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Motivating Your Students to Learn

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List student needs which may impact motivation to learn ... Color-code boxes with a highlighter to relate topics. Hints for Verbal Learners ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Motivating Your Students to Learn


1
Motivating Your Students to Learn
  • Steven R. Abel, Pharm.D., FASHP
  • Assistant Dean for Clinical Programs Bucke
    Professor and Head
  • Department of Pharmacy Practice
  • Purdue University School of Pharmacy

2
Objectives
  • List student needs which may impact motivation to
    learn
  • Describe key concepts that impact student
    motivation to learn
  • Recommend approaches to motivate the unmotivated
    student
  • Identify issues and opportunities with lecturing

3
Your Motivation????
  • To go to Pharmacy School
  • To go (or not go) to class
  • To pursue postgraduate training
  • To participate in the teaching certificate
    program
  • To attend todays presentation

4
Group Exercise
  • How Would You Motivate Students To . . .

5
Things to Consider
  • Who is your student?
  • What approaches would you use?
  • What will be your metric(s) to monitor and
    document success?

6
Document their clinical interventions in an
internet-based database, which is a required
activity for all students. Time is not routinely
allocated for this task during rotations, and
students know that there is a cash reward for the
most interventions. Last, the University
collects and reports information regarding its
engagement impact in various venues, including
the provision of patient care.
7
Take advantage of opportunities to gain
introductory pharmacy practice experience
(without pay), because it will help them as they
matriculate through the curriculum
8
Become involved in student organizations because
it will serve them well to be able to demonstrate
active organizational membership/leadership as
they progress through the curriculum and enter
into the working world
9
Comply with institutional prescribing guidelines
for atorvastatin despite the fact that the
published studies support the use of simvastatin
for a particular patient
10
Take their medications despite the presence of
two silent diseases that have not adversely
impacted the patients life hypertension and
glaucoma
11
Make the most out of a critical care rotation,
their last clerkship experience, when the student
has accepted a job in a chain community pharmacy,
has minimal hospital experience, and will NEVER
be a critical care pharmacist
12
Group Reports
13
Additional Motivational Challenges - How Would
You Motivate Your Students . . .
  • Through a lecture on GERD
  • In a pharmacokinetics course
  • In a journal club discussion
  • In a drug information clerkship
  • To write ANOTHER care plan
  • In whatever else you might imagine!!

14
Remember . . .
  • Your students are not just pharmacy students in a
    classroom or on clerkship
  • Your students are everyone you teach
  • Sometimes your students include your boss!

15
Reflect on how your favorite professors . .
.How did they motivate you to learn?
16
Motivation Theory
  • Learning and memory are tied to motivation and
    method of teaching
  • Learning for students is continuous
  • Campus hot-spots
  • Least expensive groceries, Den Pop
  • Teachers
  • Could (?should) serve as learning facilitators
  • Cant learn for your students
  • Cant stop your students from learning
  • Must motivate students toward course goals
  • Increase value of learning
  • Link coursework to student motives
  • Shaped by socialization at home
  • Shaped by socialization in school
  • Shaped by experiences

17
Student Needs
  • Basic needs (food, water, sleep)
  • Security
  • Instilling fear is counterproductive
  • Identify and resolve causes of insecurity
  • Emphasize the positive
  • Belonging
  • Value as a group member
  • Value as a human being
  • Approval and self-esteem
  • Praise
  • For even small accomplishments
  • Do not trivialize praise (be specific)
  • Structure
  • Syllabus
  • Simple, clear instructions for completing tasks
  • Structured plan of action for each
    activity/assignment

18
Student Needs
  • Approval and self-esteem (cont.)
  • Reminders
  • Past successes
  • Future goals
  • Perhaps track in class by individually in journal
  • Portfolio
  • Self-actualization
  • Create anticipation
  • Preview subjects
  • Use trailers to motivate students to complete
    readings or attend class
  • Creative structure
  • Role play
  • Game shows
  • Teach other than via the norm

19
Views on Motivating Students
20
Motivating Students to Learn
  • Begin where the students are
  • Identify interest level on subject
  • Identify previous knowledge and incorporate that
    into teaching
  • Non-graded assignment during week 1
  • Frequent short assignments
  • Review transcripts, CV, etc.
  • Review work examples

21
Motivating Students to Learn
  • Establish relevance of material/course
  • Detail regarding importance
  • Personalize examples of how information is useful
    related to major, career, life
  • Relate course material to student interest
  • Information links personal journals, group
    projects, linkage posters
  • Show interest/enthusiasm for course content
  • Create interest through novelty, variety,
    relevance

22
Motivating Students to Learn
  • Give students skills/knowledge to do well in
    class
  • Orient to course
  • Mini-lecture on key component
  • Hold outside review sessions
  • Evaluate course
  • Involve students in course planning
  • Determine topics of greatest interest/value
  • Include optional or alternative units that focus
    on student interest
  • Provide for varying learning styles

