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New Energy Efficient Technologies in Industry


85 secondary steel companies operating 122 mini mills' with 226 electric arc furnaces ... Studies estimate industrial CHP expansion by 2010 at 30 GW ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Energy Efficient Technologies in Industry

New Energy Efficient Technologies in Industry
  • Ernst Worrell
  • Environmental Energy Technologies Division
  • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley
  • Western Regional Air Partnership
  • Air Pollution Prevention Forum, May 31st, 2000

  • Industry is one of the the largest energy
    consumers worldwide and in the U.S. (37 of U.S.
    primary energy consumption)
  • Industrial activities contribute considerably or
    are the main contributors to emission of many
    criteria pollutants
  • Integrated policies to improve energy efficiency
    and reduce pollution are important to
  • reduce the negative environmental impact of many
    industrial activities
  • reduce the contribution to greenhouse gas
  • reduce the energy, waste treatment and permitting
  • improve the productivity and bottom-line of
  • Important to find synergetic approaches, that
    meet all of the above criteria

Industrial Energy Use Emissions
Overview of U.S. Steel Industry
  • Steel industry is consumes 6 of industrial
    energy consumption and produces about 8 of
    industrial CO2 emissions
  • It is also a large source of pollutant emissions
  • The U.S. steel industry is currently one the
    worlds largest
  • 14 integrated steel companies operating 20
    integrated steel mills with 40 blast furnaces
  • 60 of US production in 1994
  • Primary Specific Energy Consumption 22.3 MBtu/ton
  • 85 secondary steel companies operating 122 mini
    mills with 226 electric arc furnaces
  • 40 of US production in 1994
  • Primary Specific Energy Consumption 10.2 MBtu/ton
  • Many opportunities exist for energy efficiency
    improvement and pollution prevention

Benchmarking of Steel Energy Use
Specific Energy Consumption (GJ/tonne)
Adoption of Continuous Casting in Selected
Countries, 1970-1995
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
  • U.S. steel industry is less energy efficient than
    in other industrialized countries, suggesting the
    existence of opportunities for energy efficiency
  • Technical inventory of practices and technologies
    for energy efficiency improvement
  • Inventory, or bottom-up approach allows
    assessment of pollution prevention and
    productivity benefits
  • Inventory found nearly 50 practices and
  • Economic analysis of the measures finds a
    economic potential for energy efficiency
    improvement of 18, reducing CO2 emissions by
    19, assuming a payback period of 3 years or less
  • Many practices and technologies have multiple

Scrap Preheating
  • Scrap Preheating (Fuchs Optimized Retrofit
  • Although recycling of steel reduces energy
    consumption, the efficiency of the electric
    furnace can be further improved by preheating the
    incoming scrap, using the hot flue gases of the
  • Electricity savings are estimated at 120 kWh/ton
    steel (20)
  • While investments are estimated at 6 /ton steel,
    the reduced operation costs (-4.50 /ton), result
    in a payback period of 1 year
  • The other benefits are improved productivity
    (reduced tap-to-tap times), improved yield,
    reduced electrode consumption, and reduced flue
    gas volume (reduced gas cleaning costs)

Thin Slab Casting
  • Thin slab casting integrates casting and hot
    rolling, reducing the capital costs and energy
    use dramatically
  • Thin slab casting reduces primary energy
    consumption by 3 to 5 GJ/tonne steel, saving up
    to 170 kg C/tonne steel
  • Steel production costs are reduced by
    25-36/tonne, or 10 of production costs
  • Several U.S. plants use
  • the technology, potentials
  • exist for greater use
  • Reduced material
  • losses and emissions

Energy-Efficient Technologies Are A Huge Resource
  • Very large gains in energy efficiency--and other
    measures of productivity--will continue to come
    from advances in technology
  • Opportunities exist in all sectors for greater
    efficiency of devices and systems
  • Technical potential exists in all countries to
    reduce current energy demand significantly using
    off-the-shelf technology
  • A more open international trading system will
    speed the transfer of these technologies among
    countries, and the pace of RD

Large Potential in Current and Emerging
Energy-Efficient Technologies
  • Gaps between current practice and currently
    available best practice shows large potential for
    efficiency improvements
  • Project to assess emerging industrial
    technologies by LBNL and ACEEE, funded by PGE,
    EPA, NYSERDA, NEEA, DOE, Iowa Energy Center
  • Selected 50 key emerging industrial technologies
    that may provide continued large efficiency
    improvements in the future, out of a total
    inventory of 200
  • Emerging technologies are currently under
    development, demonstration or, if commercial,
    occupy less than 5 of market potential

