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Biblical-linguistic Evidence Oat. Historical-patristic Evidence - Rolan ... The Ethiopian eunuch (Acts 8:34-39) Lydia of Philippi (Acts 16:11-15) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • By Rolan Monje, DPTh, MMin and
  • Oat Suwanakoot, MDiv
  • 2007 Asian Christian Jubilee Teaching Class

  • This powerpoint and many other materials are
    available online at

  • Biblical-linguistic Evidence Oat
  • Historical-patristic Evidence - Rolan
  • Response to Baptism - Oat
  • Objections to Baptism Rolan
  • Q A
  • Recommended reading
  • Conclusions


The word baptism
  • English verb baptize is a transliteration
    (simply, word conversion using the corresponding
    letters of one alphabet to another) of the Greek
    word ßapt???
  • Baptism ? Greek noun baptisma
  • Similarly, Amen is the transliteration of a
    Hebrew word meaning so be it or let it be
    (Num 522).
  • In the original language, baptisma mainly means
    immersion or dipping.

  • To understand the whole concept of baptism, we
    need to look at scriptures throughout the gospels
    in the book of Acts, the Epistles, and personal
    letters, so we can grasp the overall meaning.
  • Well also look at the relationship of baptism
    to other biblical concepts.

Baptism of John
  • Mark 14-5 (NIV)
  • And so John came, baptizing in the desert region
    and preaching a baptism of repentance for the
    forgiveness of sins. The whole Judean countryside
    and all the people of Jerusalem went out to him.
    Confessing their sins, they were baptized by him
    in the Jordan River.
  • John 322-23 (NIV)
  • After this, Jesus and his disciples went out
    into the Judean countryside, where he spent some
    time with them, and baptized. 23 Now John also
    was baptizing at Aenon near Salim, because there
    was plenty of water, and people were constantly
    coming to be baptized.

Baptism into Christ
  • Matthew 311 (NIV)
  • I baptize you with water for repentance. But
    after me will come one who is more powerful than
    I, whose sandals I am not fit to carry. He will
    baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire.
  • John 35-7 (NIV)
  • Jesus answered, "I tell you the truth, no one
    can enter the kingdom of God unless he is born of
    water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh,
    but the Spirit gives birth to spirit. You should
    not be surprised at my saying, 'You must be born
  • Galatians 327 (NIV)
  • For all of you who were baptized into Christ
    have clothed yourselves with Christ.

Baptism with the Holy Spirit
  • Acts 15 (NIV)
  • For John baptized with water, but in a few days
    you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.
  • 1 Cor. 1213 (NIV)
  • For we were all baptized by one Spirit into one
    body--whether Jews or Greeks, slave or free--and
    we were all given the one Spirit to drink.

Baptism and faith
  • Acts 812-13 (NIV)
  • But when they believed Philip as he preached the
    good news of the kingdom of God and the name of
    Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and
    women. 13 Simon himself believed and was
    baptized. And he followed Philip everywhere,
    astonished by the great signs and miracles he

Baptism and repentance
  • Acts 238 (NIV)
  • Peter replied, "Repent and be baptized, every
    one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the
    forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive
    the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Baptism and Salvation
  • Mark 1616 (NIV)
  • Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved,
    but whoever does not believe will be condemned.
  • 1 Peter 321 (NIV)
  • And this water symbolizes baptism that now saves
    you also--not the removal of dirt from the body
    but the pledge of a good conscience toward God.
    It saves you by the resurrection of Jesus Christ

Baptism and commission
  • Matthew 2819-20 (NIV) Therefore go and make
    disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the
    name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy
    Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I
    have commanded you. And surely I am with you
    always, to the very end of the age."

Baptism and union
  • Romans 63-4 (NIV)
  • Or don't you know that all of us who were
    baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his
    death? We were therefore buried with him through
    baptism into death in order that, just as Christ
    was raised from the dead through the glory of the
    Father, we too may live a new life.

Steps toward baptism
  • Hear (Romans 1017, Acts 1114)
  • Believe (John 316, Acts 1631)
  • Confess sin (Matthew 36, 1John 19, James516)
  • Repent (Acts 319)
  • Confess Jesus is Lord (Romans 109, 1Timothy
  • Be baptized (Acts 238, Romans 63-4)

Why we need baptism
  • The example of Christ (Mark19, Luke 321)
  • The commission of Jesus (Matthew 2819-20)
  • The plan of salvation (Acts 238, Mark 1616)
  • The union with Christ (Romans 63-4)

Therefore, at baptism
  • One is forgiven of his sins (Acts 238).
  • One is put into Christ (Acts 238 Gal. 327
    Rom. 61-6) and his body (I Cor. 1213).
  • One calls on the name of the Lord and his sins
    are washed away (Acts 2216).

