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New Energy Efficient Technologies in Industry

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85 secondary steel companies operating 122 mini mills' with 226 electric arc furnaces ... Studies estimate industrial CHP expansion by 2010 at 30 GW ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Energy Efficient Technologies in Industry


1
New Energy Efficient Technologies in Industry
  • Ernst Worrell
  • Environmental Energy Technologies Division
  • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley
  • Western Regional Air Partnership
  • Air Pollution Prevention Forum, May 31st, 2000

2
Introduction
  • Industry is one of the the largest energy
    consumers worldwide and in the U.S. (37 of U.S.
    primary energy consumption)
  • Industrial activities contribute considerably or
    are the main contributors to emission of many
    criteria pollutants
  • Integrated policies to improve energy efficiency
    and reduce pollution are important to
  • reduce the negative environmental impact of many
    industrial activities
  • reduce the contribution to greenhouse gas
    emissions
  • reduce the energy, waste treatment and permitting
    costs
  • improve the productivity and bottom-line of
    industry
  • Important to find synergetic approaches, that
    meet all of the above criteria

3
Industrial Energy Use Emissions
4
Overview of U.S. Steel Industry
  • Steel industry is consumes 6 of industrial
    energy consumption and produces about 8 of
    industrial CO2 emissions
  • It is also a large source of pollutant emissions
    (EDF-ranking)
  • The U.S. steel industry is currently one the
    worlds largest
  • 14 integrated steel companies operating 20
    integrated steel mills with 40 blast furnaces
  • 60 of US production in 1994
  • Primary Specific Energy Consumption 22.3 MBtu/ton
  • 85 secondary steel companies operating 122 mini
    mills with 226 electric arc furnaces
  • 40 of US production in 1994
  • Primary Specific Energy Consumption 10.2 MBtu/ton
  • Many opportunities exist for energy efficiency
    improvement and pollution prevention

5
Benchmarking of Steel Energy Use
Specific Energy Consumption (GJ/tonne)
6
Adoption of Continuous Casting in Selected
Countries, 1970-1995
7
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
  • U.S. steel industry is less energy efficient than
    in other industrialized countries, suggesting the
    existence of opportunities for energy efficiency
    improvement
  • Technical inventory of practices and technologies
    for energy efficiency improvement
  • Inventory, or bottom-up approach allows
    assessment of pollution prevention and
    productivity benefits
  • Inventory found nearly 50 practices and
    technologies
  • Economic analysis of the measures finds a
    economic potential for energy efficiency
    improvement of 18, reducing CO2 emissions by
    19, assuming a payback period of 3 years or less
  • Many practices and technologies have multiple
    benefits

8
Scrap Preheating
  • Scrap Preheating (Fuchs Optimized Retrofit
    Furnace)
  • Although recycling of steel reduces energy
    consumption, the efficiency of the electric
    furnace can be further improved by preheating the
    incoming scrap, using the hot flue gases of the
    furnace
  • Electricity savings are estimated at 120 kWh/ton
    steel (20)
  • While investments are estimated at 6 /ton steel,
    the reduced operation costs (-4.50 /ton), result
    in a payback period of 1 year
  • The other benefits are improved productivity
    (reduced tap-to-tap times), improved yield,
    reduced electrode consumption, and reduced flue
    gas volume (reduced gas cleaning costs)

9
Thin Slab Casting
  • Thin slab casting integrates casting and hot
    rolling, reducing the capital costs and energy
    use dramatically
  • Thin slab casting reduces primary energy
    consumption by 3 to 5 GJ/tonne steel, saving up
    to 170 kg C/tonne steel
  • Steel production costs are reduced by
    25-36/tonne, or 10 of production costs
  • Several U.S. plants use
  • the technology, potentials
  • exist for greater use
  • Reduced material
  • losses and emissions

10
Energy-Efficient Technologies Are A Huge Resource
  • Very large gains in energy efficiency--and other
    measures of productivity--will continue to come
    from advances in technology
  • Opportunities exist in all sectors for greater
    efficiency of devices and systems
  • Technical potential exists in all countries to
    reduce current energy demand significantly using
    off-the-shelf technology
  • A more open international trading system will
    speed the transfer of these technologies among
    countries, and the pace of RD

11
Large Potential in Current and Emerging
Energy-Efficient Technologies
  • Gaps between current practice and currently
    available best practice shows large potential for
    efficiency improvements
  • Project to assess emerging industrial
    technologies by LBNL and ACEEE, funded by PGE,
    EPA, NYSERDA, NEEA, DOE, Iowa Energy Center
  • Selected 50 key emerging industrial technologies
    that may provide continued large efficiency
    improvements in the future, out of a total
    inventory of 200
  • Emerging technologies are currently under
    development, demonstration or, if commercial,
    occupy less than 5 of market potential

