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Cold Related Emergencies

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Frostbite (frozen tissue) Freezes deep into the skin. Mainly affects feet, hands, ears, nose ... Do not re-warm if there is a chance of re-freezing ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cold Related Emergencies


1
Cold Related Emergencies
  • Frostbite
  • (temp. 32 degrees)
  • Hypothermia
  • (can occur at above freezing temps)

2
Cold Factors 2
  • Dehydration
  • Nutrition
  • Illness
  • Injury
  • Wind
  • Wet clothing (transfers heat from the body)

3
Proper Clothing
  • 3 layers of clothing
  • Purpose is to insulate by trapping layers of
    air
  • A single heavy layer is not recommended

4
Additional Considerations
  • Cap
  • 50-60 of bodys heat is lost through the head
  • Neck
  • Site of significant heat loss
  • Gloves / Boots

5
Frostbite (frozen tissue)
  • Freezes deep into the skin
  • Mainly affects feet, hands, ears, nose

6
Frostbite Signs and Symptoms (pre-thaw)
  • White, waxy or grayish-yellow skin
  • Pain followed by no feeling
  • Affected part is very cold or numb
  • Hard or crusty skin
  • Post-thaw resembles burn stages

7
First Aid Re-warming
  • 1. Medical center
  • 2. Rapid (wet) re-warming
  • Preferred re-warming method outside of hospital
    setting in water temperatures around 103 to 105.
  • 3. Slow re-warming
  • involves warming body to body, arm pit, etc.
  • Use caution if re-warming with a heating-pad,
    stove or over a fire

8
Rapid Re-Warming
  • NEVER RUB FROZEN TISSUE
  • Place body parts in water 102 to 105 (20 to 40
    minutes)
  • Do not re-warm if there is a chance of
    re-freezing
  • Put dry gauze or fluffy cloth between frozen
    digits

9
Hypothermia
  • Core body temperature
  • 95 degrees (mild)
  • 90 degrees (profound)
  • Medical emergency
  • Victim may present with no heartbeat, breathing,
    or response to touch or pain, but may not be dead
  • Except in mild cases, all victims should be
    evaluated by a physician

10
Mild Hypothermia
  • Shivering
  • Slurred speech
  • Memory lapses
  • Fumbling hands
  • May stumble or stagger
  • Usually conscious and can talk
  • Cold abdomen and back

11
Profound Hypothermia
  • Body temperature below 90 degrees (AR hunter)
  • Shivering has ceased
  • Muscles stiff and rigid
  • Skin appears blue
  • No response to pain
  • Pulse and respirations slowed
  • Pupils dilate / Victim appears dead / 50-80
    will die
  • Child in Canada, winter 2001, core body temp. 60

12
Hypothermia What To Do
  • Move victim to warm environment
  • Replace wet clothing
  • Lie down and cover / cap
  • Call EMS if necessary
  • Check ABCs
  • Take pulse for 30-45 seconds
  • Always try to re-warm in a hospital

13
Hypothermia
  • Warm drinks
  • Do not consume un-melted snow and ice if in a
    cold environment
  • Do not place in tub of warm water
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