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Special Education Content Training


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Title: Special Education Content Training

You can please some of the people some of the
But you cant please all of the people all of the
Special Education Inclusion Practices
  • Presented by
  • Mark Tribett
  • Mark.tribett_at_misdtx.net

History of Special Education
  • Special education is like a chameleon, its
    appearance changes with attitudes and convictions
    of the time.
  • Before 1800, with a few notable exceptions,
    mental retardation was not considered an
    overriding social problem in any society because
    those with more severe retardation were killed or
    died of natural causes at an early age.
  • The earliest reference to mental retardation is
    dated 1552 B.C., some anthropological studies
    have found evidence of mental retardation
    substantially predating that time.
  • Severe head injuries were not uncommon during
    early times, and they most certainly resulted in
    behavioral irregularities. Human skulls dating to
    the Neolithic Age indicate that crude brain
    surgery had been performed.
  • Neither the religious nor the economic
    perspective was conducive to the care and
    maintenance of people with retardation
    nonproductive citizens were expendable.

Historical Foundation cont.
  • Pope Gregory I
  • 12th century, King Henry II of England
  • Reproductive sterilization
  • Alfred Binet- French minister of public
    education, designed the first intelligence test.
  • Two trends are apparent in special education
  • -First, children with disabilities are receiving
    special education services earlier
  • -The second trend is a change in the public's
    attitude toward employment of people with

Special Education the Law
  • Several federal statutes are in place to insure
    the rights of those students and employees in
    special education.
  • Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act
  • Instrumental in the desegregation of the schools
    during the 1960s and 70s
  • Title VII allows for money damages for
    intentional discrimination.

Special Education the Law cont.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
  • Prohibits discrimination against persons with
    disabilities in public and private employment.
  • Allows students accessibility to facilities and
    programs in public schools and those institutions
    accepting federal funds for education.

Special Education the law cont.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
  • Provides a comprehensive legal framework for
    serving children with disabilities.
  • In 1976-77 fewer than 1 million students were
    served under IDEA. By 1999-2000 close to 3
    million student s received services.
  • IDEA 1997 requires parental consent for all
  • Requires that an IEP team (ARD) must decide what
    assessments are necessary.
  • Texas City ISD v. Ashley G.- the hearing officer
    ultimately ruled that the parents have a voice in
    the assessment process, but not a veto power.
  • Andress v. Cleveland ISD- if a parent wants to
    receive special education under IDEA they must
    allow the school to reevaluate, they cannot rely
    solely on an independent evaluation.

IDEA Reauthorization Amendments
  • 1975
  • FAPE
  • Students must have on file an IEP for each
    student eligible for services.
  • Parents have the right to inspect, challenge, and
    be informed of these records.
  • Students have the right to be serviced in LRE.
  • Students must be assessed fairly and

IDEA Amendments cont.
  • 1986
  • All rights of the Education for All Handicapped
    Children are extended to preschoolers with
  • School District must conduct a multidisciplinary
    assessment and an Individualized family service
    plan (IFSP) for all preschoolers with a

IDEA Amendments cont.
  • 1990
  • Officially termed IDEA by reauthorizing Education
    for All Handicapped Children
  • Changed the language from handicapped to
    disability, less demeaning.
  • Adds Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Autism has
    handicapping conditions
  • Comprehensive Transition services added.
  • AT was added to services.

IDEA Amendments cont.
  • 1997
  • State and District assessments were to be
    included for those with disabilities.
  • Addressed the issue of discipline.
  • Restructured funding for Special Education
  • Curriculum was addressed.
  • Regular Ed. Teacher added to the IEP team.

IDEA cont.
  • Congress sent the message that the students
    should be taught, as much as possible, the same
    subject matter that the regular education
    students are taught.
  • Texas adopted the TEKS, which the state defines
    as what the student is expected to know.
  • IDEA takes the notion of least restrictive
    environment (LRE).

Least Restrictive Environment
  • Federal law expresses a strong preference for
    placing the child with disabilities in the
    setting in which that child would be served if
    there were no disability.
  • Several terms inclusion, mainstreaming, etc.
  • Three cases that involve LRE
  • Daniel R.R. v. Sate Board of Education
  • Case involving the Regional Day School Program
    for the Deaf.
  • Flour Bluff ISD v. Katherine M.

