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Weighing and Measuring: An Anthropometric Training Module

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Title: Weighing and Measuring: An Anthropometric Training Module


1
Weighing and MeasuringAn Anthropometric
Training Module
  • Virginia Department of Health,
  • Division of WIC and Community Nutrition Services

2
Weighing and MeasuringPrecision is key
Small differences in measurements can mean large
differences in the way the measurements are
interpreted.
Next Slide
3
Weighing and Measuring
Proper technique and equipment improves accuracy
of measurements.
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4
Common Errors when measuring weight
  • Outer clothing not removed
  • Child weighed with a wet or soiled diaper
  • Scale not adjusted to zero before weighing
  • Child moving

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5
Common Errors when measuring height
  • Incorrect measuring instrument used
  • Shoes and/or hat not removed
  • Feet not straight or flat on the floor
  • Knees bent
  • Body arched
  • Shoulders not straight
  • Headboard not firmly on top of the head

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6
Infant Measurements
  • Length
  • Weight
  • Head circumference

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7
Measuring Length
  • For infants lt24 months or infants 24-36 months
    who have trouble standing
  • Use an infant measuring board

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8
How to measure length
  • Two people needed
  • As few clothes as practical

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9
How to measure length
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10
Recording measurements of length
  • Read and record measurement to nearest 1/8 inch.
  • Repeat until two measurements agree within 1/4
    inch.
  • When length is taken, as opposed to height, the
    letter R is used to note that the measurement
    was taken in a recumbent position.

Next Slide
11
Additional Resources
For additional information on taking measurements
of length in children, please visit the following
link http//depts.washington.edu/growing/Assess/
Anthro.htmLength
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12
Practice QuestionTo what interval should you
record a measurement of length?
  • 1/10 inch
  • 1/8 inch
  • 1/4 inch
  • 1/2 inch

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13
Practice QuestionIf measurements do not agree,
how do you determine what measurements to use?
  • Average the first three measurements.
  • Repeat until measurements agree.
  • Estimate correct measurement.
  • Repeat until measurements agree within 1/4 inch.

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14
Practice Question You should measure children
lying down until they are at least
  • 18 months old and able to stand alone
  • 24 months old and able to stand alone
  • 36 months old and able to stand alone
  • Able to stand alone

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15
Measuring Weight
  • Use a pan-type pediatric or double-beam balance
    scale.
  • The infant should be wearing as few clothes as
    possible and a clean, dry diaper.

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16
How to measure weight
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17
Recording measurements of weight
  • Read and record to the nearest ounce.
  • Repeat until two measurements agree.
  • If needed, weight may be obtained in the mothers
    arms. This must be noted.

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18
Additional Resources
  • For additional information on taking measurements
    of weight in children, please visit the following
    link
  • http//depts.washington.edu/growing/Assess/Anthro.
    htmWeight

Next Slide
19
Practice QuestionTo what interval should you
record a measurement of an infants weight?
  • 1/4 oz
  • 1 oz
  • 8 oz (1/2 pound)
  • 16 oz (1 pound)

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20
Practice QuestionIf a child is uncooperative or
fussy, what is the correct approach to obtain an
accurate weight?
  • Do not obtain the measurement unless the child is
    completely still.
  • Simply note the situation in the chart and
    estimate weight to the best of your ability.
  • Weigh mother and child together and subtract
    mothers weight.
  • Ask mother for the childs weight.

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21
Practice QuestionWhich of the following is
important to consider when measuring weight?
  • If the infants hands and feet are inside the
    weighing tray
  • If the infant is on the center of the weighing
    tray
  • If the infant has a wet or soiled diaper
  • If the scale is on a solid surface
  • All of the above

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22
Child Measurements
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23
Measuring Height
  • Used for children 2 years of age and older who
    can stand without assistance
  • Use a stadiometer.

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24
How to Measure Height
  • Child should remove hat and shoes.
  • Shoulder blades, buttocks, and heels should touch
    the measuring board.

