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Embryonic Stem Cells and

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Embryonic Stem Cells and. Adult Stem Cells. Exciting ... What are stem cells? (adult type and embryonic type) ... Notable feminists opposing these technologies: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Embryonic Stem Cells and


1
Embryonic Stem Cells and
Adult Stem Cells
2
Stem Cells
Exciting News!!!
Stem cells are curing and healing people today!
But
3
Stem Cells
There are two kinds of stem cells.
  • Adult stem cells
  • Embryonic stem cells

4
Stem Cells
What are stem cells? (adult type and embryonic
type)
Undifferentiated cells that can develop into more
specialized cells. Also called master cells,
they are cells from which all other cells STEM.
5
Stem Cells
  • Adult stem cells come from many sources
  • Bone marrow
  • Umbilical cord blood or umbilical cord matrix
  • Placentas
  • Fat
  • Mouth and nose
  • Baby teeth
  • Hair follicles
  • Muscle
  • Brain
  • Pancreas
  • Liver
  • ETC...
  • Every organ in the body has some adult stem cells.

6
Stem Cells
Adult stem cells independent of their source, are
pluripotent they can form many types of cells.
  • Neurons, brain
  • Cells that line the lung and airways
  • Heart
  • Bone
  • Skin
  • Digestive tract
  • Muscle
  • Blood
  • Liver
  • Pancreas
  • Cornea
  • ETC

7
Adult stem cells are used in many new
treatments (65 successful human therapies and
growing)
  • Stem cells from fat used to repair skull of 7 yr
    old girl in Germany.
  • Bedridden South Korean woman paralyzed 19 years
    ago can now use a walker.
  • Austrian doctors report women suffering from
    urinary stress incontinence are helped using
    their own muscle-derived stem cells.
  • Dennis Turner treated in 1999 using his own
    neural stem cells had an 80 reduction in
    Parkinsons Disease symptoms.
  • Nathan Salley treated in 1999 for Acute Myloid
    Leukemia with umbilical cord blood transplant
    when 14 he is still in remission.
  • Dimitri Bonnville from Michigan shot in the heart
    with a nail gun, had a massive heart attack. His
    own blood stem cells helped repair his heart.

8
Too many adult stem cell therapies to list!
See www.stemcellresearch.org for the latest
exciting information in stem cell research.
9
Embryonic stem cells?
There has not been ONE successful human therapy
developed with embryonic stem cells.
10
Stem Cells
Stem cells taken from an embryo are referred to
as embryonic stem cells.
11
Stem Cells
Extracting embryonic stem cells always destroys
the embryo.
12
Stem Cells
Embryonic stem cells are then placed in culture
dishes, where they continue to divide and
establish a stem cell line.
13
Terminology
What is a human embryo?
  • A distinct, unified, self-integrating human
    organism.
  • A human life that exists a human being (being
    exists).
  • An embryo has the active (inherent) capacity to
    continue developing as a fetus, infant, child,
    and adult.
  • A human embryo is a human being in the embryonic
    stage just as an infant or adolescent is a human
    being in the infant or adolescent stage.

14
Terminology
Source of confusion
  • Many people are confused because they believe the
    debate is about when human life begins.
  • But thats not the question. Scientifically we
    know when human life begins.
  • The real issue under debate is when does human
    life have inherent value?
  • If not at the beginning, then when? Can human
    life ever be considered as property?

15
Terminology
Personhood terminology has been used to take
away individuals inherent rights.
The term PERSON can be used for political,
social, or theological purposes. It has
historically been used based on an individuals
subjective opinion. It has historically been used
by one individual or group to indicate the moral
or social value of another individual or group.
16
Terminology
The term HUMAN BEING is a biological term that
indicates a member of the human species.
17
Terminology
  • A human life begins when a diploid complement of
    human DNA is initiated to begin human
    development.
  • A self-developing organism with 46 human
    chromosomes is a human life that exists.
  • Being means to exist. A human life that
    exists is a human being.
  • Every human being existed once as an embryo.
  • An embryo is a stage of human development, just
    like a child or an adult is a stage of human
    development.

18
Stem Cells
ABORTION does not need to enter any stem cell
discussion Roe v. Wade was determined based
on the womans right to her own body.
19
Stem Cells
  • Stem cells that are not embryonic are considered
    adult stem cells which can be obtained without
    harm from the source.
  • Adult stem cells are also called
  • Post natal stem cells
  • Body stem cells
  • Somatic stem cells
  • Non-embryonic stem cells

20
Stem Cells
It was initially expected that embryonic stem
cells would be more plastic and more useful than
adult stem cells.
However, that research has been proven wrong.
21
Stem Cells
Current research shows adult stem cells are
easier to control than embryonic stem cells
and have greater potential overall!
22
Stem Cells
Given all of the above, why does embryonic stem
cell research continue?
  • Because of promise, patents, and big biotech
    money.
  • Its the nature of a scientist to want to
    experiment with complete freedom.