  • Continuum of Services
  • Least restrictive
  • Regular class w/ or w/o modifications
  • Remedial (or developmental) class (1/2-1 hour)
  • Special Class (1-3 hours), Lab or Resource Room
  • Special Class (4-6) hours
  • Home-Bound Instruction
  • Institutional or Hospital Placement
  • Most Restrictive

Section 504
  • These students may include the following
    conditions asthma, heart conditions, drug
    addictions, etc.

Handicapping Conditions Under IDEA
  • Autism
  • Mental Retardation
  • Learning Disability (LD)
  • Emotional Disturbance (ED)
  • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
  • Speech or Language Impairment
  • Visual Impairment (VI)

Conditions cont.
  • Deafness and Hearing Impaired
  • Orthopedic Impairments
  • Other Health Impairments (OHI)
  • Deaf-Blindness
  • Multiple Disabilities
  • Developmental Delay- not mandated by IDEA but
    powers left to the state for those between the
    ages of 3-9 years old needing Special Education

Percentage of Children with Disabilities Ages
6-17, School Year 1998-1999
  • Category of all Disabilities
  • LD 50.8
  • Speech/Language Impairments 20.4
  • MR 10.4
  • ED 8.3
  • Multiple Disabilities 1.8
  • Hearing Impairments 1.3
  • Orthopedic Impairments 1.3
  • OHI 4.0
  • VI 0.4
  • Autism less than .1
  • Deaf-blindness less than .1
  • TBI .2

  • The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
    (FERPA) (20 U.S.C. 1232g 34 CFR Part 99) is a
    Federal law that protects the privacy of student
    education records. The law applies to all schools
    that receive funds under an applicable program of
    the U.S. Department of Education.
  • Parents or eligible students have the right to
    inspect and review the student's education
    records maintained by the school. Schools are not
    required to provide copies of records unless, for
    reasons such as great distance, it is impossible
    for parents or eligible students to review the
    records. Schools may charge a fee for copies.
  • Parents or eligible students have the right to
    request that a school correct records which they
    believe to be inaccurate or misleading. If the
    school decides not to amend the record, the
    parent or eligible student then has the right to
    a formal hearing. After the hearing, if the
    school still decides not to amend the record, the
    parent or eligible student has the right to place
    a statement with the record setting forth his or
    her view about the contested information.

FERPA cont.
  • Generally, schools must have written permission
    from the parent or eligible student in order to
    release any information from a student's
    education record. However, FERPA allows schools
    to disclose those records, without consent, to
    the following parties or under the following
    conditions (34 CFR 99.31)
  • School officials with legitimate educational
  • Other schools to which a student is transferring
  • Specified officials for audit or evaluation
  • Appropriate parties in connection with financial
    aid to a student
  • Organizations conducting certain studies for or
    on behalf of the school
  • Accrediting organizations
  • To comply with a judicial order or lawfully
    issued subpoena
  • Appropriate officials in cases of health and
    safety emergencies and
  • State and local authorities, within a juvenile
    justice system, pursuant to specific State law.

Special Education Process
  • The 5 Stages

Referral-Requesting that a student be evaluated
  • Parent/Guardian
  • Make a request, preferably written, to the
    principal, counselor, or special education
    designee at the childs campus.
  • Receive a copy of Notice of Procedural
  • Receive notice for full and individual initial
  • Give written consent for the evaluation to be
  • School District
  • Make a referral if student is suspected of having
    a disability that is causing his/her learning
  • Contact parent. Explain the referral process,
    and provide the parent with a copy of Notice of
    Procedural Safeguards and Special Education
  • Provide the parent with the notice for a full and
    individual initial evaluation.
  • Obtain written parental consent to evaluate.

Admission, Review, and Dismissal
  • Parent/Guardian
  • Receive Notice of ARD Committee Meeting and
    Notice of Procedural Safeguards five (5) school
    days prior to meeting.
  • Ask questions about the evaluation results.
  • Share information about the childs strengths and
    educational needs.
  • Share information to help determine eligibility
    and appropriate services.
  • School District
  • Provide parent with Notice of ARD Committee
    Meeting and Notice of Procedural Safeguards.
  • Review and explain evaluation results with
    members of ARD committee.
  • Determine eligibility for special education

ARD-Individualized Education Program Development
  • Parent
  • Share information.
  • Assist in the development of IEP goals,
    short-term objectives and benchmarks.
  • Contribute to the determination of special
    education and related services to be provided, if
  • Contribute to the determination of appropriate
    educational placement.
  • Give permission for your child to receive special
    education and related services (initial placement
  • School District
  • Contribute to the development of the IEP that
    will enable the student to be involved in an
    progress in the general education curriculum.
  • IEP to include
  • Students strengths and needs.
  • Measurable annual goals, short term objectives
    and benchmarks.
  • Appropriate special education and related
  • Appropriate educational placement.

