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Beef Cattle Training Level 1

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Title: Beef Cattle Training Level 1


1
Beef Cattle Training- Level 1-
  • Based on
  • Guide for the Care and Use
  • of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural
  • Research and Teaching
  • (FASS First Revised Edition, 1999)
  • Beef Cattle Training Module, Released 2003

2
Outline
  • General features of beef cattle and terminology
  • Production systems and management practices
  • Feed and water
  • Husbandry practices
  • Environmental management
  • Cattle health care
  • Pain, distress, and
    euthanasia
  • Research procedures

3
General Features of Beef Cattle
  • Highly adaptable
  • Limited agility
  • Gregarious social structure
  • Ruminants, have a multi-compartmentalized stomach
  • Herbivorous animals with the ability to thrive on
    forages and by-products of little or no value to
    man
  • Sexually promiscuous male
  • Extroverted receptivity display by female
  • Precocial development of young

4
Sensory Acuity
  • Cattle discriminate red, green,
    and yellow colors
  • Small area of binocular vision
  • Large area of monocular vision
  • Olfaction (sense of smell)
  • Cattle can distinguish peers by urine
    odors

5
Ruminants
  • Cattle are commonly referred to as ruminants
  • Other ruminants include
  • Sheep
  • Goats
  • Yak
  • Buffalo
  • Camels
  • Llamas
  • Deer

6
Ruminant Digestive System
  • Compartmentalized Stomach
  • RumenLarge fermentation vat
  • ReticulumFermentation vat
  • OmasumRetains large particles for fermentation
  • AbomasumTrue stomach similar to the stomach
    in monogastric animals (e.g., pigs)
  • Intestinal System -
  • Small Intestine
  • Caecum
  • Large Intestine

7
(No Transcript)
8
Ruminants
Whole Cottonseed with Lint
Cottonseed Hulls
  • Ruminants can utilize feedstuffs that are not
    useable by monogastric animals
  • High fiber diets (e.g., grass, hay, silage)
  • By-products
  • Microbial fermentation of feedstuffs occurs
    primarily in the rumen

Whole Cottonseed
Pelleted Whole Cottonseed
Cottonseed Meal
Pelleted Cottonseed Hulls
9
Terminology
  • Order Artiodactyla (even-toed, hoofed animals)
  • Family Bovidae (hollow-horned)
  • Genus Bos
  • Species taurus or indicus

10
Terminology
  • Bos taurus are descendants of European cattle.
    They constitute a majority of the cattle found in
    the United States.
  • Examples of Bos taurus include Hereford,
    Shorthorn, Angus, and Holstein.

Bos taurus
11
Terminology
Bos indicus
  • Bos indicus are generally large-eared, humped
    cattle, such as Zebu cattle from India and Africa
    and American Brahman cattle.

12
Terminology
  • Calf Young of either sex
  • Heifer Young female before she has reached
    sexual maturity
  • Cow Female after she has had a calf
  • Bull Intact male
  • Steer Castrated male

13
Stages of Production
  • Breeding
  • Gestation
  • Calving
  • Weaning
  • Growing
  • Finishing

14
Types of Production
  • Cow-Calf Seed stock (purebred breeding
    animals) or commercial operations that produce
    calves
  • Stocker Recently weaned calves grazing forage
    prior to entry into the feedlot
  • Background Growing calves on forage for
    placement in a feedlot
  • Feedlot Cattle fed a high energy, finishing
    diet

15
Types of Production Systems
  • Range and pasture systems
  • Feedlot systems

16
Range and Pasture System
  • Availability of fresh water is critical
  • Distance to water should be considered
  • Provide shade in areas where heat stress is
    common
  • Provide shelter or wind
    breaks where extreme
  • cold is likely
  • Supplemental feed may
    be needed during
    extreme weather

