32
Diagnostic Assessment of Nonverbal Ability
(DANVA) - Receptive
  • Child and Adult Versions
  • 24 stimulus cues for each subscale
  • 12 male
  • 12 female
  • High and Low Intensity cues equally represented
  • Cues demonstrate four emotions
  • Happiness
  • Anger
  • Sadness
  • Fear

33
Diagnostic Assessment of Nonverbal Ability
(DANVA) - Receptive
  • Convergent Validity
  • Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge (TONCK) (Rosip
    Hall)
  • Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity (PONS)
    (Rosenthal)
  • FACES (Ekman and Friesen)
  • Interpersonal Perception Task (Archer)
  • Issues About Cultural Sensitivity (African
    American) (Collins Nowicki, 2001)

34
DANVA - Expressive
  • Children are asked to imagine a social situation
    (e.g., asking someone to play) and asked to
    express specific cues
  • Make a happy face when doing it
  • Use a sad voice when doing it
  • Psychologist/Counselor trained to rate and code
    expressive cues
  • Problematic for several reasons

35
Assessment with Emory Dyssemia Index
  • While DANVA is designed for individual
    assessment and clinical application Nowicki and
    Duke felt a need for an assessment that could be
    administered to larger numbers of people for
    easier and faster screening by psychologists,
    teachers, and counselors
  • EDI was designed to meet this need and is
    available in a version for children (EDI-C) and
    adults (EDI-A)

36
EDI-C
  • Modeled after CBCL
  • 42 item other-report rating instrument to assess
    a childs frequency of behaviors associated with
    types of nonverbal communication (e.g.,
    proxemics)
  • Validated with DANVA
  • Simplistic scoring (higher score suggests more
    possibility of dyssemia or NVSSD)

37
EDI-C and DANVA together
  • EDI-C basic screening tool completed by teacher,
    psychologist, counselor
  • High scores on EDI-C signals appropriateness of
    DANVA assessment with child
  • EDI-C can be used as follow-up assessment after
    nonverbal social skills training

38
Conflict Resolution Education in Teacher Education
39
CRETE Funders
  • US Department of Education, FIPSE Program (Fund
    for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education)
  • JAMS Foundation
  • George Gund Foundation
  • William and Flora Hewlett Foundation

40
CRETE Mission
  • CRETE works with teacher education at pre-service
    and in-service levels to develop teachers
    critical skills in conflict education/social and
    emotional learning and classroom management.

41
What is CRE?
  • CRE programs include a variety of efforts which
    share various emphases
  • An understanding of conflict
  • Social, emotional and cognitive processes related
    to constructive conflict management
  • principles of conflict resolution
  • skills required to enact constructive conflict
    management

42
CRE Course USDE/NASP
  • Managing and Resolving Conflicts Effectively in
    Schools and Classrooms was developed through the
    National Training and Technical Assistance Center
    for Drug Prevention and School Safety
    Coordinators, through partnership with NASP and
    through a contract with the U.S. Department of
    Educations Safe and Drug Free Schools Office.
    The course is available on www.creducation.org

43
Nonverbal Communication and Conflict
  • Nonverbal communication can
  • Create perceptions of conflict
  • Escalate conflict
  • De-escalate conflict
  • Nonverbal communication is
  • more important than verbal communication
  • in determining productive or destructive conflict
    management

44
HOSTILE ATTRIBUTIONS
45
NEGATIVE RECIPROCITY
46
FLOODING
47
NVC AND TEASING
48
NVC AND BULLYING
49
RECONCILIATION
  • Non-threatening and supportive behavior creates
    an emotional climate conducive to reconciliation

50
Critical Nonverbal Skills to Teach Young Children
51
PIE in the SKY
  • Sending and receiving messages of
  • Power, Involvement, and Emotion
  • Skills and Knowledge for our Youth

52
DISPLAYS OF EMOTION
53
DISPLAYS OF POWER
54
THREATENING NVC
  • Staring and glaring
  • Invading personal space
  • Touching
  • Pointing
  • Raising voice
  • Smirking
  • Laughing
  • Turning away
  • Puffing up
  • Mocking
  • Patronizing
  • Interrupting
  • Shaking head
  • Rolling eyes

55
NON-THREATENING NVC
  • Keeping distance
  • Smiling
  • Bowed head
  • Gaze avoidance
  • Constricted body positions
  • Soft tone of voice

56
DISPLAYS OF INVOLVEMENT
57
Call to Action
  • We should enhance our competence to teach and
    assess childrens nonverbal social skills
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