23
Motivating Students to Learn
  • Arrange learning tasks appropriate for student
    abilities
  • Range of difficulty in assignments, exams
  • Evaluate to show students what they have learned,
    not just what they dont know
  • Challenge students with stimulating activities
  • Set up student panels or identify course
    liaison
  • Use classroom debates/discussions
  • Create opportunities for role playing
  • e.g., personnel scenarios, medication safety, WHS
  • Oral presentations
  • Case studies/simulated techniques

24
Motivating Students to Learn
  • Challenge students with stimulating assignments
  • Give provocative assignments
  • Do assignments for real world clients
  • Give students field experience assignments
  • Give assignments typical of the field
  • Assign independent research projects
  • Assign analysis of an essay/article
  • Role play
  • Give exercises for problem visualization/approxima
    tion

25
Motivating Students to Learn
  • Use test questions similar to those from homework
  • Prepare students for challenging test questions
  • Ask specific questions
  • Balance the difficulty of test items
  • Include an extra-credit problem to write a
    question
  • Hand out study and review questions before the
    exam
  • Hold review sessions before the exam
  • Permit students to bring one page of notes to the
    exam
  • Give two or more midterms and have the first one
    early
  • Distribute answers to prior exams
  • Give more quizzes than count

26
Motivating Students to Learn
  • Reward students
  • Praise
  • Positive comments
  • Promptly return assignments, texts
  • Recognize sincere effort
  • Focus on continued student improvement
  • Apply the Discovery method
  • Use students curiosity
  • Encourage student initiative by leaving gaps
  • Draw attention to importance of gaps
  • Pose questions that encourage analysis,
    problem-solving, creative thinking
  • Encourage students to critique own work

27
Motivating Students to Learn
  • Promote teacher-student interactions
  • Develop positive relationships with students
  • Student feelings about teacher can help or hinder
    learning
  • Keep open communication channels
  • Respect your students and behave as if you do
  • Encourage questions or comments
  • Individualize instruction
  • Be available for students
  • Personalize interactions
  • Be sure you have interpreted student needs/issues
    correctly

28
Learning Styles
29
Group Exercise Highest Retention Rate the
following from lowest to highest retention
  • Teach others/immediately apply
  • Discussion group
  • Demonstration
  • Lecture
  • Audiovisual
  • Reading
  • Practice by doing

30
Highest Retention
  • Lecture 5
  • Reading 10
  • Audiovisual 20
  • Demonstration 30
  • Discussion group 50
  • Practice by doing 75
  • Teach others/immediately apply 90

31
Active and Reflective
  • Active and reflective learners
  • Active learners retain and understand information
    by doing something active with it, such as
    discussion, application
  • Reflective learners prefer to think about it
    quietly first
  • Lets try it out active
  • Lets think it through reflective
  • Active learners like group work
  • Sitting through lectures and taking notes is
    particularly difficult for active learners

32
Hints for Active Learners
  • With lecture-driven courses
  • Form a study group
  • Require participants to take turns asking
    questions, explaining topics
  • Work with others
  • Find ways to apply information

33
Hints for Reflective Learners
  • With lecture-drive courses
  • Stop periodically to read/review information
  • Do not simply read or memorize material
  • Think of questions/application of material
  • Write short summaries of readings or notes in
    your own words

34
Sensing and Intuitive
  • Sensing and intuitive learners
  • Sensing learners like learning facts
  • Intuitive learners prefer discovering
    possibilities and relationships
  • Sensors
  • Like problem-solving
  • Dislike complications and surprises
  • Resent being tested on material that has not been
    explicitly covered in class
  • Are patient with details, memorizing facts,
    hands-on laboratory work
  • Resent courses with lack of real-world connect
  • Are studying to become pharmacists
  • Intuitors
  • Like innovation and dislike repetition,
    memorization, plug and chug
  • More efficiently grasp new concepts
  • Are more comfortable with abstract and
    mathematical information

35
Hints for Sensing Learners
  • Connect to real world
  • Ask for specific examples of application of
    learned information to practice
  • If sufficient examples are not provided, speak
    with peers to determine the same

36
Hints for Intuitive Learners
  • Intuitors like memorization and rote substitution
    in formulas
  • YOU may be bored
  • Ask the instructor for interpretations or
    practice-based connections
  • Be cautious of careless mistakes, especially on
    tests
  • Read the entire question before you answer

37
Visual and Verbal
  • Visual learners remember what they see
  • Pictures, diagrams, flow charts, time lines,
    films, demonstrations
  • Verbal learners remember more from words
  • Written, spoken explanations
  • Most college classes present little visual
    information
  • e.g. Pseudomonas eye

38
Hints for Visual Learners
  • Find diagrams, sketches, schematics, photographs,
    flow charts, other visual representation of
    course material that will cement learning
  • Prepare a concept map
  • Link key points, enclosing them in boxes,
    circles, drawing lines/arrows between concepts to
    show connections
  • Color-code boxes with a highlighter to relate
    topics