But history has shown...we just can't give blank
checks.
23
Stem Cells
In the private sector there arent any
restrictions on stem cell research except in a
few states and only a few private companies
continue with research on embryonic cells...
because it is the pluripotent adult stem cells
that have proven to be so successful.
24
Stem Cells
The tragedy is the focus on embryonic stem
cells has taken attention away from adult stem
cells that are actively curing people today!
Every that goes towards embryonic stem
cell research is a taken away from adult stem
cell research!!
25
Stem Cells
Even before any ethical issues come into play -
There is little scientific, medical, or
economic reason to continue with embryonic stem
cell research.
26
Stem Cells
Embryonic stem cell research obstacles
1) tumor formation
2) difficulty in obtaining pure cultures
3) immune rejection
27
Cloning
28
Cloning
What is the connection between embyronic stem
cells and cloning?
29
Cloning
The connection is embryonic stem cell
problems... 1. Immune rejection When new
embryonic stem cells are transplanted into a
recipient, the body of the recipient will reject
the new cells because the cells came from a
different human being.
30
Cloning
  • The connection is embryonic stem cell problems...
  • Immune rejection
  • The hope is to avoid tissue rejection by using
    stem cells from an embryo created by cloning.
  • The theory is that the stem cells will be exact
    genetic copies of the recipients own cells (not
    proven yet).
  • Adult stem cells, of course, already are exact
    genetic copies of the recipients own cells.

31
Cloning
Whats the difference between cloning and
fertilization?
32
Cloning
Cloning is also known as Somatic Cell Nuclear
Transfer (SCNT)
33
Cloning
Cloning removes the nucleus of an ovum and then
takes a somatic cells nucleus and tranfers it to
the ovum.
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) removes a
nucleus of an ovum and then takes a somatic
cells nucleus and tranfers it to the ovum.
34
Cloning
Wired News, 12/01/04 http//www.wired.com/news/med
tech/0,1286,65883,00.html
Therapeutic cloning, also known as somatic cell
nuclear transfer, will not be the route to
successful stem-cell therapies, many scientists
say. In fact, if therapeutic cloning were vital,
it would make stem-cell therapies prohibitively
expensive.
"Not only would it be expensive, but logistically
it could be impossible because you will have to
have every single hospital in the world set up to
do therapeutic cloning and prepared to do the
different protocols," said Jose Cibelli, a
cloning researcher at Michigan State University
in East Lansing.
Because scientists don't know which, if any,
methods will work, they hope they will be free
to explore all of them.
35
Cloning FALSEHOODS DISTORTIONS
  • Its a religious or subjective opinion about
    when human life begins. False, we know from
    science when human life begins. The question is
    when does human life have inherent value?
  • Excess embryos will be destroyed anyway. False,
    88 percent are designated for future attempts at
    pregnancy. Other embryos are wanted for
    adoption. (Snowflakes)
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT or so-called
    therapeutic cloning) does not involve creating
    human embryos because there is no sperm. False,
    a human embryo is created when a diploid
    complement of human DNA is initiated to begin
    human development.

36
Cloning FALSEHOODS DISTORTIONS
  • SCNT advocates make diagrams leaving out the word
    embryo and use the term blastocyst instead.
    Blastocyst is another name for embryo it is
    simply a developmental stage of the embryo.
  • Cloning advocates argue that human life doesnt
    begin until the blastocyst is implanted on the
    wall of the uterus. There is no change in the
    genetic makeup of the human being that occurs
    during or after implantation. Artifical wombs
    will soon allow further development of human
    beings outside of the womans body.
  • Enacting a ban on all human cloning will make
    criminals out of scientists. No more so than
    other bans we have in place to prevent scientists
    from doing unethical research.

37
Cloning FALSEHOODS DISTORTIONS
  • Banning somatic cell nuclear transfer will crush
    the states economy and will prevent the growth
    of biotechnology within the state. When the
    focus is only on proven and successful research
    with pluripotent adult stem cells, this will
    allow the state economy to grow faster.
  • Proposed legislation prohibits cloning of human
    cells. HB2355 specifically allows for the
    cloning of DNA and human cells the bill only
    prohibits the cloning of human beings.
  • Those who favor cloning for research would never
    want to allow human clones to develop past two
    weeks of age. Scientists are already discussing
    how to move beyond this stage because of their
    lack of success with current research.

38
Cloning FALSEHOODS DISTORTIONS
  • If someone received therapy from this research
    they would become a felon if they entered
    Kansas. This is a ludicrous statement for two
    reasons. 1) Its like saying that if someone ate
    beef from a mad cow in another country, they
    would be a felon by simply entering the United
    States and 2) this possiblity is not even on the
    horizon because there hasnt been any success
    with embryonic stem cell research.

39
Cloning
  • Artificial wombs steps have already been taken
    with animals in Japan.
  • Some scientists would like to gestate human
    embryos in animal wombs. Washington Post, January
    16, 2004
  • New Jersey allows cloning and implantation up to
    birth, and mandates the human being must be
    destroyed before birth.

