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Cancer Presentations for period 4


... fever, weight loss, and ... Surgery is the primary option when the cancer is in the ... On April 1, 1999, I had surgery to remove this cancer by taking ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cancer Presentations for period 4

Cancer Presentations for period 4 5
  • Fall 2006

Bone Cancer
  • Paige Mitchell-Spears
  • David Schmidt

  • Strontium was discovered in 1798 and metallic
    strontium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy
    in 1808 using electrolysis.
  • The radioactive 90Sr can lead to various bone
    disorders and diseases, including bone cancer.

  • most common type
  • develops in new tissue in growing bones
  • originates in the Osteoid tissue commonly located
    in the knees, upper legs, and upper arms
  • common between the ages of 10 and 25
  • about 50 more common in males than in females
  • about 900 new cases diagnosed in the United
    States each year
  • about 400 of these cases occur in children and
    adolescents younger than 20 years old
  • most occur between the ages of 10 and 30
  • teenagers are the most commonly affected age
    group, but it can occur at any age
  • about 10 occur in people over the age of 60

  • arises in cartilage located in the pelvis, upper
    legs, and shoulders
  • common between the ages of 50 and 60

Ewings Sarcoma
  • begins in immature nerve tissue in bone marrow
    located in the pelvis, upper legs, ribs, and arms
  • common between the ages of 10 and 20

  • First the doctor will ask about the patients
    personal and medical history and then perform a
    medical exam.
  • There are 3 different types of medical exams that
    can be performed to diagnose bone cancer
  • A blood test to determine the level of the enzyme
    alkaline phosphatase (vital for child growth,
    mending broken bones, and production of abnormal
    bone tissue). Because there is a high abundancy
    of this enzyme in growing children, this test is
    not very reliable.
  • An x-ray to show the location, size, and shape
    of a bone tumor. If it suggests that a tumor may
    be cancer, the doctor may recommend special
    imaging tests such as a bonescan, a CT scan, an
    MRI, or an angiogram.
  • A needle biopsy or an incisional biopsy where a
    piece of the cancerous tissue is removed for
    study by an oncologist or a pathologist.

  • not known
  • radiation or chemotherapy for other conditions
    may increase the risk of bone cancer
  • adults with Pagets disease (a noncancerous
    condition characterized by abnormal development
    of new bone cells) may be at increased risk for
  • a small number of bone cancers are due to

  • vary depending on the location and size of the
  • pain is the most common
  • tumors in or near joints may cause swelling or
    tenderness in that area
  • bone cancer can interfere with normal movements
    and weaken the bones, sometimes leading to a
  • fatigue, fever, weight loss, and anemia
  • none are reliable signs of cancer, they can also
    be caused by other, less serious conditions.

  • depend on the type, size, location, stage of the
    cancer, and the persons age and general health
  • surgery is often the primary treatment
  • amputation of a limb is sometimes necessary
  • to avoid amputation, a surgeon will only remove
    the cancerous section of the bone and replace it
    with a prosthesis
  • Chemotherapy and radiation may also be used
    together or alone

Survival Stats
  • The overall 5-year relative survival rate for
    1996-2002 from 17 SEER geographic areas was
  • Five-year relative survival rates by race and sex
  • 64.4 for white men
  • 72.1 for white women
  • 65.5 for black men
  • 67.5 for black women

Morality Rate
  • In 2006, about 2,760 new cases of cancer of the
    bones and joints will be diagnosed, and about
    1,260 deaths from these cancers are expected.
  • From 2000-2003, the median age at death for
    cancer of the bones and joints was 59 years of
    age 4.
  • Approximately 14.8 died under age 20 14.1
    between 20 and 34 7.3 between 35 and 44 8.9
    between 45 and 54 11.2 between 55 and 64 13.7
    between 65 and 74 18.6 between 75 and 84 and
    11.3 85 years of age.
  • Death rates by race and sex were
  • Race/Ethnicity Men Women
  • All Races 0.5 per 100,000 men 0.3 per
    100,000 women
  • White 0.6 per 100,000 men 0.4 per 100,000
  • Black 0.5 per 100,000 men 0.4 per 100,000
  • Asian/Pacific Islander 0.3 per 100,000 men 0.2
    per 100,000 women
  • American Indian per 100,000 men per 100,000
  • Hispanic 0.5 per 100,000 men 0.3 per 100,000

Branden Lombardi
  • 17-years-old
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Chemotherapy
  • Replacement of cancerous portion of tibia with
    donor bone
  • Lead to nodules in lungs
  • Has been cancer free for 2.5 years with help of

Works Cited
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//

Colon Cancer
  • Katie Asman
  • Chris Johnson

Timeline of Cancer
  • The earliest indications of cancer were described
    in seven papyri discovered in the 19th
    century. The cancer descriptions were written
    around 1600 BC and are believed to date back to
    sources as early as 2500 B. C. 
  • Ancient Egyptians were able to determine whether
    or not tumors were benign or malignant.
  • Hippocrates named cancer karkinioma because
    he saw that malignant tumors looked like a crab
    which is also why it is known as cancer today
  • Back in the 17th century Gaspare Aselli found the
    vessels of the lymphatic system and believed that
    cancer was caused by abnormalities in the lymph.
  • Oncology was established as a science with the
    research in cell culture, diagnostic treatments
    and chemotherapy.
  • Finally in 1971, Richard M. Nixon signed the
    National Cancer Act which launched a program
    administered by the National Cancer Institute
    which contains the United State legislative
    cancer policies from 1937 to the present.

Who it afftects
  • Colorectal cancer affects men and women usually
    50 years or older
  • Cancer of the colon and rectum is the third most
    diagnosed cancer in the US.