Emerging Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies
N.B. This is intended only to indicate the range
of technologies to be investigated further, and
is not a final list of those that will be
included in the analysis.
Clean Energy Futures Study
  • To produce fully documented scenarios assessing
    how energy efficient and clean energy
    technologies can address key energy and
    environmental challenges of the next century
    while enabling continued economic growth.
  • The scenarios are driven by sets of public
    policies and programs that are designed to be
    credible, flexible, and low-cost mechanisms for
    fostering energy technology solutions, with an
    emphasis on climate change issues.
  • Two policy scenarios reflecting increased levels
    of national levels of commitment to environmental
  • Moderate scenario national commitment if costs
    can be low
  • Advanced scenario nationwide urgency to meet
  • Study is done by 5 national labs with wide review
  • The study is expected to be released in December

Overview of Approach - Industry
  • Comprehensive energy efficiency policy to address
  • Barriers
  • Diversity of industrial sector
  • Voluntary Agreements used as umbrella policy
  • Character of VAs vary by subsector and scenario
  • Supported by package of additional policies
  • Modeling of technologies and policies using NEMS
  • NEMS is the national energy forecasting model
  • modeling of policy implications

Voluntary Agreements - 1
  • Contract between the government (or another
    regulating agency) and a private company,
    association of companies or other institution.
  • The private partners may promise to attain
    certain energy efficiency improvement, emission
    reduction target, or at least try to do so.
  • The government partner may promise to financially
    support this endeavour, or promise to refrain
    from other regulating activities.
  • Great diversity among voluntary approaches,
    ranging from informal programs and
    self-commitment (e.g. individual companies) to
    highly structured approaches

Voluntary Agreements - 2
  • To be successful, preliminary evaluation of
    Voluntary Agreements showed that
  • VAs need to include a clear definition of
    convincing objectives and targets,
  • VAs need to have broad coverage and
  • VAs need to have flexible and cost-effective
    procedures to implement the agreement for both
    industry and government,
  • VAs need to include comprehensive monitoring, as
    well have independent third party evaluation

Supporting Policies
  • Tax rebates (e.g. CCTI)
  • Demonstration programs (e.g. NICE3)
  • Audits (e.g. IAC-program)
  • Challenge programs
  • CHP programs
  • Labeling programs (Energy Star)
  • Waste management for increased recycling (Waste
  • RD programs
  • ESCO/utility programs (line charges)
  • Clean Air Partnership fund/SIPs
  • Cap and trade of CO2 emissions (Advanced scenario

Illustrative Policies and Programs
  • Moderate Scenario
  • Voluntary agreements
  • Expanded Assessment Program
  • Expanded Challenge programs
  • CHP tax credit extended from 2003 to 2020
  • Extend standards to all motors
  • Clean Air Partnership Funding at currently
    proposed levels
  • Line charges expanded to 30 states
  • Advanced Scenario
  • Same, at higher level
  • More Centers and more assessments
  • Coverage is extended and budgets are doubled
  • Same, combined with other CHP stimulation
  • Same, mandate national motor repair standard
  • Extended Clean Air Partnership Funding
  • Line charges expanded to 50 states

Industry - Policy Scenario Results
  • Moderate
  • Industrial energy use grows 0.4/year to 37.8
    Quads in 2020 (8 below baseline)
  • Aggregate energy intensity falls by 1.5/year
    (compared to 1.1/year in baseline)
  • Carbon emissions are 518 MtC in 2020 (10 below
  • Reductions in energy demand in steel, paper and
    cement industries
  • Light industries largest contributor to growth in
    energy use and emissions
  • Advanced
  • Industrial energy use reduced by 0.1/year to
    34.3 Quads in 2020 (16 below baseline)
  • Aggregate energy intensity falls by 1.8/year
    (compared to 1.1/year in baseline)
  • Carbon emissions are 408 MtC in 2020 (29 below
  • Strong improvements in steel, paper and cement
    industries less in light industries
  • Fuel mix shifts to low carbon fuels (natural gas,

Industry Results - Energy Use
Overall Results CEF Carbon Emissions
U.S. Carbon Emissions (Mt C)
Overall - Key Policies
  • Residential Buildings
  • efficiency Standards and voluntary programs
  • other, space heating and cooling, water heating
  • Commercial Buildings
  • equipment standards and voluntary programs
  • other and lighting
  • Transport
  • RD, voluntary fuel economy goals, pay-at-the
    pump insurance fees, and domestic cap and trade
  • TDI and fuel cell vehicles
  • Electricity
  • domestic cap and trade, restructuring, tax credit
    for renewables, and RD
  • combined cycle, wind, nuclear re-licensing,
    biomass co-firing