40
Cloning puts women at risk for exploitation
Notable feminists opposing these technologies
  • Foremost promoter of Proposition 71 in California
    state senator Deborah Ortiz (D) called for a
    moratorium on egg extraction. She is concerned
    about the effect the procedures have on women.
  • Judy Norsigian, executive director of Our Bodies
    Ourselves, says, A primary concern is the
    substantial risks to women's health posed by the
    extraction procedure and the inability to obtain
    true informed consent from egg donors given the
    current lack of adequate safety data.
  • U.S. Senator Mary Landrieu (D-Louisanna),
    cosponsored human cloning ban with Sen.
    Brownback.
  • U.S. Senator Lisa Murkowski (R-Alaska), has
    signed as a cosponsor.

41
Cloning
Over 60 countries around the world ban all forms
of human cloning.
  • France (7 year jail sentence)
  • Germany
  • Canada (5 yr jail sentence)
  • Australia
  • Norway
  • Switzerland
  • U.N. declaration condemning human cloning

42
Cloning
  • Michigan
  • Iowa
  • Arkansas
  • North Dakota
  • South Dakota
  • Louisianna

States that have banned all forms of human
cloning.
None of these states biotech industries have
suffered as a result.
43
Natural Law
  • Self-evident truths
  • Foundational principles at some level known to
    everyone
  • Built into human nature and the human mind
  • We cant NOT know it
  • Also known as the moral law

44
Natural Law or Religion?
  • Many religions are strongly against SCNT,
  • BUT they are not always against it just because
    of
  • any particular religious document or
  • any particular biblical verse
  • However it is a result of
  • careful reasoning based on science
  • AND careful reasoning based on natural law

45
Natural Law
Science The question of when human life begins
has already been answered by science through
scientific methods, and also by studying human
embryology and human developmental
biology. Natural Law What has not yet been
resolved by the secular public is the question of
when human life has intrinsic value
46
Natural Law
If not at the very beginning, then WHEN?
47
Natural Law
If human life does not have inherent worth at the
very beginning,
then by default there is a period of time when
that human being is considered as
PROPERTY
48
Natural Law
PROPERTY
Who has the right to own human beings? For how
long do they own them?
49
Natural Law
Through natural law and natural rights, the moral
truth can be discovered about the moral status of
an embryo.
It is self-evident that no human being should
ever be considered as property.
50
Natural Law
Protecting human life at all stages agrees with
every religion that defends the truth of inherent
human dignity,
and agrees with every religion that believes
human beings are meant to be ends in themselves
and not means only.
51
Natural Law
Religions that have principles of equality,
dignity and basic human rights
are in accord with our founding principles of the
United States of America, found in our
Declaration of Independence which rests
on self-evident truths and natural law.
52
Ethical Concerns
Eugenics in the early 20th century was the
movement to improve the human race through
better breeding.
There was praise for the forward march of
science progressive and liberal leaders
championing new scientific techniques that
promise to cure disease, eradicate illness and
suffering, and advance the progress of the human
race elite institutions of higher education
embarking on their own initiatives, training
students, and supporting researchers in the new
science the intellectual elite of the country
decrying the obstructionist, anti-modern views of
the people who oppose or publicly challenge the
underlying ethical rationale of the new science.
53
Ethical Concerns
  • Two views usually expressed in a debate
  • Utilitarian believes sometimes a human being
    can be used for anothers purpose (as pragmatic
    or practical).
  • Intrisic value believes a human being has
    inherent worth and should never be used for
    anothers purpose (as property).

54
Ethical Concerns
Many want complete scientific freedom but we
cant give scientists a blank check.
From a recent scholarly article comparing Nazi
and Communist government "This faith in science
was about more than economics. Both societies
also believed that science could be used to
create perfect human beings, and ultimately a
perfect society. How Evil Works by Anne
Applebaum
55
Ethical Concerns
National Academies of Science is claiming to
construct guidelines to conduct ethical research
with embryonic stell cells. How do you conduct
ethical reasearch with something that is
unethical to begin with?
  • NAS has also refused to
  • call for a ban on human-animal hybrids
  • call for an increase in adult stem cell therapies

56
Federal legislation In 2001 the U.S. House voted
265-162 to ban human cloning. In 2003 the U.S.
House voted 241-155 to ban human cloning. Waiting
for the U.S. Senate State legislation In 2001
the Kansas House voted 104-17 to ban human
cloning. In 2002 the Kansas House voted 90-32 to
ban human cloning. In 2002 the Kansas House voted
78-44 to ban destructive embryonic
research. Waiting for the Kansas Senate
57
Adult Stem Cells are non-controversial
  • Everyone can get behind adult stem cells.
  • Adult stem cells are actively helping people
    today.
  • More people are willing to invest their own money
    in adult stem cells.
  • Umbilical cord blood and umbilical cord matrix
    are a rich source of adult stem cells.
  • Federal money is establishing umbilical cord
    banks for easy donation and use.

58
Opportunity for KANSAS
  • California invested 1.3 billion in embryonic
    stem cells and they are mired in court case after
    court case.
  • Other states are distracted with embryonic stem
    cells.
  • This gives Kansas the perfect opportunity to
    become the flagstaff for research with adult stem
    cells.
  • Adult stem cell research could be a historical
    beginning of breaking new economic ground in
    Kansas.

59
www.stemcellresearch.org
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