At baptism
  • One is saved through an appeal to God for a good
    conscience (one does not until baptism have a
    good conscience) and through the resurrection of
    Jesus from the dead (I Pet. 321).
  • One puts on Christ (Gal. 327).
  • One is buried with Christ and baptized into
    his death and rises to live a new life (Rom.
    62-4). This must be the time when Jesus blood
    covers his sins (note how it is through the blood
    of Christ that we have redemption in Eph. 17 and
    Matt. 2628

At baptism
  • One is united or grown together or becomes
    at one with (sumphutos) Christ and our old self
    is crucified with him (Rom. 65).
  • One is buried with him, we were spiritually
    circumcised, we put off the old nature which was
    offensive to God, and we were raised with him
    through our faith in the power of God, were made
    alive with Christ and forgiven our sins (Col.
    211-13). We are no longer offensive to God after

At baptism
  • We are given the promise that we will live with
    him Now if we died with Christ we will also
    live with him (Rom. 68). Hence one is assured
    of his own resurrection in the future.
  • One is born again (born from above), John 33-5.
  • One receives the Holy Spirit (Acts 238) who
    renews us and saves us through his sanctifying
    work ( II Thes. 213).


  • Ceremonial Washings
  • Leviticus 164,24 (for purification).
  • Jewish tradition
  • Cleansing
  • Proselyte baptism
  • Qumran tradition

  • Rachatz (Lev 16.4, also v.24)
  • µvâbelW /rcBAta, µyIMö'B' 6jà'rw
  • He must wash in water
  • Miqveh (cf. Gen 1.10a)
  • arYè"w" µyM-iy" ar1q µyIM'h' hwÝEqmilW
  • He gathered the waters and called them

Qumran hwqm (miqveh)
Existence of baptistries
Existence of baptistries
Jerusalem pools tunnels
(No Transcript)

Patri who?
  • Patristic writings What are they?
  • Early writings
  • After the time of the apostles
  • From the 1st 2nd cen AD
  • Who wrote them?
  • Various leaders in the early church

Patristic Writings
Acts, Letters
Council of Nicaea
Fall of Rome
Pauls death
6 AD
Birth of Jesus
Birth of John the Baptist
The Epistle of Barnabas, c. 70-100 A.D.
  • Blessed are they who, placing their trust in the
    cross, have gone down into the waterWe indeed
    descend into the water full of sins and
    defilement. However, we come up, bearing fruit in
    our heart, having the fear of God and the trust
    in Jesus in our spirit. Barnabas (c. 70-130, E),

Hermas, c. 70-130 A. D.
  • I hear, sir, some teachers maintain that there is
    no other repentance than that which takes place,
    when we descended into the water and received
    remission of our former sins. Hermas (c. 150, W),
  • Before a man bears the name of the Son of God, he
    is dead. But when he receives the seal, he lays
    aside his deadness and obtains life. The seal,
    then, is the water. They descend into the water
    dead, and they arise alive. Hermas (c. 150, W),

Hermas, c. 70-130 A. D.
  • The apostles themselves also gave them the seal
    of the preaching i.e., baptism. Accordingly,
    they descended with them into the water and
    ascended again. Hermas (c. 150, W), 2.49.

Justin Martyr, c. 100-165 A.D.
  • They there receive the washing with water in the
    I will also relate the manner in which we
    dedicated ourselves to God when we had been made
    new through Christ. for the remission of their
    past sins. The rest of us pray and fast with
    them. They are brought by us name of God (the
    Father and Lord of the universe), of our Savior
    Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit. For Christ
    also said, "Unless you are born again, you will
    not enter into the kingdom of heaven." Justin
    Martyr (c. 160, E), 1.183.

