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PSYC 2301 INTRO TO PSYC

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Stress and the Endocrine System. Hypothalamus. Sympathetic nervous System. Adrenal medulla ... The central nervous system and the immune system are directly linked ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PSYC 2301 INTRO TO PSYC


1
PSYC 2301 INTRO TO PSYC
  • Chapter 13Stress, Health, and Coping

2
What is Stress
  • Stress-a negative emotional state occurring in
    response to events that are perceived as taxing
    or exceeding a persons resources or ability to
    cope
  • Stressor-events or situations that produce stress

3
Health Psychology
  • Focus on stress and how psychological factors
    influence health, illness, and treatment
  • Biopsychosocial model-health and illness are
    determined by the complex interaction of
    biological, psychological, and social factors

4
Sources of Stress
  • Life events and change
  • Holmes and Rahe-Social Readjustment Rating Scale
  • People who had more than 150 life change units
    within a year had an increased rate of physical
    or psychological illness

5
Life Events Approach
  • Problems
  • Scores are not very good predictors
  • Not take into account a persons subjective
    appraisal of an event, response to that event, or
    ability to cope with the event
  • Assumes that change in itself, whether good or
    bad, produces stress

6
Daily Hassles
  • Ordinary irritations in daily life
  • Cumulative

7
Conflict
  • Feeling pulled between two opposing desires,
    motive, or goals
  • 3 basic types of conflicts
  • approach-approach
  • avoidance-avoidance
  • approach-avoidance

8
Social and Cultural Factors
  • When people live in an environment that is
    inherently stressful, they often experience
    ongoing, or chronic, stress. People in the
    lowest social economic levels of society tend to
    have highest levels of psychological distress,
    illness, and death
  • Stress can also result when people encounter
    different cultural values

9
Physical Effects on Stress
  • Stress can indirectly affect a persons health by
    prompting behaviors that jeopardize physical
    well-being
  • Stress can directly affect physical health by
    altering body functions, leading to symptoms,
    illness, or disease

10
Stress and the Endocrine System
11
General Adaptation Syndrome
  • Alarm stage-intense arousal occurs as the body
    mobilizes internal physical resources to meet the
    demands of the stress-producing event.
  • Resistance stage-the body actively tries to
    resist or adjust to the continuing stressful
    situation
  • Exhaustion stage-symptoms of the alarm stage
    reappear, only now irreversibly.

12
Stress and the Immune System
  • Stress can diminish the effectiveness of the
    immune system. The most important elements of
    the immune system are lymphocytes--the
    specialized white blood cells that fight
    bacteria, viruses, and other foreign invaders.

13
Ader and Cohen
  • Conditioning the immune system
  • Challenged the prevailing scientific view that
    the immune system operated independently of the
    brain and psychological processes
  • Triggered interest in other possible influences
    on the immune system, including the effects of
    stress and emotional states

14
Psychoneuroimmunology
  • The scientific study of the interconnections
    among psychological processes, the nervous and
    endocrine systems, and the immune system.
  • The central nervous system and the immune system
    are directly linked
  • The surfaces of lymphocytes contain receptor
    sites for neurotransmitters and hormones,
    including catecholamines and cortisol
  • Lymphocytes themselves produce neurotransmitters
    and hormones

15
Stressors That Can Influence the Immune System
  • Janice Kiecolt-Glaser and husband, immunologist
    Ronald Glaser, found that even commonplace events
    can adversely affect the immune system

16
Factors That Influence the Response to Stress
  • Psychological factors
  • Personal Control
  • Explanatory Style Optimism vs. Pessimism
  • Chronic Negative Emotions
  • Type A Behavior and Hostility

17
Factors That Influence the Response to Stress
  • Social Factors
  • Social support benefits health
  • Relationships with others also can be a
    significant source of stress
  • Gender differences in the effects of social
    support

18
Coping
  • The ways we try to change circumstances, or
    interpretations of circumstances, to make them
    less threatening.
  • Problem-Focused
  • Emotion-Focused

19
Coping How People Deal with Stress
  • Problem-Focused
  • Confrontive Coping
  • Planful problem solving

20
Coping How People Deal with Stress
  • Emotion-Focused
  • Escape-avoidance
  • Seeking social support
  • Distancing
  • Denial
  • Positive reappraisal

21
Culture and Coping Strategies
  • Individualistic
  • Emphasize personal autonomy and personal
    responsibility in dealing with problems favor
    problem-focused strategies
  • Collectivistic
  • Emphasis is placed on controlling personal
    reactions to a stressful situation favor
    emotion-focused strategies
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