How its diagnosed
  • Symptoms of colon cancer include abdominal pain,
    diarreha, constipation and blood in the feces
  • Symptoms vary from case to case and some do not
    have any symptoms

  • Causes of most colorectal cancers are unknown but
    certain risk factors have been identified
  • factors include older age, ulcerative colitis
    (causes inflammation of the colon), and family
    history of colon cancer
  • Most colorectal cancers start as a benign tumor
    on the wall of the rectum

Affected Body Parts
  • The cancer can begin in any of the 4 regions of
    the colon or the rectum
  • Each section is made up of several layers of
    tissue, cancer begins in the inner layer and
    grows through some if not all of the layers
  • The spread of cancer depends on which layer it
    begins in

  • The treatments depend on what stage the cancer is
    at, radiation is a rare treatment of colon cancer
  • Primary treatment is to remove the portion of the
    colon where the cancer lies along with the lymph
    nodes and blood supply
  • Surgery is the primary option when the cancer is
    in the first three stages
  • After the portion of the colon is removed it is
    rebuilt called anastomosis
  • Chemotherapy is used on patients who had a tumor
    removed and is in danger of getting another

Survival Statistics
  • 50 of patients treated for colon cancer survive
  • 15 of people are at stage 1 and 85-90 survive
  • 20-30 are at stage 2 65-75 survival
  • 30-40 at stage 3 55 survive
  • 20-25 at stage 4 and is rarely cured

  • 94,000 cases of colon cancer are diagnosed each
  • it accounts for 10 of cancers in men and 11 of
    cancers in women
  • it occurs second most in both sexes behind cancer
  • 49,000 died from colon cancer in the US in 2000
  • The disease has occurred less in the US but the
    mortality rate has increased

Cheryls Story
  • In 1999 and even before that, my doctor was very
    concerned about why I was so anemic. I was put on
    iron supplements, but nothing seemed to change
    the anemia. My doctor had also questioned me
    about my bowel movements. I actually thought they
    were quite normal. I guess I had not really had a
    normal one in so long that I did not know what
    normal was. Actually, they were quite loose most
    of the time and not really very formed. But, as I
    said, my doctor was quite concerned about the
    anemia. After a few visits, he insisted I have a
    colonoscopy, so I did. The procedure itself was
    no problem the prep was the worst part of the
    whole thing.
  • Then on March 16, 1999, I had the colonoscopy and
    the physician told me I had a tumor that might or
    might not be cancerous (I am sure he knew that it
    most likely was.). He also told me it had to come
    out surgically, regardless. He then said to call
    my doctor in a week for the results. The next
    week my doctor called me and said it was cancer.
    I really don't know how I felt. A little shocked,
    I guess. How could this be? It was a very large
    polyp that now was cancer.
  • On April 1, 1999, I had surgery to remove this
    cancer by taking out the section with the tumor
    and several feet of my colon. I am not sure what
    stage cancer this was, but I do know it started
    through the wall and that is why I see the cancer
    doctor frequently for blood tests to see if there
    are any cancer cells in my body. So far, he tells
    me that I am in remission. I still have trouble
    thinking of myself as a cancer patient. Thank
    goodness for my doctor and the colonoscopy. It
    saved my life. Colonoscopy such a simple thing
    to do to save your life.

  • By Josh Lee and Josh Feaster

  • Lung cancer was very rare before people started
    smoking cigarettes. There are only 100 cases of
    lung cancer in medical history before the 1900s.
    After WWI (1918), cigarette smoking became very
    popular. Doctors began seeing a sudden epidemic
    of lung cancer in the 1930s. Doctors began
    seeing a link between cigarette smoking and lung
    cancer, and they determined that smoking causes
    ones chances to develop the disease to increase
    greatly. By the 1970s, lung cancer had gone
    from one of the rarest cancers to the number one
    killer cancer in the U.S.

  • Lung cancer affects all men and women of all
  • In the US, 175,000 new cases are expected in
    2006 90,700 in men and 80,000 in women.
  • Although lung cancer was previously an illness
    that affected predominately men, the lung cancer
    rate for women has been increasing in the last
    few decades .

  • Performing a chest X-ray is the first step if a
    patient reports symptoms that may be suggestive
    of lung cancer. This may reveal an obvious mass,
    widening of the mediastinum (suggestive of spread
    to lymph nodes there), atelectasis (collapse),
    consolidation (infection) and pleural effusion.
    If there are no X-ray findings but the suspicion
    is high, bronchoscopy and/or a CT Scan may
    provide the necessary information. In any case,
    bronchoscopy or CT-guided biopsy is often
    necessary to identify the tumor type.
  • Blood tests and spirometry (lung function
    testing) are also necessary to assess whether the
    patient is well enough to be operated on.

  • There are four major causes of lung cancer (and
    cancer in general)
  • Carcinogens such as those in cigarette smoke
  • Radiation exposure
  • Genetic susceptibility
  • Viral infection
  • In the United States, smoking is estimated to
    account for 87 of lung cancer cases (90 in men
    and 79 in women).

  • If the cancer grows into the lumen it may
    obstruct the airway, causing breathing
    difficulties. This can lead to accumulation of
    secretions behind the blockage, allowing the
    patient to pneumonia.
  • Tumors in the top (apex) of the lung, known as
    Pancoast tumors, may invade the local part of the
    sympathetic nervous system, leading to changed
    sweating patterns and eye muscle problems (a
    combination known as Horner's syndrome), as well
    as muscle weakness in the hands due to invasion
    of the brachial plexus.

  • Treatment for lung cancer depends on the cancer's
    specific cell type, how far it has spread, and
    the patient's performance status.
  • Common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy,
    and radiation therapy.