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25
Recording Measurements of Height
  • Read and record to the nearest 1/8 inch.
  • Repeat until two measurements agree within 1/4
    inch.
  • May use pencil through hair if necessary

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26
Practice Question Height measurements, using the
wall-mounted measuring board, should be read at
_____.
  • sea level
  • eye level
  • from above, looking down
  • an angle using a level

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27
Practice Question When measuring the height of a
person greater than 2 years old, the following
should be in contact with the wall
  • Head, shoulder blades, and heels.
  • Head and buttocks.
  • Head, heels, buttocks, and shoulder blades.
  • Head and heels.

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28
Practice Question If a child has a hairstyle
that prevents an accurate height measurement,
what should be done?
  • Estimate approximate height and note situation in
    chart.
  • Ask parent childs usual height.
  • Slide headboard against hairstyle until firm
    contact against childs head is made.
  • Slide a pencil through hairstyle and record where
    the pencil touches the measuring tape.

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29
Practice Question What type of equipment is
best suited for measuring height?
  • Measuring tape and pencil
  • Stadiometer
  • Measuring rod attached to balance beam scale
  • Measuring board with headboard and movable foot
    piece

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30
Measuring Weight
  • Use balance beam scale on non-carpeted floor.
  • Have child remove all heavy clothing.

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31
How to Measure Weight
  • Be sure to zero the scale.
  • Repeat measurements until two agree within 1/4
    pound.
  • Read and record measurements to nearest 1/4 pound
    (nearest 4 oz).

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32
Converting Measurements of Weight from Pounds to
Ounces
  • Weight is read to the nearest 1/4 pound, but can
    easily be converted to ounces. The table at the
    right shows the correct conversion from quarter
    pounds to ounces.
  • Example If a child weighs 22 and 3/4 pounds,
    you can record the weight as 22 pounds and 12 oz.

Weight in pounds Weight in ounces
1/4 pound 4 oz
1/2 pound 8 oz
3/4 pound 12 oz
33
Conversion for Digital Scales
Weight in pounds Ounces
.1 2
.2 3
.3 5
.4 6
.5 8
.6 10
.7 11
.8 13
.9 14
  • Some clinics may use a digital scale instead of a
    balance-beam scale. If this is the case, it is
    necessary to convert the numbers from decimal
    form to ounces.

34
Practice Question The following will help you be
more accurate when you weigh and measure
  • A. Repeat each procedure until two measurements
    agree within the appropriate range.
  • B. Weigh yourself on the scale to check its
    accuracy.
  • C. Make sure that the client removes shoes and
    outer clothing.
  • Both A and C

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35
Practice Question To what interval should you
read and record measurements of weight?
  • Pound/ 16 oz
  • 1/2 pound/ 8 oz
  • 1/4 pound/ 4 oz
  • 1/2 ounce

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36
Practice Question Which of the following would
lead to an inaccurate measurement of weight?
  • A. Scale not adjusted to zero before weighing
  • B. Childs body is arched and improperly aligned
  • C. Outer clothing is not removed
  • Both A and C
  • All of the above

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37
Equipment
  • The Virginia Department of Health, Division of
    WIC Community Nutrition Services has published
    an Equipment Manual with information on choosing
    the correct height and weight equipment,
    purchasing equipment, and a list of vendors. To
    download this manual, please visit
  • http//www.vahealth.org/wic/WICequipmanual.pdf
  • For additional training on equipment, please
    visit the following link
  • http//depts.washington.edu/growth/module4/text/in
    tro.htm

Next Slide
38
Growth Charts
Growth charts are used to track height, length,
and weight data over time.
Next Slide
39
How to Plot on a Growth Chart
  • Select appropriate chart.
  • Record measurements.
  • Mark where lines meet and interpret results.