Justin Martyr, c. 100-165 A.D.
  • This washing of repentance and knowledge of God
    has been ordained on account of the transgression
    of Gods people, as Isaiah cries. Accordingly, we
    have believed and testify that the very baptism
    which he announced is alone able to purify those
    who have repented. And this is the water of
    life. For what is the use of that baptism which
    cleanses only the flesh and body? Baptize the
    soul from wrath and from covetousness, from envy
    and from hatred. Justin Martyr (c. 160, E),

Irenaeus of Lyons, c. 130-200 A.D.
  • When we come to refute them the Gnostics, we
    will show in its proper place that this class of
    men have been instigated by Satan to a denial of
    that baptism which is regeneration to God. Thus,
    they have renounced the whole faith. For the
    baptism instituted by the visible Jesus was for
    the remission of sins. Irenaeus (c. 180, E/W),

Clement of Alexandria, c. 150-215 A.D.
  • Being baptized, we are illuminated. Illuminated,
    we become sons. This work is variously called
    grace, illumination, perfection, and washing.
    Washing, by which we cleanse away our sins.
    Clement of Alexandria (c. 195, E), 2.215.
  • In the same way, therefore, we also repent of our
    sins, renounce our iniquities, and are purified
    by baptism. Thereby, we speed back to the eternal
    light as children of the Father. Clement of
    Alexandria (c. 195, E), 2.217.

Tertullian of Carthage, c. 160-230 A.D.
  • Now, the teaching is laid down that "without
    baptism, salvation is attainable by no one." This
    is based primarily on the ground of that
    declaration of the Lord, who says, "Unless one is
    born of water he has not life." However, when
    this is laid down, there immediately arise
    scrupulous (or rather, audacious) doubts on the
    part of some. Tertullian (c. 198, W), 3.674, 675.

Origen, c. 185-255 A.D.
  • Matthew alone adds the words, "to repentance,"
    teaching us that the benefit of baptism is
    connected with the intention of the baptized
    person. To him who repents, it is saving.
    However, to him who comes to it without
    repentance, it will produce greater condemnation.
    Origen (c. 228, E), 9.367.

Historical-patristic evidence
  • History tells us that for at least 1500 years,
    baptism was expected and practiced by those who
    wished to convert to Christianity
  • During the Reformation, Luther and others reacted
    to works-oriented Catholicism the idea of
    just believe and faith alone sprang from this

Response to baptism
  • 1) Sense of appreciation Acts 1633-34 (NIV)
  • the jailer took them and washed their
    wounds then immediately he and all his family
    were baptized. The jailer brought them into his
    house and set a meal before them he was filled
    with joy because he had come to believe in
    God--he and his whole family
  • 2) Sense of obedience Matthew 2818-20 (NIV)
  • Then Jesus came to them and said, "All
    authority in heaven and on earth has been given
    to me. 19 Therefore go and make disciples of
    all nations, baptizing them in the name of the
    Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
    20 and teaching them to obey everything I have
    commanded you. And surely I am with you always,
    to the very end of the age."
  • 3) Sense of urgency Acts 2216 (NIV)
  • And now what are you waiting for? Get up, be
    baptized and wash your sins away, calling on his

Urgency in baptism
  • The New Testament has several accounts showing
    that we should not delay baptism once it is clear
    that the believer is repentant and ready. We see
    in the many cases of
  • The 3000 in Jerusalem (Acts 237-41)
  • The Ethiopian eunuch (Acts 834-39)
  • Lydia of Philippi (Acts 1611-15)
  • The Philippians jailor (Acts 1625-34)
  • Conversion of Paul (Acts 2216)


John 316, just believe
  • John 316 says just believe in Him to have
    eternal life no baptism (?)
  • believe should be understood in its entirety,
    and this includes repentance (319-21) and
    baptism (31-7). Note that the rest of the
    narrative talks about baptism (322 42).

Works dont save us
  • The Bible never calls baptism a work
  • The works that dont save are the works that
    man does by his own power. Let us not forget
    that God himself works too. (Jn 517)
  • Those who insist on this forget that believing is
    called work in (Jn 629)

Rev 320, just open up
  • Verse taken to mean that if we receive Christ
    by opening our hearts in prayer, then we are
  • Note that this verse is not for non-Christians
    who wish to convert it is for Christians who
    need to repent (these Laodiceans were already

  • Pause for Q A

Recommended reading
  • General info
  • Article Immersion for Salvation at
  • Article 20 Questions on Baptism at
  • On the popular Sinners Prayer
  • The Sinners Prayer online article by Steve
    Staten _at_

  • On baptism in Patristic writings
  • Will the real heretics please stand up?
  • By David Bercot
  • On the history of baptism
  • Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible,
  • M. Tenney

  • The Bible is clear in presenting the vital
    importance of baptism.
  • Extra-biblical evidence points to the normative
    status of baptism as essential for salvation.
  • Baptism (as a faith response) was seen as part of
    repentance and conversion for the first 1500
    years of the church.
  • As we remember our baptism, or look forward to
    baptism, let us be grateful for the love the God
    has for all of us!

To God be the glory