  • Ann Shnur was diagnosed with non-small cell lung
    cancer in 2002. Her doctors told her that her
    chances of curing the cancer were very slim, so
    all they could do was try to manage it. When she
    found out, she immediately quit smoking. She
    started to undergo chemotherapy and radiation,
    but it was having little effect on her tumor.
    She was given an experimental drug called Iressa
    to treat the cancer instead of the chemo. She
    says that she made a point to savor every moment
    with family and friends because she did not know
    what could happen next. Everything seemed to be
    under control until April of 2006, when a routine
    scan revealed that a lymph node near her original
    tumor had become cancerous as well. Her doctors
    immediately switched her treatment from Iressa to
    Tarceva, and since this switch, the tumor has not
    grown any larger. Doctors say they would do a
    biopsy, but the surgery would be life threatening
    based on the location of the tumor. Shnur and
    her doctors have already planned that she will
    add Avastin to her treatment if the cancer
    spreads. Shnur, in the meantime, is continuing
    to live her normal life.

  • Only 14 of patients with lung cancer survive for
    more than five years after diagnosis. If the lung
    cancer is detected before it has had a chance to
    spread to other organs, and if it is treated
    appropriately, at least 49 of patients can
    survive five years or longer after the initial
    diagnosis. Only 15 of lung cancers, however, are
    found at this early stage. About 10 of patients
    can expect to be cured.

  • Although the rate of men dying from lung cancer
    is declining in western countries, it is actually
    increasing for women due to the increased takeup
    of smoking by this group. Among lifetime
    non-smokers, men who have never smoked have
    higher age-standardized lung cancer death rates
    than women. Of the 80,000 women who are diagnosed
    with lung cancer in 2006, approximately 70,000
    are expected to die from it.

Healthy Lung
  • This is an image of a very healthy lung.

Cancerous Lung
  • This is a cancerous lung.

  • Skin Cancer
  • Jackie Ardalan / Brian Ramsey

General Information
  • Most serious type of skin cancer
  • Begins in skin cells called melanocytes
  • Melanocytes are the cells that make melanin,
    which gives the skin its color
  • With too much ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the
    melanocytes may begin to grow abnormally and
    become cancerous

What causes it
  • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun is the
    most recognized cause of all types of skin cancer
  • Tanning lamps are another source of UV radiation
  • The invisible effects of UV radiation accumulate
    over a lifetime

Who it affects
  • Both sexes are affected
  • In America, it is the sixth most common cancer in
    men and the seventh most common in women
  • Race plays a large role
  • White Americans are 20 times more likely to
    develop melanoma than African Americans
  • Worldwide, white populations have the highest
    risk of developing melanoma, and Asian
    populations the lowest risk
  • General rule fair skin is more susceptible

How it is spotted
  • Doctors often spot melanoma during a skin
    inspection or annual physical
  • Among men, melanoma most often shows up on the
    upper body and on the head and neck
  • In women, melanoma often develops on the
    fingernails, on the palms of hands, and on the
    soles of the feet
  • However, it can appear anywhere on the skin

What to look for (the ABCDs)
  • A Asymmetry Melanoma lesions are typically
    irregular in shape (asymmetrical) / benign
    (non-cancerous) moles are typically round
  • B Border Melanoma lesions often have irregular
    borders (ragged or notched edges) / benign moles
    have smooth, even borders.
  • C Colors Melanoma lesions often contain many
    shades of brown or black / benign moles are
    usually a single shade of brown.
  • D Diameter Melanoma lesions are often more
    than one fourth an inch or six millimeters in
    diameter (about the size of a pencil eraser) /
    benign moles are usually less than that

  • The treatment for melanoma depends on the
    persons age, health, and stage of the disease
  • Surgery is the first treatment for all stages of
  • Later stages of melanoma (thick melanoma or those
    that have spread to the nearby lymph nodes), call
    for other treatments, such as immunotherapy,
    chemotherapy, and radiation therapy

  • The average five-year survival rate for melanoma
    patients is about 89 percent
  • Once the cancer spreads to the lymph nodes, the
    survival rate drops to a range of 13 to 70
    percent, depending on how many lymph nodes are
  • An estimated 62,000 Americans are diagnosed with
    melanoma each year
  • Nearly 8,000 people die from the disease annually

Pancreatic Cancer
  • Maddie Norman and Amy Kim

Illustration of healthy pancreas
  • Cancer was first recorded in Egypt in 2500 B.C.
    (tumors on breasts)
  • majority of pancreatic cancer occurs in people
    older than 65
  • Black men and women have a higher risk
  • More men than women

  • Difficult to diagnose
  • Complete physical exam
  • Feces can become clay-colored
  • Ultrasound imaging, CT scan, MRI, endoscopic
    retrograde cholangiopancreatiography (ERCP),
    endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), percutaneous
    transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), biopsy,

  • 3 stages
  • respectable all the tumor nodules can be removed
  • locally advanced because the cancer has spread
    to tissues around the pancreas or into the blood
    vessels, it can no longer be completely removed
  • metastatic at this stage, the cancer has spread
    to distant organs, such as the lungs and liver
  • Unsure what causes the DNA to become damaged thus
    causing cancer in most cases
  • Genetic predisposition (only 10)
  • Most cases caused by lifestyle factors such as
    smoking and diet

Cancerous pancreas
  • Stage 1 pancreatic cancer is confined only to
    the pancreas.
  • Stage 2 pancreatic cancer has spread somewhere,
    possibly to the lymph nodes, but not into large
    blood vessels nearby.
  • Stage 3, pancreatic cancer has invaded lardge
    blood vessels, may be in the lymph nodes, but
    hasnt spread to distant sites.
  • Stage 4, means the cancer has spread to a distant
    site or sites in your body.