17
Range and Pasture Systems
  • Quality of forages varies with the season,
    pasture or range type, and the stocking rate
  • A change in the seasonal quality of forage will
    cause a flux in body condition
  • Locally accepted standards for available forage
    and stocking rate should be considered
  • Grazing beef cattle should be provided with
    supplements for nutrients that are known to be
    deficient in pasture and range forage

18
Feedlot Systems
  • Intensive management
    systems
  • Indoors
  • Open lots with or without
    shelter
  • Facilities should provide
    cattle with opportunities for behavioral
    thermoregulation, depending on local climatic
    conditions
  • Windbreaks, shade, mounds, roofed shelter

19
Intensive Laboratory Environments
  • Environmental chambers
  • Metabolism stalls
  • Respiration chambers
  • Stanchions

20
Intensive Lab Environments
  • A minimum light period of 12 h is recommended
  • Excreta should be removed daily
  • Sufficient space should be provided to allow
    cattle to stand up or lie down without difficulty
  • Exercise should be considered for animals housed
    intensively for more than 3 weeks
  • Visual contact with other animals is important
  • Adapting the animal to the situation improves
    both quality of research and safety

21
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)
  • An SOP may be written and then approved by
    the Animal Care and Use Committee to describe
    common procedures, especially management
    procedures, such as
  • Cleaning and sanitation of facilities
  • Feeding
  • Weaning
  • Animal processing
  • Transportation

22
Floor or Ground Area
  • Floor and ground area recommendations (FASS Ag
    Guide, Table 5-1, p 30) are based on four
    conditions
  • Sufficient space to move
  • Adequate access to feed and water
  • Dry resting sites
  • Opportunity to remain reasonably clean
  • Recommended area alone does not ensure that these
    four conditions are met. In other cases, these
    conditions can be met with less than the
    recommended area.

23
Floor and Ground Area
  • Ground area required is affected by
  • Type and slope of floor or soil surface (e.g.,
    rain drainage)
  • Weather (i.e., precipitation, sun, wind)
  • Group size
  • Feeding method

24
Floor and Ground AreaDirt Floor Pens
  • Dust during hot dry weather
  • Mud during wet weather
  • Appropriate drainage
  • Use of mounds

25
Floor and Ground AreaHard Surface Pens
  • Benefits of hard surface pens include
  • Durability
  • Easy cleaning
  • Adequate footing

26
Floor and Ground Area
27
Floor and Ground AreaManure Management
  • Frequent manure removal improves
  • Air quality
  • Microbial numbers
  • Cattle health
  • Manure can be handled wet (liquid manure) or dry
    (with bedding)
  • Manure mounds can be utilized for dry ground

28
Feed and Water
  • Formulate diets according to National Research
    Council (NRC, 2000)
  • In the formulation of diets, one should consider
  • Stage of production
  • Gender
  • Body weight
  • Breed or biological type
  • Environmental conditions
  • Feed availability and price

29
Feed and Water
  • Abrupt changes in diet should be avoided
  • Feed deprivation for more than 24 h should be
    avoided, unless justified in the animal use
    protocol
  • Recommended feed bunk space is provided in the Ag
    Guide (Table 5-1, p 30)

30
Feed and Water
  • Minimize feed and water contamination from
    urine and feces
  • Monitor feed bunks daily
  • Remove any spoiled feed
  • When feeding high energy diets, monitor for signs
    of digestive upset

31
Feed and Water
  • Cattle should have continuous free access to
    clean water
  • When continuous access to water is not possible,
    water should be available for 30 min at least
    twice daily
  • Water systems should be checked daily and cleaned
    regularly

32
Behavior Responses to Social Environment
  • Mixing, crowding, group composition, and
    competition for limited resources are part of the
    confinement social environment
  • Certain cattle experience these
    circumstances as stressful and
    show unwanted behaviors
    (e.g., fighting, bulling)

33
Observation of Animals
  • Cattle should be observed at least once daily
  • Observe general comfort health
  • Continuity of feed and water
  • Rangeland cattle are generally observed less
    frequently
  • Complete observation sheets, environmental data,
    and animal treatment records as needed
  • Emergency contact information should always be
    posted

