COAL - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – COAL PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 1783f5-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

COAL

Description:

Coal is estimated to last for 500 years. Ohio has a 250 year supply. ... crush or trap workers, dust in the lungs kills and let's not forget the dynamite! ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:28
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 32
Provided by: urban4
Category:
Tags: coal | dynamite | piled

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: COAL


1
COAL
2
Coal History
  • Coal has been used at least 120,000 years for
    heat.
  • Black Thunder Coal Mine in Wyoming is the largest
    in USA.

3
Coal can be hard or soft
4
Coal, the good side
  • Coal is estimated to last for 500 years. Ohio has
    a 250 year supply.
  • Over 200,000 products can be made from coal, such
    as aspirin, flavorings, candy (the M on M M
    candies)
  • Ash is used for fertilizer, concrete, and hill
    building for parks.

5
Coal, the bad side
  • One coal burning plant uses about 50 train car
    loads of coal per day.
  • Releases large amounts of CO2 and sulfur dioxide
    (acid rain).
  • 1 car holds 100 115 tons of coal.
  • This produces 5 10 car loads of ash daily.

6
The 2 types of coal
  • Western
  • 25.0 30.00/ ton
  • 9000 BTUs/ ton
  • Low sulfur
  • Low particulates
  • Eastern
  • 40.00 / ton
  • 13000 BTUs/ ton
  • High sulfur
  • High particulates

7
Coal Formation
  • Dont forget, the coal in Ohio formed 250 350
    million years ago. Dead things piled up, then
    time pressure and heat converted it.
  • By comparison the western coal was formed 70
    140 million years ago. The formation of the
    Rocky Mountains helped speed up the process.

8
Mining
  • STRIP MINES
  • The top layers of soil are removed to expose the
    coal seam.
  • Works to a depth of 200 feet or so.
  • Runoff is acidic and toxic, called acid mine
    drainage. This causes many problems.
  • Causes much damage to the environment and habitat.

9
Strip mining
10
Acid mine Drainage
11
Acid Drainage
  • Acid mine drainage is very acidic.
  • Kills all living things in nearby streams, rivers
    and lakes.
  • Nearly impossible to clean up, but easy to
    prevent. Let runoff drain into a holding pond.
  • Often orange colored due to dissolved iron (rust)
    from the soil. White foam or crust is from
    dissolved aluminum, from the soil.

12
Before and After
13
Reclamation
  • Today, any open pit mining or strip mining must
    be reclaimed when the mine is closed.
  • This mean the soil is replaced, the hills
    re-created, and the land is seeded with grass
    and trees.

14
Underground mining
  • One of the worlds more dangerous jobs.
  • Explosions can occur due to trapped methane gas,
    poisonous gas pockets can kill, cave ins can
    crush or trap workers, dust in the lungs kills
    and lets not forget the dynamite!
  • Tunnels are carved into the coal seam to extract
    the coal.

15
Coal tunnels
16
Big digging tools
17
The Scoop
18
How far down is the coal
  • There are limits to how far we can dig.
  • Dig too far and water leaks in, the temperatures
    go up, and it is hard to get air to the workers.
  • The deepest mine is over 5000 feet (almost 1
    mile) and is in England.
  • Most in the US are around 2000 feet.

19
Carbon Sequestration
20
Lets dump the Carbon Dioxide
  • What happens to the old mine?
  • Typically nothing is done. Old mines are
    dangerous but bats like them .
  • Current technology allows us to pump CO2
    underground to trap it.

21
How do we trap it?
  • Coal is created in underground areas that have
    impermeable layers above and below it.
  • Take out the coal (or oil or natural gas) and
    pump the compressed gas into the chambers.
  • Seal the tunnels and the gas (now a liquid) is
    trapped.
  • The carbon should stay trapped for thousands of
    years.

22
To good to be true??
  • Is this the way to rid the atmosphere of the
    carbon dioxide? Maybe.
  • Problems are the expense to collect the gas,
    compress it and pump it underground. Many 100s
    of millions of dollars. Taxpayers beware.
  • 1 ton of coal releases 3.5 tons of CO2. How many
    tons are burned each day at an average power
    plant? 15 16,000 tons of gas!

23
THE FUTURE
  • What can we do to conserve the non renewable
    energy resources?
  • REDUCE
  • REUSE
  • RECYCLE

24
TIDAL POWER
25
Tidal Power
  • The idea is as the tide flows in and out, the
    turbines spin and electricity is made.
  • The water can be stored in temporary lakes so the
    water can be released when energy is needed.
  • Low cost, high visibility variable power.

26
Tidal Turbines
27
Underwater Turbines
  • The underwater turbines act just like wind
    turbines except water spins the blades.
  • Powerful underwater currents turn the blades
    making electricity.
  • There are plans for these to be built in the
    Scotland/Ireland area.
  • Low cost, low visibility, and high output.

28
Hydrogen Fuel Cells
29
Hydrogen Gas is Clean
  • Hydrogen gas is the most abundant gas in the
    universe.
  • Can be made from water (H20).
  • When burned it creates only water.
  • Problems
  • Very few places to fill the tank.
  • Cars cost about 1 million.

30
A Combination Approach
  • More than likely there will be no one energy
    source to replace gasoline, coal, and oil.
  • It is more likely we will increase use of solar,
    wind and biofuels.
  • It is even more likely we will have to change our
    habits.

31
NEW LAWS
  • New laws are already being passed.
  • Pittsburg fines people who do not recycle.
  • Florida (and other states) have special lanes
    that only carpools can use.
  • Some states give tax credits and grants for
    buying and using solar and wind power.
  • Alternative Energy sources will be a very
    profitable career in the future!
About PowerShow.com