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40
Anatomy of a Growth Chart
  • Different growth charts available for different
    ages
  • Growth percentile lines used for comparisons

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41
Charts from Birth to 36 months
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42
Charts for children 2 to 20 years of age
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43
Use of Growth Charts
  • Can identify children
  • Overweight
  • Underweight
  • Average weight

Next Slide
44
Interpreting Growth Patterns from the Growth
Charts
  • Consider a childs particular growth pattern.
  • Look for shifts between percentiles.

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45
Additional Links
  • For additional training modules on the use
    and interpretation of growth charts, visit the
    following links
  • CDC Growth Chart Training Modules
    http//www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/growthcharts/train
    ing/modules/module1/text/mainmodules.htm
  • How to use the CDC Growth Charts for children
    with special needs http//www.depts.washington.ed
    u/growth/cshcn/text/intro.htm

Next Slide
46
Practice Question Why are growth charts used?
  • To help identify goals for change
  • To track growth in children over time
  • To assist in signaling potential development
    problems
  • All of the above

Next Slide
47
Practice Question Sally is 22 months old and 29
inches tall. What growth chart should Sally be
plotted on?
  • Girls birth-36 months
  • Girls 2-20 years
  • WICs 2-5 years of age
  • Not enough information given

Next Slide
48
Practice Question Look at the pattern of growth
on this chart. What does it indicate?
  • This child is gaining weight at a reasonable
    rate.
  • This child is getting older.
  • This child is gaining weight too quickly.
  • This child is not gaining enough weight.

Next Slide
49
Practice Question The growth chart below
represents a female that is 16 months old and 18
pounds. At what percentile is this child?
  • Above the 97th
  • The 97th
  • The 20th
  • The 5th
  • Below the 3rd

X
Next Slide
50
Practice Question What does this say about this
childs size in relation to other girls her age?
  • A. She is larger than 97 of all girls her age.
  • B. She is smaller than 97 of all girls her age.
  • C. She is smaller than 3 of girls her age.
  • D. She is larger than 3 of girls her age.
  • B and D

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51
Calculating Exact Age
  • A common source of error
  • Exact Age (measurement date) (date of birth)
  • Borrowing days or months may be necessary

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52
How to Calculate Exact Age
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53
Calculating Corrected Age
  • Used for babies born prematurely
  • Corrected age chronological age weeks or
    months born premature

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54
Rounding to the Nearest Month
  • From birth to 2 years of age, round to the
    nearest 1/2 month
  • Over 2, round to the nearest month.

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55
Practice Question Sams date of birth was May
12, 2005. If you are calculating his age on
April 7, 2006, how old is Sam?
  • 14 months and 4 days
  • 12 months and 26 days
  • 10 months and 26 days
  • 10 months and 4 days

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56
Practice Question How would you record Sams
age?
  • 1 year
  • 10 and 1/2 months
  • 11 months
  • 10 months and three weeks

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57
Practice Question After the age of two years, to
what interval should you round age?
  • Half year
  • Year
  • Month
  • Half month

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58
Practice Question Bill was born on August 11,
2003. If you are calculating his age on
September 21, 2006, how old is Bill?
  • 2 years 20 days
  • 3 years 10 days
  • 3 years 20 days
  • 3 years 1 month and 10 days

Next Slide
59
Practice Question How would you record Bills
age?
  • 3 years
  • 3 years 1 month
  • 3 years 1 and 1/2 months
  • 3 years 1 month and 1 week

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60
Practice Question If Susan was born on October
28, 2006, but was 3 months premature, what would
her corrected age be on December 28, 2007?
  • 9 months
  • 11 months
  • 14 months
  • 17 months

Next Slide
61
Conclusion
Since measurements of length, height, and weight
are important in identifying children who may be
at risk, it is essential that you follow the
correct procedures in recording and interpreting
these measurements.
Next Slide
62
Video Credits
Lauren Taylor, UVA Dietetic Intern Barbara H.
Yager, RD, M.Ed Thomas Jefferson Health District
End of Show
63
Correct!
Return to question
64
No, Please try again.
Return to question
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