Annual Review Meeting
  • Parent/Guardian
  • Receive Notice of ARD Meeting five (5) school
    days prior to meeting.
  • Receive a copy of Procedural Safeguards.
  • Assist. In development of new IEP annual goals
    and short-term objectives and benchmarks for the
    next school year.
  • Help determine appropriate special education and
    related services.
  • Help determine an appropriate educational
    placement based on the identified IEP goals and
  • School District
  • Notify parent of the meeting and participants.
  • Provide a copy of the Notice of Procedural
    Safeguards to the parent.
  • Gather information on the students progress,
    including involvement and progress in general
    education curriculum.
  • Review current IEP.
  • Develop new IEP that will allow the student to
    progress in the general education curriculum.
  • Determine appropriate educational placement.
  • Advise parent of his/her right to agree/disagree
    with ARD committee recommendations.

Advantages to Inclusion
  • facilitates more appropriate social behavior
    because of higher expectations in the general
    education classroom.
  • promotes levels of achievement higher or at least
    as high as those achieved in self-contained
  • offers a wide circle of support, including social
    support from classmates without disabilities.
  • improves the ability of students and teachers to
    adapt to different teaching and learning styles.
  • Hines, Rebecca A

Advantage Cont.
  • offers the advantage of having an extra teacher
    or aide to help them with the development of
    their own skills
  • leads to greater acceptance of students with
  • facilitates understanding that students with
    disabilities are not always easily identified
  • promotes better understanding of the similarities
    among students with and without disabilities
  • Hines, Rebecca A

Problems with Inclusion
  • The National Education Association recommends
    that inclusive class size be no higher than 28
  • this population should make up no more than 25
    of the class
  • Scheduling the amount of time needed for
    collaborative planning, especially at the middle
    and secondary levels where a co-teacher may be
    working with as many as six different teachers
    during the course of the school day

Problems Cont.
  • The primary findings are that teachers agree in
    principle with the goals of inclusion, but many
    do not feel prepared to work in inclusive
    settings (Mastropieri Scruggs, 2000 Hines
    Johnston, 1997).
  • collaboration calls for a shift in control and
    the sharing of a learning environment rather than
    having individual space, both concepts foreign to
    the traditionally trained teacher
  • accepting new ideas about teaching, learning, and
    learning styles is called for and not always
    embraced by teachers

Knows the different ways that students with and
without disabilities learn.
  • Learning styles can be defined in large part by
    the answers to five questions
  • (1) What type of information does the student
    preferentially perceive sensory (external) -
    sights, sounds, physical sensations, or intuitive
    (internal) - possibilities, insights, hunches?
  • (2) Through which sensory channel is external
    information most effectively perceived visual -
    pictures, diagrams, graphs, demonstrations, or
    auditory - words, sounds?
  • (3) With which organization of information is
    the student most comfortable inductive - facts
    and observations are given, underlying principles
    are inferred, or deductive - principles are
    given, consequences and applications are deduced?
  • (4) How does the student prefer to process
    information actively - through engagement in
    physical activity or discussion, or reflectively
    - through introspection?
  • (5) How does the student progress toward
    understanding sequentially - in continual steps,
    or globally - in large jumps, holistically?

4 Key Practices
  • Prior knowledge- acts as a lens through which we
    view and absorb new information. It is a
    composite of who we are, based on what we have
    learned from both our academic and everyday
    experiences. (Kujawa and Huske, 1995) .
  • Visual- Make extensive use of pictures,
    schematics, graphs, and simple sketches before,
    during, and after presenting verbal material.
    (sensing, visual)
  • Auditory-words, sounds
  • Kinesthetic- active students talk, move
  • (ADD TACTILE)- the students manipulate blocks or
    other objects.

