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THE IMPACT OF CULTURE on management and leading styles, working and thinking styles, learning and te

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Title: THE IMPACT OF CULTURE on management and leading styles, working and thinking styles, learning and te


1
THE IMPACT OF CULTURE on management and leading
styles, working and thinking styles, learning and
teaching styles
  • Seminar The training of cross-cultural
    competence and skills
  • Lecturer Prof. Dr. Beneke
  • Students Anke Boettcher, Kathrin Pinker

2
  • Introduction
  • Attitudes towards culture
  • National culture
  • Corporate culture
  • Different business areas
  • Conclusion

3
technology leadership negotiation
creativity feedback time rewards
labels science machines
hierarchies
4
Attitudes towards culture
  • Parochialism our way is the only way
  • Cultural Blindness - People do not recognize
    cultural differences in order to be just and to
    treat everybody equally.
  • Ethocentrism our way is the best way
  • Synergy Cultural diversity is recognized and
    can lead to both advantages and disadvantages.

5
Synergy
  • Cultural diversity ? key ressource
  • Managing the impact of diversity rather than
    ignoring the diversity
  • Result is more than the sum of the single
    contributions
  • Advantages more flexible, creative and open to
    new ideas

6
Synergy
  • Culturally synergistic Problem Solving
  • Recognition of the problem
  • Analysis from different perspectives
  • Solution appropriate for all cultures

7
  • Introduction
  • Attitudes towards culture
  • National culture
  • Corporate culture
  • Different business areas
  • Conclusion

8
First example Management by objectives (employer
and employee decide together on an objective,
which the employee has to achieve within a
certain time. After that period of time the
result is evaluated.)
  • Crucial dimensions are
  • Power distance
  • Individualism
  • Relation to nature

9
Second example Feedback
  • Crucial dimensions
  • Individualism (losing face)
  • Relation to nature
  • Communication style

10
  • Introduction
  • Attitudes towards culture
  • National culture
  • Corporate culture
  • Family culture
  • Eiffel Tower culture
  • Guided Missile culture
  • Incubator culture
  • Different business areas
  • Conclusion

11
The Family Culture
  • Person-oriented
  • Hierarchical father-children relationship
  • Ascribed status
  • Culture clusters Greece, Italy, Japan,
    Singapore, South Korea, Spain, other nations
    which industrialized late and smaller companies

12
The Eiffel Tower Culture
  • Hierarchies
  • Ascribed status to a role and not to a person
  • Task-oriented
  • Personal relationships are not desired
  • Culture clusters Austria and Germany

13
The Guided Missile Culture
  • Egalitarian
  • Task-oriented
  • Status is achieved
  • Individualistic
  • Culture clusters USA, Norway, Ireland

14
The Incubator Culture
  • Person-oriented
  • Egalitarian
  • Minimal hierarchies and structure
  • Creative and spontaneous
  • Leadership is achieved
  • Culture Clusters Sweden,USA (Silicon Valley), UK
    (Silicon Glen) and smaller companies

15
  • Introduction
  • Attitudes towards culture
  • National culture
  • Corporate culture
  • Different business areas
  • Leadership
  • Motivation
  • Decision making
  • Example Japan
  • Conclusion

16
Leadership
  • McGregor (1957)
  • Theory X
  • people are basically lazy, dislike work
  • tight control system
  • Theory Y
  • people are trustworthy, enjoy work
  • are given autonomy and responsibility

17
Leadership
  • William Ouchi (1982)
  • Theory Z
  • based on Japanese management
  • lifetime employment, concern for the total
    person
  • close and trusting relationships to improve
    productivity

18
Motivation
  • Abraham Maslow (1954) Hierarchy of needs
  • Physiological, safety, social, esteem and
    self-actualization needs

19
Motivation
  • David McClelland (1961) Achievement Theory
  • Achievement, power and affiliation
  • Victor Vroom (1964) Expectancy Theory
  • People estimate their ability to perform a task
    and the probable type of reward

20
Motivation Theories
  • Abraham Maslow (1954) Hierarchy of needs
  • Physiological, safety, social, esteem and
    self-actualization needs
  • David McClelland (1961) Achievement Theory
  • Achievement, power and affiliation
  • Victor Vroom (1964) Expectancy Theory
  • People estimate their ability to perform a task
    and the probable type of reward

21
Decision making
  • Problem recognition
  • Information research
  • Construction of alternatives
  • Choice
  • Implementation

22
Product-design for Japan
  • Prefer quality and are willing to pay premium
    prices
  • Different taste less sugar and salt
  • Smaller servings
  • Different body shape

23
Japanese television advertising
  • Length 15 seconds or less
  • Mood advertising
  • - non-verbally or with few words
  • - emotion, humour, shock
  • - good first impression

24
Conclusions
  • Culture has a very important impact on business,
    but not everything can be explained by it
  • Other influences individual character,
    situation, legal system etc.

25
Literature
  • Adler, Nancy (1991), International Dimensions of
    Organizational Behaviour, 2nd ed., Belmont
    Wadsworth
  • Henderson, George/Spigner-Littles, Dorscine
    (1996), A practitioners guide to understanding
    indigenous and foreign cultures, 2nd ed.,
    Springfield Thomas Books
  • Trompenaars, Fons (1998), Riding the ways of
    cultures, 2nd ed., New York et al McGraw-Hill
  • March, Robert (1990), Honoring the customer.
    Marketing and selling to the Japanese, New York
    et al Wiley and Sons
  • Beneke, Jürgen (2000),Orientation Matrix,
    University of Hildesheim

26
Literature
  • Hofstede, Geert (1997), Cultures and
    Organizations, New York et al. McGraw-Hill
  • Knapp, Karlfried et al. (eds.)(1999), Meeting the
    Intercultural Challenge, Sternenfels Verlag
    Wissenschaft und Praxis
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