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Basic Nutrition Lesson Proteins Part One

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Protein Structure and Metabolism ... Just a Tiny Bit of Protein Chemistry ... have to worry about consuming each individual protein from the foods you eat. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basic Nutrition Lesson Proteins Part One


1
Basic Nutrition Lesson Proteins Part One
2
  • Protein Structure and Metabolism
  • Proteins are necessary for building the
    structural components of the human body, such as
    muscles and organs
  • You also need proteins to keep your immune
    system healthy, synthesize neurotransmitters,
    create and signal hormones

3
  • Meats, eggs, and dairy products are significant
    sources of protein, but you can also get protein
    from a variety of grains, legumes, nuts, and
    seeds.

4
  • Just a Tiny Bit of Protein Chemistry
  • Proteins tend to be large molecules made up of
    several building blocks called amino acids.

5
  • The general structure of any amino acid molecule
    includes a carboxyl group of atoms, an amine
    group and a side chain.
  • The carboxyl group contains one carbon, two
    oxygen, and one hydrogen atom.
  • The amine group contains one nitrogen atom with
    two hydrogen atoms attached to it.

6
  • All 20 amino acids have different side chains,
    which vary in shape including straight chains of
    atoms, branched chains of atoms and rings of
    atoms.
  • The side chains may include carbon, hydrogen,
    sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms.

7
  • There are 20 different amino acids.
  • Amino acids are linked together to form
    peptides, which are small chains of amino acids.
  • The peptides are then linked together to form
    larger proteins.

8
  • There are thousands of different proteins that
    carry out a large number of jobs in the human
    body.
  • Even though so many different proteins are at
    work in your body, you don't have to worry about
    consuming each individual protein from the foods
    you eat. Your body will make those proteins

9
  • Make sure your body has a healthy supply of all
    20 of the different amino acid "building blocks.
  • Having enough of those amino acids is easy
    because your body can make 11 of them from other
    compounds already in your body. That leaves 9
    amino acids that you must get from your diet.
  • Those nine amino acids are called "essential
    amino acids."

10
  • Non Essential and Essential Amino Acids
  • The 11 non-essential amino acids are not called
    "non-essential" because they are not important.
  • They are important and your body requires them
    to perform several functions.
  • These amino acids are called "non-essential"
    because you don't need to get them from your
    diet.

11
  • Your body can build those 12 amino acids from
    chemicals already present in your body. The
    non-essential amino acids include
  • Alanine Arginine
  • Asparagine Aspartic Acid
  • Cysteine Glutamic Acid
  • Glutamine Glycine
  • Proline Serine
  • Tyrosine

12
  • The nine essential amino acids are called
    "essential" because you can't manufacture them,
    you have to eat proteins that contain those amino
    acids. Those essential amino acids include
  • Histidine
  • Isoleucine
  • Leucine
  • Lysine
  • Methionine
  • Phenylalanine
  • Threonine
  • Tryptophan
  • Valine

13
  • Do you really need to worry about essential
    amino acids when you plan your daily meals?
  • Not really. Animal sources of protein such as
    meat, eggs, and dairy products are "complete
    proteins." That means that each protein found in
    an animal product contains each of the nine
    essential amino acids

14
  • Vegetarians and vegans may need to pay a little
    more attention to the dietary proteins. Plant
    proteins are called "incomplete proteins."
  • Each plant protein is missing at least one of
    the nine essential amino acids

15
  • Every amino acid is found in some type of plant,
    so you can combine different plant proteins to
    get all of the amino acids you need

16
  • Protein Functions in the Body
  • There are many different proteins in your body,
    and they perform different functions.

17
  • Proteins functions include
  • Contributing to enzyme activity that promotes
    chemical reactions in the body
  • Signaling cells what to do and when to do it
  • Transporting substances around the body
  • Keeping fluids and pH balanced in the body

18
  • Serving as building blocks for hormone production
  • Helping blood clot
  • Promoting antibody activity that controls immune
    and allergy functions
  • Serving as structural components that give our
    body parts their shapes

19
  • Protein Digestion and Metabolism
  • The digestion of protein begins in the mouth
    with chewing. Chewing not only makes food easier
    to swallow, it also helps with digestion by
    chopping food up into smaller bits.
  • Remember that it really is important to chew
    your food thoroughly don't gulp your food down
    in huge bites.

20
  • Protein digestion continues in the stomach with
    the release of hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen.
  • Hydrochloric acid converts pepsinogen into
    pepsin, which begins to break down the bonds
    between the amino acids.
  • This process takes place while the muscles
    surrounding the stomach squeeze and squish the
    foods and stomach fluids together.

21
  • The next step occurs in the small intestine
    where the hydrochloric acid is neutralized with
    bicarbonates released from the pancreas.
  • The pancreas also releases an enzyme called
    trypsin. Trypsin continues to break apart the
    amino acids, which are then absorbed into the
    blood stream.

22
  • Once in the bloodstream, the amino acids are
    carried to the cells in various parts of your
    body.
  • Your body uses the individual amino acids that
    were broken down during digestion to build the
    proteins needed for the various functions

23
  • You may not think of protein as an energy
    source, but proteins do contribute calories to
    you diet.
  • Each gram of protein you eat has four calories
  • 15 to 20 of your daily calorie intake should
    come from protein

24
  • It isn't difficult to get enough protein in your
    diet.
  • One chicken leg alone will provide you with
    about 30 grams of protein
  • One salmon fillet has about 40 grams of protein
  • A cup of oatmeal has six grams of protein
  • A cup of asparagus even has two grams of protein

25
  • Since most people get enough protein from their
    diet, protein deficiency is rare in developed
    countries.
  • In underdeveloped countries, protein deficiency
    is more common. Severe protein deficiency is
    called kwashiorkor. Children with kwashiorkor
    tend to have very thin arms and legs and large,
    distended bellies.
  • Lack of protein can cause growth failure, loss
    of muscle mass, a depressed immune system, lung
    problems, heart problems, and death.
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