12
Emerging Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies
N.B. This is intended only to indicate the range
of technologies to be investigated further, and
is not a final list of those that will be
included in the analysis.
13
Clean Energy Futures Study
  • To produce fully documented scenarios assessing
    how energy efficient and clean energy
    technologies can address key energy and
    environmental challenges of the next century
    while enabling continued economic growth.
  • The scenarios are driven by sets of public
    policies and programs that are designed to be
    credible, flexible, and low-cost mechanisms for
    fostering energy technology solutions, with an
    emphasis on climate change issues.
  • Two policy scenarios reflecting increased levels
    of national levels of commitment to environmental
    goals
  • Moderate scenario national commitment if costs
    can be low
  • Advanced scenario nationwide urgency to meet
    goals
  • Study is done by 5 national labs with wide review
    committees
  • The study is expected to be released in December

14
Overview of Approach - Industry
  • Comprehensive energy efficiency policy to address
  • Barriers
  • Diversity of industrial sector
  • Voluntary Agreements used as umbrella policy
  • Character of VAs vary by subsector and scenario
  • Supported by package of additional policies
  • Modeling of technologies and policies using NEMS
  • NEMS is the national energy forecasting model
  • modeling of policy implications

15
Voluntary Agreements - 1
  • Contract between the government (or another
    regulating agency) and a private company,
    association of companies or other institution.
  • The private partners may promise to attain
    certain energy efficiency improvement, emission
    reduction target, or at least try to do so.
  • The government partner may promise to financially
    support this endeavour, or promise to refrain
    from other regulating activities.
  • Great diversity among voluntary approaches,
    ranging from informal programs and
    self-commitment (e.g. individual companies) to
    highly structured approaches

16
Voluntary Agreements - 2
  • To be successful, preliminary evaluation of
    Voluntary Agreements showed that
  • VAs need to include a clear definition of
    convincing objectives and targets,
  • VAs need to have broad coverage and
    participation,
  • VAs need to have flexible and cost-effective
    procedures to implement the agreement for both
    industry and government,
  • VAs need to include comprehensive monitoring, as
    well have independent third party evaluation

17
Supporting Policies
  • Tax rebates (e.g. CCTI)
  • Demonstration programs (e.g. NICE3)
  • Audits (e.g. IAC-program)
  • Challenge programs
  • CHP programs
  • Labeling programs (Energy Star)
  • Waste management for increased recycling (Waste
    Wise)
  • RD programs
  • ESCO/utility programs (line charges)
  • Clean Air Partnership fund/SIPs
  • Cap and trade of CO2 emissions (Advanced scenario
    only)

18
Illustrative Policies and Programs
  • Moderate Scenario
  • Voluntary agreements
  • Expanded Assessment Program
  • Expanded Challenge programs
  • CHP tax credit extended from 2003 to 2020
  • Extend standards to all motors
  • Clean Air Partnership Funding at currently
    proposed levels
  • Line charges expanded to 30 states
  • Advanced Scenario
  • Same, at higher level
  • More Centers and more assessments
  • Coverage is extended and budgets are doubled
  • Same, combined with other CHP stimulation
    measures
  • Same, mandate national motor repair standard
  • Extended Clean Air Partnership Funding
  • Line charges expanded to 50 states

19
Industry - Policy Scenario Results
  • Moderate
  • Industrial energy use grows 0.4/year to 37.8
    Quads in 2020 (8 below baseline)
  • Aggregate energy intensity falls by 1.5/year
    (compared to 1.1/year in baseline)
  • Carbon emissions are 518 MtC in 2020 (10 below
    baseline)
  • Reductions in energy demand in steel, paper and
    cement industries
  • Light industries largest contributor to growth in
    energy use and emissions
  • Advanced
  • Industrial energy use reduced by 0.1/year to
    34.3 Quads in 2020 (16 below baseline)
  • Aggregate energy intensity falls by 1.8/year
    (compared to 1.1/year in baseline)
  • Carbon emissions are 408 MtC in 2020 (29 below
    baseline)
  • Strong improvements in steel, paper and cement
    industries less in light industries
  • Fuel mix shifts to low carbon fuels (natural gas,
    biomass)

20
Industry Results - Energy Use
21
Overall Results CEF Carbon Emissions
U.S. Carbon Emissions (Mt C)
22
Overall - Key Policies
  • Residential Buildings
  • efficiency Standards and voluntary programs
  • other, space heating and cooling, water heating
  • Commercial Buildings
  • equipment standards and voluntary programs
  • other and lighting
  • Transport
  • RD, voluntary fuel economy goals, pay-at-the
    pump insurance fees, and domestic cap and trade
    system
  • TDI and fuel cell vehicles
  • Electricity
  • domestic cap and trade, restructuring, tax credit
    for renewables, and RD
  • combined cycle, wind, nuclear re-licensing,
    biomass co-firing