  • Can only be treated in very early stages
  • Pancreatic cancer is treated with surgery,
    radiation therapy, or chemotherapy (like most
    other cancers)
  • one-year relative survival rate is 20, and the
    five-year rate is 4
  • fewer than 10 of patients' tumors are confined
    to the pancreas at the time of diagnosis (no
    surgery option)
  • average survival rate is 18 to 20 months if
    surgery is possible. The overall five-year
    survival rate is about 10, although can be as
    high as 20 to 25 if the tumor is removed
    completely and cancer has not spread to lymph

  • Patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer have a
    poor prognosis because the cancer usually causes
    no symptoms early on, leading to metastatic
    disease at time of diagnosis.
  • Median survival from diagnosis is around 3 to 6
    months 5-year survival is much less than 5.
  • 32,180 new diagnoses in the United States every
  • 31,800 deaths
  • mortality approaches 99, giving pancreatic
    cancer the 1 fatality rate of all cancers and
    the 4 cancer killer in the United States amongst
    both men and women

In Real Life
  • My moms cousin was diagnosed with pancreatic
    cancer after being in the hospital for 1-2 months
    with severe abdominal pain. It took that long to
    figure out the source of the pain and by the time
    they did, the cancer had already spread all over
    her body. The only practical treatment option was
    medication to ease the pain. She lived in the
    hospital for the 4 months following her diagnosis
    (the rest of her life) with a distended belly and
    unable to keep food down. My mom compared it to a
    baby constantly spitting up food. She was aware
    that she was very ill but because of her severe
    autism could not communicate very well and was
    relatively unaware of her treatment and treatment

  • http//
  • http//
  • Jill Norman provided the information for the
    real-life story

Testicular Cancer
  • By
  • Justin Cho
  • Raj Bhatt

Who does it affect?
-Testicular cancer affects over 8000 people a
year in the US. -Caucasian males ages 15-40 are
the most affected while it would be extremely
rare to see a African American male with TC.
How is it diagnosed?
-Many methods of diagnosing, but self-diagnosis
is primary method before people consult
professional help. -First symptoms of
TC -pain/tenderness in testicles -build-up of
fluid in scrotum -hard lump gradually growing in
What are the chances of survival?
-TC is one of the most curable cancers (90 cure
rate) -If it is caught in Stage 1, the cure rate
is virtually 100 if it is treated
properly. -After patients are treated there is a
less than 5 chance of the cancer coming back.
How is TC treated?
-3 methods -surgery -chemotherapy -radiation
-In surgery, one or both testicle are surgically
removed in order to stop the spread of the
cancer. -most popular treatment choice -success
rate very high -early stage of cancer - lt 5 of
chance of chance spreading again.
-2nd most popular treatment choice -compatible
with all stages of TC -high success rate
Radiation Therapy
-rarely used because high doses are dangerous for
sensitive testicular area. -when used, used for
stage 2/3 patients. -50 average survival rate
wrap up
-TC is responsible for about 300 deaths a year(
US only) -every male should self-examine
themselves at least once a year
Cervical Cancer
  • Autumn Thomson
  • Derek McConnell

What is Cervical Cancer?
  • Malignancy of the cervix
  • The cancer begins at the lining of the cervix
  • The cancer is not suddenly formed, but progresses
    in transitional stages
  • Cervix connects the uterus to the vagina

  • Naked HPV
  • 2nd leading cause of cancer death in women
  • HPV is responsible for 90 of Cervical Cancer
  • HPV - 16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58 are the 7
    most common strands

  • Symptoms may be completely asymptomatic
  • Vaginal bleeding, contact bleeding, or vaginal
    masses may indicate malignancy
  • In advanced cases, metastases may spread to the
    lungs or abdomen

Picture of Cervical Cancer
  • Hysterectomy (IA)
  • Lymph Nodes (IA2)
  • Trachelectomy (early stages)
  • Cone Biopsy
  • Hysterectomy Stages

  • On June 6, 2006 the FDA approved Gardasil
  • GlaxoSmithKline and Cervarix

  • A Presentation by
  • Megan Hanson
  • and
  • Cameron Hostetter

Healthy Lung
Lung Cancer
Smoking is cool!!!
Historical Origins of Lung Cancer
  • Not Common Before WWI
  • Tobacco companies gave away free cigarettes to
    millions of soldiers
  • After the war that it became popular in America

Historical Origins of Lung Cancer
  • Influx of lung cancer cases in the 1930s
  • Soon the correlation between smoking and lung
    cancer was discovered

Historical Origins of Lung Cancer
  • By the 1970s, lung cancer had gone from one of
    the rarest forms of cancers to the number one
    killer cancer in the Western World

Historical Origins of Lung Cancer
  • By the 1970s, lung cancer had gone from one of
    the rarest forms of cancers to the number one
    killer cancer in the Western World

Historical Origins of Lung Cancer
  • Although initially many believed that lung cancer
    had only to do with smoking,
  • Recent studies are revealing even more regarding
    the causes of the disease

  • African-American men who smoke more at risk than
    among Caucasian men
  • Lung cancer is rapidly becoming a females

  • Lung cancer is rapidly becoming a females
  • Women now account for nearly half of all new lung
    cancer cases
  • Women are more likely to develop lung cancer than

Dana Reeves
  • Those who quit smoking reduce risk of lung cancer
  • Also, exposure to other carcinogens such as
    asbestos and radon gas increases risk

How Is It Diagnosed?
  • Perform a chest X-ray if a patient reports
    symptoms of lung cancer
  • Symptoms
  • swollen lymph nodes
  • a chronic cough
  • shortness of breath
  • chest pain

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How Is It Diagnosed?
  • X-ray may reveal
  • an obvious mass
  • a widening of the mediastinum,
  • infection and excess fluid
  • CT scan can be used if the X-ray in unable to
    reveal anything

Types of Lung Cancer
  • Commonly divided into two types
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) which is the
    most common and the cause of 80 of all lung
    cancer case
  • Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) the cause of 20 of
    all cases.

Types of Lung Cancer
  • Small Cell Lung Cancer is almost always a result
    of smoking and its tumors can spread from the
    lungs to the entire body.