Other Impacts
  • Overall
  • Criteria pollutant emissions are reduced, and air
    quality is hence improved (only quantified for
    electricity sector)
  • Both scenarios reduce U.S. petroleum consumption
    and hence, imports. This reduces wealth transfers
    and improves oil security
  • Development of advanced energy technologies could
    expand the market share of U.S. companies in the
    vast global market for efficient and clean
  • Regional
  • Reduced coal and oil consumption will have
    negative consequences for mining, refining and
    transport industries
  • Wind and bio-energy would create new employment

  • Industry is a large energy consuming sector in
    the U.S. and a large emitter of pollutants
  • Many technologies are available to improve
    industrial energy efficiency and environmental
    performance, and more are under development.
  • U.S. industry has considerable potential for
    energy efficiency improvement, in the short and
    long term
  • Comprehensive energy efficiency, industrial and
    environmental policies, if well designed, are
    essential to improve the environmental and
    energy, as well as economic, performance of U.S.

Additional Slides
  • With Technology Examples for
  • Industrial Cogeneration (CHP)
  • Cement Industry
  • Buildings
  • Transportation
  • (not used in presentation)

Industrial CHP
  • Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production or
    cogeneration has received a lot of renewed
    attention in the U.S. doubling CHP-capacity by
  • CHP is traditionally used to generate heat
    (steam, hot water) and power. Modern forms
    include direct drives for compressors and
    preheating, and process applications
  • Modern gas turbines achieve efficiencies of
  • The average efficiency of power generation in the
    U.S. has been around 32-33 for the past decades
  • Studies estimate industrial CHP expansion by 2010
    at 30 GW
  • Large amounts of energy can be saved through CHP,
    when compared to stand-alone power generation,
    reducing NOx, SO2 , PM and CO2 emissions

Industrial CHP Results - CEF-Study
  • Installed CHP capacity will likely increase to 4
    GW by 2010 and 9 GW by 2020 in the baseline
  • In the moderate scenario CHP capacity will
    increase to 14 GW by 2010 and 40 GW by 2020,
    generating 98 TWh by 2010 and 278 TWh by 2020
  • In the advanced scenario CHP capacity will
    increase to 29 GW by 2010 and 76 GW by 2020,
    generating 201 TWh by 2010 and 539 TWh by 2020.

Cement Industry
  • 119 plants in 37 states, producing 90 million
    tons of cement
  • Although the cement industry consumes only about
    2 of industrial energy, it emits about 5 of CO2
  • CO2 emissions are due to burning fuels and
    calcination of limestone
  • Major environmental impacts are PM, criteria air
    pollutants, water use and emissions
  • Cement is produced in two steps first clinker is
    made by burning limestone. Secondly, the clinker
    is mixed with additives to make cement (portland
    cement is 95 clinker)
  • Clinker making is the energy intensive production
  • Energy efficiency opportunities can be found in
    using energy efficient equipment, or increasing
    the use of additives in cement

Pre-Calciner Kiln
  • The U.S. has a very high share of the inefficient
    wet process kiln (26 of clinker production in
  • Pre-calciner kiln is an efficient dry process
    kiln with preheating of raw materials and
    pre-calcining limestone at low temperature
  • Pre-calcination kiln saves 2.4 Mbtu/ton clinker,
    or 42
  • High capital costs are a barrier to
  • Benefits include
  • reduced NOx emissions
  • reduced water use
  • increased productivity
  • increased fuel efficiency
  • increase use of RDF as fuel

Blended Cement
  • The U.S. cement industry produces mainly portland
  • Portland cement contains 95 clinker, and clinker
    is responsible for the largest part of energy use
    and CO2
  • In blended cement part of the clinker is replaced
    by waste materials (e.g. blast furnace slags,
  • Potentially, up to 65 of the clinker can be
    replaced in specific cement types, saving up to
    45 on energy and CO2
  • Almost all countries in the world produce blended
    cement as a way to reduce energy use and waste
  • Blended cement would use wastes from other
    industries like fly-ash, blast furnace slags and
    other pozzolanic materials

Future Potential Emerging Energy-Efficient
Building Technologies
Source Nadel, et al., 1998. Emerging
Energy-saving Technologies and Practices for the
Building Sector. Washington, D.C. ACEEE.
Future Potential Emerging Energy-Efficient
Transportation Technologies
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