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South Africa

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Title: South Africa


1
South Africa
  • Country Study

2
Who lives here?
  • 40 million people
  • Afrikaners whites who are descendants of
    original Dutch settlers and the English
    descendants of the original British settlers

3
The Government
  • Constitutional democracy
  • President, Parliament and an
  • independent judiciary
  • 2 Houses in Parliament
  • National, provincial and local governments all
    have legislative and executive authority
  • "distinctive, interdependent and interrelated
  • Democratic elections first held in 1994

4
History
  • Prior to 1948 settled by the Dutch and English
    who naturally, ruled over the native population
  • In 1948 an all-Afrikaner party (the Nationalists)
    won elections
  • Government began to follow a policy of separate
    development (apartheid)

5
Separate and Not Equal
  • Group Areas Act (1949)
  • segregated residential areas
  • No mixed marriage
  • Skilled jobs reserved for whites
  • Separate facilities for white and non-white
  • While segregation had always existed, the
    Nationalists made it official policy of government

6
More segregation laws
  • Bantu Education Act (1953)
  • Bantus responsible for African education
  • Only Europeans at English-speaking universities
  • Separate universities for all 4 racial groups
  • General Law Amendment Acts (1962)
  • Forbidding ANY form of opposition
  • Punishment 5 yrs. to death depending on the
    crime
  • Worst offence - sabotage
  • Extended govt. power to ban newspapers, orgs,
    gatherings
  • No due process

7
Whites wanted to ensure their survival
  • Bantu Authorities Act (1951)
  • Attempt to set up tribal states
    semi-independent Bantu states (homelands)
  • Homelands Program
  • Divided country into 10 states 1 for whites on
    87 of the land with 17 major cities
  • 70 of the population would live on 13 of the
    land
  • When the homeland became independent, residents
    became citizens of that nation and lost South
    African citizenship.
  • Problems with this?

8
4 of 9 Homelands Became Independent
  • We cannot take the humiliations of the South
    African system any longer. We would rather face
    the difficulties of ruling a fragmented territory
    and the wrath of the outside world. It is the
    price we are prepared to pay for being masters of
    our own destiny.
  • Lucas Mangope first President of the
    Bophuthatswana Republic

9
Apartheid becomes violent
  • Sharpeville Massacre (1960)
  • Protest to get govt. to abolish pass laws
  • Police opened fire 69 blacks were killed
  • Demonstrations is Cape Town
  • Govt. declared state of emergency
  • Many more jailed

10
Soweto Riots - 1976
  • Black high school students were being required to
    take some courses in Afrikaans (language spoken
    by Afrikaners)
  • Symbol of oppression
  • Marked a turning point
  • Young blacks saw violence as only answer
  • Afrikaners began to question apartheid

11
Government Reform
  • Apartheid signs removed facilities became
    integrated
  • Blacks could open businesses
  • Got better training for better jobs
  • Could form unions
  • BUT STILL
  • Separate schools
  • Passbooks (blacks could travel in
  • white neighborhoods)
  • S. African govt. recognized
  • homeland as citizenship of many

12
Reaction and Riots 1977-1984
  • Nation divided between radical conservatives and
    liberals
  • Govt. slow to bring about great reforms
  • International Security Act 1977 gave police
    greater power to detain persons whose activities
    were considered a threat
  • Steven Biko
  • The outlawed African National Congress (outlawed
    in 1960) began terrorist acts

13
A New Constitution?
  • 1983 White voters approved new constitution
  • White House of Assembly
  • Colored House of Representatives
  • Asian House of Deputies
  • Black Still Excluded
  • Result More violence
  • Mostly directed at black collaborators
  • Govt responded brutally and harshly

14
State of Emergency July 1985
  • Police given power to enter homes, seize
    property, make arrests, detain suspects
    indefinitely, impose curfews and restrict press
  • Outdoor funerals banned
  • Place where large groups of blacks could gather
    and express feelings
  • Some funerals attracted more than 50000 mourners

15
Limited Reforms
  • South Arican govt faced growing criticism (within
    S. Africa and around the world)
  • President Botha repealed
  • Marriage laws
  • Pass laws
  • Homeland citizens could
  • be citizens of S. Africa but
  • not allowed to vote

16
International Response
  • Disinvestment Greater push NOT to invest in
    companies that do business with S. Africa
  • Many argued for US sanctions
  • Reagan-constructive engagement
  • Many black S. Africans wanted sanctions

17
Another State of Emergency
  • Result
  • More violence
  • Stronger sanctions
  • American businesses left
  • Not only did companies not have any new
    investments but also sold investments already in
    South Africa

18
Movement Away from Apartheid
  • De Klerk becomes President
  • Member of Nationalist Party but many whites
    feared he would eliminate apartheid
  • Mass Democratic Movement organized
  • Blacks protesting for change (despite sanctions)
  • De Klerk legalized MDM
  • De-segregated beaches
  • Released important ANC
  • members from jail

19
Nelson Mandela
  • Released from jail in 1990
  • (in since 1962)
  • As member of ANC met with
  • De Klerk to improve relations
  • Many apartheid laws repealed in 1990s
  • Homelands program
  • No apartheid in hospitals
  • Land Acts
  • Group Areas Act
  • Blacks could be members of National Party

20
Since Mandelas release
  • Proposed new Constitution in 1991
  • But whites and ANC could not agree
  • Dispute between ANC and Inkatha
  • Inkatha is party of Zulus (largest ethnic group
    in S. Africa
  • Zulus are poorly represented in ANC
  • Mandela influential in negotiating peace between
    the two groups
  • Referendum (1992) 68.6 of white voters wanted
    to see apartheid abolished

21
After Apartheid
  • 1994 Mandela elected President
  • 1999 Thabo Mbeki elected President
  • 2004 Thabo Mbeki re-elected

22
Fun Facts
  • Capital Pretoria (name may change to Tshwane).
    Cape Town is legislative capital
  • Largest city Johannesburg
  • Area 1.22 million sq km (470,693 sq miles)
  • Major languages 11 official languages including
    English, Afrikaans, Sesotho, Setswana, Xhosa and
    Zulu
  • Major religion Christianity, Islam, indigenous
    beliefs
  • Life expectancy 47 years (men), 51 years (women)
  • Main exports Gold, diamonds, metals and
    minerals, cars, machinery
  • GNI per capita US 4,960 (World Bank, 2006)

23
Sources
  • http//news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/country_pr
    ofiles/1071886.stm
  • Gellar, Harriet and Erwin M. Rosenfeld. Global
    Studies Volume 1. Hauppauge, NY Barrons
    Educational Series, 1993.
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