  • Three main forms of treatment for lung cancer
  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation

Mortality Rate
  • Only 14 of patients with lung cancer survive for
    more than five years after diagnosis.
  • Only about 10 of patients can expect to be

Peter Jennings
Mortality Rate
  • Lung cancer is the number one cancer killer in
    America, claiming more lives than breast,
    prostate, and colorectal cancers combined.

Thank You
Breast Cancer
  • Hershel Mehta
  • Jessica Roan
  • Kacey Kim

Breast Cancer
  • Breast cancer is a serious issue in society
  • However, the cancer of the breast tissue is not
    only a recent problem
  • Cases of breast cancer have dated back to ancient
    Egypt in 1600 BC.

  • The first surgery done to remove the tumor over
    the breast was done in the early 1700s by Jean
    Louis Petit. His successful work was carried on
    by William Stewart Halsted who started performing
    mastectomies in 1882. He became known for his
    Halsted radical mastectomy, a surgical procedure
    that remained popular up to the 1970s.
  • Now breast cancer has become a major epidemic
    amongst women, there are many charity walks and
    events to help find a cure.

  • Breast cancer can affect both men and women, but
    is much more common with women. It affects one
    out of every nine to thirteen women. Breast
    cancer only affects 1 of the male population.
  • It is the second most common in mortality rate
    after lung cancer. The chances of obtaining
    breast cancer increase with age.

Detecting Breast Cancer
  • There are many ways to detect breast cancer at an
    early stage. For instance, there are self breast
    exams or a mammograms which are extremely useful
    in early discovery which is essential for
    surviving breast cancer.
  • Also one can get an MRI (magnetic resonance
    imaging), but this is sometimes expensive and can
    give a false positive because of its acute
    sensitivity. Ultrasound is sometimes, but rarely

  • There are many theories as to what exactly causes
    breast cancer.
  • Some believe that two genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are
    responsible for the formation of the cancerous
  • Another theory is that excessive alcohol
    consumption leads to an increase in the risk of
    getting breast cancer.
  • Hormones is another theory flying around
    estrogen, androgen, and testosterone levels may
    also be a reason for someone acquiring breast

Hodgkins Lymphoma
  • By
  • Jack Ferguson
  • Brittany Morphew

When, Who and Where
  • Hodgkins Lymphoma is named after the British
    physician Thomas Hodgkin, who first described the
    disease in 1832 and noted several characteristics
    that distinguish it from other lymphomas.

Who does it affect?
  • Hodgkins disease most commonly affects people
    between the ages of 15 and 40 and people older
    than age 55. Its one of two common types of
    cancers of the lymphatic system.
  • It is most common in white people but affects
    every race.
  • Males are slightly more likely to develop
  • People who have had illnesses caused by the
    Epstein-Barr virus, such as mononucleosis may be
    four times more likely to develop Hodgkins.

How is it diagnosed?
  • There are many ways to detect Hodgkins lymphoma.
  • Often a lymph node swells, especially in the
    upper body area. Other times on feels they have
    a lack of energy.
  • More serious symptoms can include weight loss,
    fever, and drenching night sweats.
  • Many, many more!

Medical Diagnosis
  • A biopsy of the area is taken and is searched for
    the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells.
  • Other exams include chest x-rays, collecting
    medical history, CT scans, PET scans, and gallium

Suspected Causes
  • Abnormal B Cells
  • Genetics
  • Medical History

Affected Body Parts
  • Hodgkins disease commonly begins in the lymph
    nodes. Some lymph nodes are in areas readily
    noticed, such as in your neck, above your
    collarbone, under your arms, groin area, and in
    the chest cavity.
  • Lymphomas may spread outside the lymph nodes to
    virtually any part of your body.

  • I) Involves one lymph node region.
  • Involves two or more lymph node regions on the
    same side of the diaphragm.
  • Involves lymph nodes on both sides of the
  • Involves other organs besides the lymph system.

Treatment and Survival Rates
  • Radiation, Chemotherapy, Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • More than 80 of people with stage 1 or stage 2
    Hodgkins disease for 10 years or more with
    proper treatment.
  • The five-year survival rate for those with
    widespread Hodgkins disease is about 60.

Survival Rates
  • Stage I- 90 to 95
  • Stage II- 90 to 95
  • Stage III 85 to 90
  • Stage IV 80 to 85

Mortality Rates
  • Each year, about 1,300 Americans die of Hodgkins

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The End!!
  • Corinne Watson
  • Elieka Ghafari
  • Period 4

  • Cancer of the blood that develops in the bone
    marrow (soft tissue that fills the inside of
    bones and produces new blood cells)
  • First diagnosed in 1845 by John Hughs Benett
  • One of the ten most common types of cancer
  • Most common type of cancer diagnosed in childern
  • Predicted that 30,000 people will be diagnosed
    this year

  • No known cause of leukemia
  • Possible causes radiation, chemicals, viruses,
    and genetic factors.
  • Result from somatic mutations in the DNA, which
    disrupt the regulation of cell death,
    differentiation or division.
  • Viruses have also been linked to some forms of

  • Lack of red blood cells
  • anemia
  • Damage to the bone marrow
  • Suppressed or Dysfunctional white blood cells
  • infections
  • Fever, chills, and other flu-like symptoms
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Easy bruising/bleeding
  • Loss of appetite and/or weight
  • Swollen or bleeding gums
  • Neurological symptoms (headache)
  • Enlarged liver and spleen

Acute vs. Chronic
  • Acute Leukemia
  • rapid growth of immature blood cells
  • Crowding disables production of healthy blood
  • Can occur in children and young adults.
  • Immediate treatment is required due to the rapid
    progression and accumulation of the malignant
    cells, which can spill over into the bloodstream
    and spread to other organs of the body
  • If left untreated, the patient can die in a few
    months, or even weeks
  • Chronic
  • excessive build up of relatively mature, but
    still abnormal, blood cells
  • Typically taking months to years to progress, the
    cells are produced at a much higher rate than
    normal cells, resulting in many abnormal white
    blood cells in the blood.
  • Mostly occurs in older people
  • Unlike acute leukemia, chronic forms are
    sometimes monitored for some time before
    treatment to ensure maximum effectiveness of