4 Factors that make a difference in learning and
student achievement
  • Amount of time.
  • Clarity of the instruction
  • What the student came in knowing
  • Interventions of the teacher

The Bottom Line
  • The amount of active participation in the
    learning (covert or overt) is an excellent index
    of the quality of instruction for the purpose of
    predicting or accounting for individual student
  • -Benjamin Bloom. Human Characteristics and School
    Learning. 1976

Performance Standards
Region 13
Texas AYP Targets Reading/English Language Arts
and Mathematics
Grades 3-8 and 10 summed across grade levels by
subject for reading/language arts and mathematics
Region 13
Useful Strategies
  • Use paired or group reading as necessary and
  • Present directions in more than one way orally
    and then on a checklist, overhead,
    transparencies, handouts, or flip charts.
  • Use procedure checklists to help students
    remember what to do and in what order. Remind
    them to check off each step as it is completed.
  • Provide a variety of ways for students to learn
    new material (for example, mini-lectures,
    audiotapes, videotapes, printed materials,
    CD-ROMs, internet sites).
  • Use a handheld micro cassette tape recorder to
    audiotape your directions so students can refer
    to them as needed.
  • Respect the need for some students to move
    around. Identify and clearly communicate when
    students may leave their work places and where
    they can go.

Strategies cont.
  • Provide a stopwatch to remind your more kinetic
    students of when they can move about. Set the
    watch for the amount of time you consider
    appropriate for the student to stay on task.
    When they reach that time, they may get up and
  • Provide a quiet, attractive space for students
    who learn or work best away from others.
  • For learners with visual difficulties, read aloud
    written information, directions, and procedures.
  • For learners with auditory difficulties, provide
    maps, charts, lists, or icons to move them
    through tasks. Provide work samples to help them
    see the quality of work you expect.
  • Think about the physical arrangement of the room.
  • Consider allowing students to use headphones
    (without a tape recorder or radio attached) to
    block noise and distractions.

Mobility and Orientation
  • Physical disabilities may affect students
    mobility but not their need for differentiated
  • Work with your special education colleagues as
    appropriate in modifying tasks such as
    bodily/kinesthetic activities.
  • Keep physical restrictions in mind as you plan
    lessons, field trips, and events.
  • Arrange your classroom so students with physical
    disabilities can participate fully.

Emotionally Disturbed
  • Children with emotional disorders constitute
    about 1 of the preschool- and school-aged
    population. These children may be withdrawn or
    overly aggressive. Their education is usually
    provided in regular or special classes with
    support services provided by psychiatrists,
    psychologists, social workers, and
    speech-language pathologists.

  • Theory
  • Antecedent Dirty Diaper
  • Behavior Baby cries
  • Consequence Change Diaper
  • Self-stimulation, self-injury
  • Debbie picks her skin until it bleeds/teach her
    to pick stickers or pick at a knobby therapy ball
  • Cody cries until Mom picks him up/teach him to
    say,sign, use pictures for hug or up
  • Shane throws toys when he cant make them work/
    teach him say, sign or use a picture for help
  • Jarrett bites his sister if she tries to play
    with him/teach him to say No play or leave me

  • Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
  • Collect information
  • Develop summary statements or hypotheses
    statements about the behavior
  • When ____occurs, (behavior) happens.
  • He/She does that in order to ___.
  • Collect data that support the summary statements
    or hypotheses
  • Develop the BIP (Behavior Intervention Plan)

  • Reinforcers
  • Primary
  • Food, liquid, sensory
  • Secondary
  • Social praise, activity
  • Premack Principle- example, computer time
  • Token Reinforcers

Social Skills
  • Make social skills instruction a significant part
    of the curriculum.
  • Educators must stop using the train-and-hope
    approach (Stokes Baer, 1977) and must
    incorporate instructional techniques that will
    facilitate the generalization and maintenance of
    social skills learned as an integral part of
    their instructional program.
  • Many students with behavioral disorders have
    particular difficulties with and lack skill in
    the area of social competence. The term social
    competence refers here to students ability to use
    environmental cues and alter their social
    behavior in eliciting the desired consequences
    that follow that behavior. Continued research
    efforts need to be directed toward ways to
    improve our ability to teach enough of the
    required skills to improve students social
    competence (Gable et al.)

Behavior Intervention
  • To de-escalate crisis situations and protect
    others from harm
  • First engage the student in a calming down
  • Clear area of other students
  • Use gentle physical guidance and protection to
    prevent self-injury
  • Crisis management plans should be developed
    around the escalation, eruption, and
    de-escalation phases of crisis and not to be used
    as the sole approach to addressing behaviors
  • What constitutes a crisis?
  • Any behavior that is a danger to self or others.

Specific Setting Systems
  • Routines
  • Physical Factors
  • Setting-specific behavior
  • Instructional strategies
  • Support
  • Implementation/monitoring
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