23
Other Impacts
  • Overall
  • Criteria pollutant emissions are reduced, and air
    quality is hence improved (only quantified for
    electricity sector)
  • Both scenarios reduce U.S. petroleum consumption
    and hence, imports. This reduces wealth transfers
    and improves oil security
  • Development of advanced energy technologies could
    expand the market share of U.S. companies in the
    vast global market for efficient and clean
    technologies
  • Regional
  • Reduced coal and oil consumption will have
    negative consequences for mining, refining and
    transport industries
  • Wind and bio-energy would create new employment

24
Conclusions
  • Industry is a large energy consuming sector in
    the U.S. and a large emitter of pollutants
  • Many technologies are available to improve
    industrial energy efficiency and environmental
    performance, and more are under development.
  • U.S. industry has considerable potential for
    energy efficiency improvement, in the short and
    long term
  • Comprehensive energy efficiency, industrial and
    environmental policies, if well designed, are
    essential to improve the environmental and
    energy, as well as economic, performance of U.S.
    industry

25
Additional Slides
  • With Technology Examples for
  • Industrial Cogeneration (CHP)
  • Cement Industry
  • Buildings
  • Transportation
  • (not used in presentation)

26
Industrial CHP
  • Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production or
    cogeneration has received a lot of renewed
    attention in the U.S. doubling CHP-capacity by
    2010
  • CHP is traditionally used to generate heat
    (steam, hot water) and power. Modern forms
    include direct drives for compressors and
    preheating, and process applications
  • Modern gas turbines achieve efficiencies of
    35-40
  • The average efficiency of power generation in the
    U.S. has been around 32-33 for the past decades
  • Studies estimate industrial CHP expansion by 2010
    at 30 GW
  • Large amounts of energy can be saved through CHP,
    when compared to stand-alone power generation,
    reducing NOx, SO2 , PM and CO2 emissions

27
Industrial CHP Results - CEF-Study
  • Installed CHP capacity will likely increase to 4
    GW by 2010 and 9 GW by 2020 in the baseline
    scenario
  • In the moderate scenario CHP capacity will
    increase to 14 GW by 2010 and 40 GW by 2020,
    generating 98 TWh by 2010 and 278 TWh by 2020
  • In the advanced scenario CHP capacity will
    increase to 29 GW by 2010 and 76 GW by 2020,
    generating 201 TWh by 2010 and 539 TWh by 2020.

28
Cement Industry
  • 119 plants in 37 states, producing 90 million
    tons of cement
  • Although the cement industry consumes only about
    2 of industrial energy, it emits about 5 of CO2
    emissions
  • CO2 emissions are due to burning fuels and
    calcination of limestone
  • Major environmental impacts are PM, criteria air
    pollutants, water use and emissions
  • Cement is produced in two steps first clinker is
    made by burning limestone. Secondly, the clinker
    is mixed with additives to make cement (portland
    cement is 95 clinker)
  • Clinker making is the energy intensive production
    step
  • Energy efficiency opportunities can be found in
    using energy efficient equipment, or increasing
    the use of additives in cement

29
Pre-Calciner Kiln
  • The U.S. has a very high share of the inefficient
    wet process kiln (26 of clinker production in
    1997)
  • Pre-calciner kiln is an efficient dry process
    kiln with preheating of raw materials and
    pre-calcining limestone at low temperature
  • Pre-calcination kiln saves 2.4 Mbtu/ton clinker,
    or 42
  • High capital costs are a barrier to
    implementation
  • Benefits include
  • reduced NOx emissions
  • reduced water use
  • increased productivity
  • increased fuel efficiency
  • increase use of RDF as fuel

30
Blended Cement
  • The U.S. cement industry produces mainly portland
    cement
  • Portland cement contains 95 clinker, and clinker
    is responsible for the largest part of energy use
    and CO2
  • In blended cement part of the clinker is replaced
    by waste materials (e.g. blast furnace slags,
    fly-ash).
  • Potentially, up to 65 of the clinker can be
    replaced in specific cement types, saving up to
    45 on energy and CO2
  • Almost all countries in the world produce blended
    cement as a way to reduce energy use and waste
    production
  • Blended cement would use wastes from other
    industries like fly-ash, blast furnace slags and
    other pozzolanic materials

31
Future Potential Emerging Energy-Efficient
Building Technologies
Source Nadel, et al., 1998. Emerging
Energy-saving Technologies and Practices for the
Building Sector. Washington, D.C. ACEEE.
32
Future Potential Emerging Energy-Efficient
Transportation Technologies
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