Lymphoid vs. Myeloid
  • Diseases are classified according to the type of
    abnormal cell found most in the blood.
  • When leukemia affects lymphoid cells (lymphocytes
    and plasma cells), it is called lymphocytic
  • When myeloid cells (eosinophils, neutrophils, and
    basophils) are affected, the disease is called
    myeloid or myelogenous leukemia.
  • Acute lymphocytic leukemia (also known as Acute
    Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or ALL) is the most
    common type of leukemia in young children. This
    disease also affects adults, especially those age
    65 and older.
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (also known as Acute
    Myeloid Leukemia, or AML) occurs more commonly in
    adults than in children. This type of leukemia
    was previously called acute nonlymphocytic
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) most often
    affects adults over the age of 55. It sometimes
    occurs in younger adults, but it almost never
    affects children.
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) occurs mainly
    in adults. A very small number of children also
    develop this disease.

  • Combination of drugs
  • Bone Marrow/Stem Cell Transplants
  • Chemotherapy
  • 43 overall survival rate (for all ages)

Steve Sprague
  • Surviving Leukemia...One Man's Cord Blood
  • Steve was diagnosed with CML in 1995 when he was
    47 years old. In those pre-Gleevec days, the
    standard chemo for leukemia failed after only 17
    months when Steve went into blast crisis. An only
    child and unable to find a matched unrelated
    donor for transplant, he became one of the first
    to participate in a clinical trial for end-stage
    adult CMLers using matching stem cells obtained
    from umbilical cord blood (UCB) and expanded ex
    vivo (in the lab). Now a 4 year survivor, Steve
    volunteers his time as a cord blood advocate and
    has published a short story about his unique
    transplant experience. His tale may be helpful to
    patients, care-givers and even prospective
    parents interested in donating their infant's
    umbilical cord blood.

  • by rebecca choi
  • troy manansala

what is it?
  • broad term for a variety of cancers in the
    lymphatic system
  • lymphatic system-important for fighting disease
    and filtering out bacteria

lymphatic system
  • Lymph nodes are oval, pea-sized organs
  • Found beneath skin along large blood vessels and
    grouped at the neck, underarms, groin, abdomen,
    and pelvis
  • Also in spleen, thymus gland, bone marrow,
    adenoids, and tonsils

two types
  • two main types of lymphoma
  • -Hodgkins Disease
  • -Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma

Cause unknown Suspected causes
-viral/bacterial infections -pesticides,
solvents, arsenate, lead, hair dyes, radiation,
paint thinners NOT CONTAGIOUS.
Some information
  • Can occur in both children and adults
  • Most common in early adulthood (15-40) and late
    adulthood (after 55).
  • High survival rate
  • Effects more men than women.
  • Especially high among Jewish populations and low
    among Asian pop.
  • Approx. 25,000 die from this cancer worldwide

Hodgkins disease
  • malignant (cancerous) growth of cells in the
    lymph system
  • Has Reed-Stemberg cells in the cancerous area
    (while Non-Hodgkins doesnt)
  • better known form of lymphoma
  • High survival rate
  • number of cases
  • 7880 cases in US this year
  • 4330 men
  • 3550 women

Hodgkins Diagnosis
  • Lymph nodes can swell, upper body area
  • Feeling of lack of energy
  • Weight loss, fever, drenching night sweats,
    itching, lower back pain
  • Usually a shock and surprise
  • Take tissue sample (biopsy) and search for
    Reed-Stemberg cells
  • X-rays or PET scans or CT scans

Hodgkins Treatment
  • Chemotherapy
  • Bone marrow and peripheral blood transplants
  • Immunotherapy
  • Trys to help body fight cancer
  • Radiation therapy
  • High energy x-rays kill cancer cells and shrink

Non-Hodgkins Disease
  • Is also malignant
  • Growth of B or T cells in lymph system
  • Cases outweigh those of Hodgkins disease
  • 29 types of lymphoma are non-Hodgkins

Non-Hodgkins Diagnosis
  • Some symptoms lymph node swelling, unexplained
    itching, fever, weight loss, lack of energy
  • Will be tested and doctor will determine which
    type of lymphoma
  • Take biopsy (surgical preferred over needle

Non-Hodgkins Treatment
  • Several types of treatment
  • Chemotherapy is most common
  • Radiation therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Bone marrow transplants
  • Watch and wait
  • The survival statistics of treatments are unknown

the history of Hodgkins
  • Disease named after Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866)
  • English scholar and Quaker physician working at
    Guys Hospital in England
  • Publishes paper on lymphatic disease
  • 1666 first recorded description of HD by Malpight

case study
  • Frank Choi
  • Diagnosed at age 27 with lymphatic cancer
  • Symptoms turning an unhealthy shade of yellow,
    indigestion, bloating
  • Needed surgery but doctors unable to operate
    because of the unbelievably huge tumor near his
    stomach (15 cm in diameter)

Case study contd.
  • Underwent one session of chemotherapy? no hope of
    getting rid of cancer
  • Tumor growing controllably
  • Was given two weeks to live
  • Five days after the failed surgery, his cancer
    was miraculously released through excrement and
    he was healed.

And hes definitely healthy now
Dividing Hodgkins disease cells
Tissue sample of HD
Normal lymph tissue
sites visited
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Ovarian Cancer
  • By
  • Fred Ghamyan
  • and Charmaine Terania

Basic History
  • fifth leading cause of cancer death in women
  • four cancers preceding it on the list include
    cancers of the lung, breast, colon, and pancreas
  • second most commonly diagnosed
  • exact causes of ovarian cancer is still unknown.
  • more common in industrialized nations
  • 1 out of 4-60 women in the United States have a
    chance of developing it sometime in their life.