39
Hints for Verbal Learners
  • Write summaries or outlines of course material in
    your own words
  • Work in groups

40
Sequential and Global
  • Sequential learners
  • Gain understanding in linear steps, a logical
    building process
  • Follow logical, stepwise paths to find solutions
  • Global learners
  • Learn in large jumps, without seeing evident
    connection until they get it
  • May be able to solve complex problems but have
    difficult explaining how they achieved the end
    point

41
Hints for Sequential Learners
  • Most college courses are taught in sequential
    manner
  • If lecturers miss steps, then ask to have those
    filled in
  • Try to relate topics to things you already know,
    to enhance your understanding of the topic

42
Hints for Global Learners
  • Recognize that you function differently from most
    of your classmates
  • Read the chapter first, to get an overview
  • Immerse yourself in individual subjects and
    relate them to things that you know
  • Dont lose your confidence in your ability to
    understand information and its relationship to
    other curricular content

43
Team Learning
  • Teamwork
  • Assignments are often individual
  • Increase teamwork
  • Many students resist teamwork because they can
    perform better themselves
  • Students should evaluate peer group members at
    least twice, early-mid project and at the end
  • Should be fun
  • Celebrate success

44
Environmental Learning Factors
  • Kinesthetic
  • Some students LOVE to move as they learn
  • Mobility
  • Humans body is built to move
  • Have students take short breaks every 20-30
    minutes
  • Research has shown that it takes 30 seconds to
    rest and recharge the brain

45
Five Key Dimensions of Student-Professor
Interactions
46
Five Key Dimensions of Student-Professor
Interactions
47
Teaching as a Catalyst for Learning
  • Teacher as technician
  • Structure coursework to review previous work,
    preview todays work, teach todays work,
    practice todays work, review todays work,
    preview tomorrows work (creates intrigue)
  • Seek precise examples for key points
  • Emphasize value of new information by linking it
    to previous knowledge or personal experiences
  • Improvise

48
Teaching as a Catalyst for Learning
  • Teacher as technician (cont.)
  • Give students breathing space
  • Allow students to
  • Ask questions
  • Answer questions
  • Share personal experiences
  • Be sensitive to student learning patterns

49
Teaching as a Catalyst for Learning
  • Teacher as role model
  • Share personal experiences related to subject
    matter
  • Demonstrate passion for subject matter and
    teaching
  • Demonstrate relevance of material
  • Show students alternative ways to approach course
    material
  • Be human

50
Motivating the Unmotivated
  • Helpful hints
  • Students are increasingly older
  • Apprehensive about traditional classrooms
  • Perceive themselves outsiders when they consider
    the teachers world
  • Uncomfortable with formality
  • Lack study skills
  • Struggling to balance life demands and college
    (at all ages)

51
On Lecturing . . .
  • DO NOT lecture on information which is printed
    and/or otherwise available to students
  • DO NOT lecture on information which is printed
    and/or otherwise available to students
  • DO NOT lecture on information which is printed
    and/or otherwise available to students

52
Lecturing Tips
  • Effectiveness
  • Good at imparting knowledge
  • Retention favors discussion
  • May be more current than textbooks
  • Information can be adapted and/or summarized
  • Enthusiasm of lecturer impacts learning and
    student motivation
  • Inject something that excites you into your
    lectures

53
Improving Lectures
  • Attention span is limited
  • Increases from beginning to 10 minutes into
    lecture, then declines
  • Variation increases effectiveness
  • Pitch
  • Intensity
  • Lecture pace
  • Visual cues
  • Gestures
  • Facial expressions
  • Movements
  • Use/demonstration via AV media

54
Handouts/Notes
  • Students perceive two purposes for notes
  • Improved recall
  • External storage of concepts which may be needed
    later (e.g., tests)
  • Taking notes improves memory
  • DO NOT provide complete handouts
  • Encourage students to take fewer notes but on key
    concepts

55
Lecture Organization
  • Introduction
  • Emphasize gaps in students existing knowledge
  • Begin with case example requiring application of
    key lecture concepts
  • Body
  • Beware of overload
  • Provide periodic summaries
  • Ask for questions, but really ask
  • Conclusion
  • Ask for a verbal student summary
  • Ask for written questions or comments but be
    prepared to provide follow-up

56
What About Grades?
  • For whatever reasons, grades are important to
    students
  • Grades unlock many doors (e.g., Pharmacy School,
    Graduate School, etc.)
  • Motivate student study toward grade versus
    learning
  • Student performance increases with understanding
    that failure is due to lack of effort versus
    ability and setting reasonable standards for
    themselves
  • Grades as a threat may produce avoidance versus
    interest

57
So, Now How Would You Motivate Your Students . . .
58
In Conclusion
  • Establish, specific, challenging goals and
    expectations for class and course
  • Syllabus
  • Learning objectives
  • Lecture to augment reading
  • Help students develop a plan of action
  • Student awareness is imperative for strategic
    instruction
  • Apply knowledge
  • Have student record progress toward goals and
    self-reflect

59
Questions/Comments?
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