Who can get affected?
  • Women (Usually of older age)
  • American Indians and Alaska Native women show
    both a higher ovarian cancer incidence and
    mortality rate than white American women
    according to statistics developed by the National
    Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and
    End Results Program, but not included in NCI's
    Report to the Nation.

How do you know if you have the cancer?
  • One of the most difficult cancers to trace
  • Some symptoms that might encourage a woman to
    seek if she has ovarian cancer
  • pain in the abdomen
  • a feeling of being bloated
  • fatigue
  • weight loss
  • or problems with urination

If I think I have it, then what?
  • First, an ultrasound scan of the abdomen is
    performed. Sometimes the scan is taken from
    inside the vagina.
  • The second test is to measure the level of the
    CA125 marker in the blood.
  • However, neither of these tests gives a definite
    diagnosis of ovarian cancer, but if both tests
    are positive, the patient is usually referred to
    a surgeon who will operate to see if the ovaries
    show any signs of cancer

What can cause this cancer?
  • There is some evidence that being overweight can
    increase your risk of ovarian cancer. Some
    research has suggested that beta-carotene in the
    diet can reduce the risk of this cancer, although
    this finding has not yet been confirmed.
  • Genes also have a great deal to do with it
  • Overall, if you have one close relative (mother,
    sister or daughter) who has had ovarian cancer,
    your risk goes up about 4-fold. If you have two
    cases amongst close relatives, your risk goes up
    10-fold or more.

What does the cancer affect?
  • The part of the body affected is the female's
    ovaries located in the fallopian
  • tubes of the female
  • reproductive system.
  • However, it also
  • provides pain to parts
  • of the abdomen.

Is there treatment?
  • The treatment used will depend on how advanced
    the cancer is and how old the patient is.
  • For younger patients with early cancer, limited
    surgery is used to preserve their fertility.
  • For older patients with more advanced cancers,
    the ovaries and the womb are usually removed. If
    the cancer has spread, further tissue may need to
    be removed to get out as much of the cancer as
  • Chemotherapy is normally used after the surgery
    to kill any remaining cancer cells. Sometimes it
    is also used before the surgery to shrink the
    tumor and make it easier to remove completely.

What are the chances that I will be cured if I do
get cancer?
  • Overall, only about two out of every five women
    with ovarian cancer can be cured. Like all other
    cancers, the stage at which ovarian cancer is
    diagnosed determines how easily it is to cure. If
    diagnosed and treated while the cancer is still
    confined to the ovaries, nearly 75 of women can
    be cured. However, once it has spread into the
    pelvic cavity, the cure rate drops to one third.
    If it has spread further, only one quarter to on
    sixth of patients can be cured.
  • For these figures 'cured' is defined as surviving
    for five years after the first diagnosis. There
    still isnt a definite cure for ovarian cancer.

How many people are affected by this cancer per
  • In 2005, more than 22,000 women were diagnosed
    with the disease.
  • An estimated 16,000 women died from ovarian
    cancer in 2005.

Cancer Cells Dividing gtgt
Case Study
  • Anne
  • Symptoms constant pain in lower abdomen
  • Diagnosis through ultrasound
  • Treatment surgery, cyst removed
  • After effects pain continued but soon went away
  • She is still able to have children. ?

Prostate Cancer
  • By Chandler Sheilds and Joshua Im

History Timeline
  • The prostate organ was first described by
    Venetian anatomist Niccolò Massa in 1536 and
    illustrated by Flemish anatomist Andreas Vesalius
    in 1538.
  • Prostate cancer was identified in 1853.
  • The prostate gland was first removed through
    radical perineal prostatectomy in 1904 by Hugh
    Young at Johns Hopkins Hospital.
  • Removal of the prostate and lymph nodes while
    allowing penile function (radical retropubic
    prostatectomy) was developed in 1983 by Patrick

Who Does it Affect?
  • Prostate cancer is most common amongst men over
    fifty (exclusively restricted to infecting men).
  • Prostate cancer is the ninth most common cancer
    in the world,
  • Prostate cancer is the number one non-skin cancer
    that is found amongst United States men.
  • Prostate cancer is least common among Asian males
    and most common among black males.

  • Prostate cancer is most commonly diagnosed by
    physical examination or by screening blood tests,
    such as the PSA (prostate specific antigen) test.
  • Suspected prostate cancer is most of the time
    confirmed by removing a piece of the prostate and
    examining it under a microscope.
  • Other tests, such as X-rays and bone scans, are
    utilized in order to determine whether prostate
    cancer has spread.

Suspected Causes
  • Even though the cause of prostate cancer is
    ultimately unknown, a man's risk of attaining
    prostate cancer is related to his age, genetics,
    race, diet, lifestyle, medications, and other

Body Parts Affected
  • This particular cancer infects the prostate gland
    in the males reproductive system.
  • The cancer will usually spread to the bones and
    the lymph nodes.
  • Prostate cancer can cause pain, difficulty in
    urinating, erectile dysfunction, and other

Common Treatments
  • Prostate cancer can be treated through surgery,
    radiation therapy, hormone therapy, sometimes
    chemotherapy, watchful waiting, or some
    combination of these methods.

Survival Statistics
  • The success rate of each of these tactics depends
    upon such criteria as the stage of the cancer,
    the PSA level, and the Gleason score.
  • As the result of prostate cancers relatively
    slow-growing nature, the 5-year survival rate for
    prostate cancer diagnosed at all stages is 98,
    the relative 10-year survival rate is 84 and the
    15-year survival rate drops to 56.

Mortality Rate
  • In 2006, over 232,000 men will be diagnosed with
    prostate cancer, and over 30,000 men will be
    killed by it.

Case Study William Greenberg

  • The origin of breast cancer goes as far as 1600
    BC in Egypt.
  • In Edwin Smith Papyrus paper, he described 8
    cases of cancer where breast had to be treated by
    cauterization-process of removing body parts by
    burning it.
  • The discovery of breast cancer was founded by
    French surgeon Jean Louis Petit and Scottish
    surgeon Benjamin Bell in 17th century where they
    had removed a lymph gland, breast tissue and
    chest muscle.

  • Age/gender
  • The older you are, the more likely you are
    to develop breast cancer. A woman who is 90 years
    old have the chances of getting breast cancer
    increases to 14.3. For men on the other hand,
    generally are invulnerable to breast cancer but
    happens to every 1000 males.
  • As you increase in age, the chances of you
    getting breast cancer increases. Also, the
    potency tends to be greater.

  • It has been reported that Caucasian women have
    the overall risk of developing breast cancer
    compared to African American women.
  • The breast cancer is twice as much in Caucasian
    women compared to Hispanic and Asian women.
  • Although occurrence of breast cancer is lower
    among African Americans compared to Caucasians,
    their mortality rate is higher than that of

  • The diagnosis of breast cancer can be done by
    examining breast tissue removed from a patient.
    Other methods such as fine-needle aspiration,
    nipples asiprates, ductal lavage, core needle
    biopsy, nd local surgical biopsy.
  • Imagining tests are also used to detect breast
    cancer such as chest x-ray, CT, MRI, and PET

  • The cause of breast cancer is suspected to be a
    result from DNA damage. Ionizing radiation or
    natural mutation of BCRA1, BCRA2, p53 genes
    contribute to the cause of DNA damage and breast

  • The affected parts of the body are the breast
    unless the cancer the metastasized, it may spread
    to other organs via blood stream.
  • Symptoms-on the picture right

  • Surgery
  • The first choice of treatment to remove the
    affected area.
  • Radiation therapy
  • It applies to the affected area with
    high-energy rays to destroy the cancerous cells.
    Side effects occur during this process.
  • Chemotherapy
  • It uses anti-cancer drugs (cytotoxic) to
    destroy cancer cells.
  • Hormonal Therapy
  • Since most breast cancers need estrogen to
    grow, hormones that help the production of
    estrogen are used as an effective hormonal

  • With the help of treatment, women are able to
    survive by 86.
  • Without the treatment only 1 survive.

  • 41,619 women die annually.
  • According to the chart, Breast cancer is ranked
    6th as the leading caused deaths.


Colon Cancer
  • Stephanie Granillo
  • Jeremy Lazarus

Group Affected
  • Those with history of colon cancer in family
  • Risk increases with age
  • 60-70 yrs
  • Smokers
  • Physically inactive at high risk
  • Alcohol increases risks

  • Often, patients are asymptomatic (have no
  • Lesion
  • The nearer the lesion is the anus, the more bowel
  • Anemia
  • Anorexia
  • Asthenia

  • Early detection recommended since there may be no
  • Fecal occult blood tests
  • Endoscopy
  • Colonoscopy

  • Mushroom like growths (adenomatous polyps) in
  • Hereditary onpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)
    syndromes (heredity)

Affected Areas
  • Colon

  • Surgically remove all or part of colon
  • Chemotherapy after surgery prolongs survival

Survival and Mortality Rates
  • Survival rates for early stage detection is about
    5 times that of late stage cancers.

Janice MacAfee
  • The MacAfees have a strong history of cancer in
    their family, so Janice has been routinely having
    cancer screenings.
  • She learned she had uterine cancer and then, 11
    years later, was diagnosed with colon cancer.
  • She had to have 1/3 of her colon removed after a
    polyp was found.
  • The doctor told her of another, controversial
    treatment, called colectomy, which requires
    having the entire colon removed.
  • She decided to remove only a very large portion
    of her colon because it is recommended for those
    with inherited cancer

Janice MacAfee
  • Janice eventually took a test for HNPCC to see if
    she carried the gene that causes colon cancer
    because she was worried about the well being of
    her children
  • Although her results were inconclusive, she
    convinced her children to take the tests and
    continues to encourage the rest of their family
    to do so as well so they can detect their cancer
    in the beginning stages

Skin Cancer
  • Mia Reyes
  • Patricia Rodriguez

Get your facts straight..
  • unprotected exposure to the sun in the first 15
    years of life more than doubles the chances of
    getting skin cancer later in life
  • - skin cancer is the most common form of
    cancer, probably accounting for at least half of
    all cancers.
  • about half of all Americans who live to age 65
    will be diagnosed with skin cancer
  • according to the ACS, men are about twice as
    likely to develop non-melanoma as women
  • - The American Cancer Society estimates there
    will be about 10,710 deaths from skin cancer in
    2006 7,910 from melanoma and 2,800 from other
    skin cancers.
  • - Skin cancer was first described as an inhibitor
    of tubular morphogenesis in cells grown in

  • Sunburn
  • UV light
  • Tanning
  • .. Or anything else that can damage your skin
  • Heredity environment could also be contributing

Different types of Skin Cancer
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma
  • Is the most common form of skin cancer and
    accounts for 90 of all skin cancer in the US
  • These cancers almost never spread (metastasize)
    to other parts of the body.
  • However, they can cause damage by growing and
    invading surrounding tissue.

Basal call carcinoma contd
  • Removal
  • The doctor's main goal is to remove or destroy
    the cancer completely with as small a scar as

Squamous Cell Carcinomais cancer in the
squamous cells (think, flat cells that look like
fish scales under a microscope and found in
tissue that forms on surface of skin)occurs
roughly one-quarter as often as basal cell
carcinomacells can metastasize
Different types of Skin Cancer
Do you have skin cancer?
  • Doctors often can recognize and distinguish skin
    cancer just by looking at it.
  • Sometimes many people could just detect it by
  • -It first appears as a growth, or abnormal
    accumulation of cells. It sometimes takes the
    form of a sore or pim