34
Basic Husbandry Practices
  • Weighing
  • Ear tagging
  • Feeding
  • Watering
  • Vaccinating
  • Implanting
  • Dehorning
  • Horn-tipping
  • Castrating
  • Branding

35
Handling and TransportationMoving Cattle
  • Cattle move from dark to light more easily
  • Non-slip floors and solid-sided chutes should be
    used
  • Electric prods, canes, or blunt objects must be
    used sparingly

36
Handling and TransportationMoving Cattle
  • Cattle have a flight zone that can be used to
    move them
  • The animals point of balance is at its shoulder.
    Cattle will move forward if the handler stands
    behind the point of balance. They will back up if
    the handler stands in front of the point of
    balance.
  • The flight zone is the animal's personal space,
    and the size of the flight zone is determined by
    the animals approachability.

37
Moving Cattle
38
Handling and Transportation
  • Cattle should not be overcrowded during
    transportation
  • All vehicles used to transport cattle should
    provide for the safety of personnel and cattle
    during loading, transporting, and unloading
  • Abrupt sharp turns or stops during transportation
    should be avoided
  • Adequate air circulation should be provided
    during transport this should vary with climatic
    conditions

39
Handling and TransportationNon-Ambulatory Cattle
  • Downed or non-ambulatory cattle must not be
    dragged
  • Specialized slide boards, carts, and sleds can be
    used to transport injured cattle to treatment
    areas
  • Downed cattle with an unfavorable prognosis
    should be euthanized using an approved method

40
Environmental Management
41
EnvironmentAir Quality
  • Gases
  • Ammonia (eye and nose irritant)
  • Hydrogen sulfide (smells like rotten eggs)
  • Dust (particulate matter, PM)
  • Airborne microbes
  • Odor

42
EnvironmentNoise
  • Cattle are sensitive to intermittent loud noises
    and high frequency or hissing sounds

43
Cattle Health Care(Veterinary Care)
  • The objective of the veterinary care program is
    to minimize pain and suffering and to maintain
    animal health and productivity
  • Health program
  • Regulatory compliance
  • Biosecurity

44
Cattle Health Care(Veterinary Care)
  • Monitor health status
  • Caretaker observations
  • Performance measures
  • Tissue diagnostics
  • Serology
  • Necropsy
  • Prevent disease
  • Vaccination
  • Subtherapeutic antimicrobials
  • Nutritional management (e.g., trace minerals and
    vitamins)
  • Parasite control

45
Cattle Health Care(Veterinary Care)
  • Treat disease
  • Isolation
  • Individual animal treatment
  • Group treatment
  • Consult with a veterinarian on drug
    administration
  • Keep adequate treatment records for individual
    animals including
  • Individual ID
  • Name of drug
  • Route of administration
  • Dose
  • Lot number

46
Cattle Health Care(Veterinary Care)
  • Treatment administration
  • Subcutaneous (SC)
  • Lateral side of the neck
  • Intramuscular (IM)
  • Intravenous (IV)
  • Oral
  • IM injections can cause injection site lesions
    and abscesses therefore, if a drug can be
    administered via either IM or SC route, SC should
    be used
  • Give SC injections in the neckavoid damage to
    valuable meat cuts

47
Cattle Health Care (Veterinary Care)
  • Regulatory compliance
  • FDA compliance
  • USDA-APHIS animal care
  • Beef Quality Assurance Program
  • Training of animal users

48
Pain and Distress
  • Definition of pain A sensation of discomfort
    that may lead to distress and feelings of urgency
    resulting from the stimulation of specialized
    nerve endings

49
Signs of Pain and Distress in Beef Cattle
  • Lethargy, restlessness
  • Lack of appetite
  • Increased vocalizations
  • Increased aggression
  • Guarded posture
  • Increased or shallow respiration
  • Abnormal appearance or behavior
  • Grinding of teeth

50
Painful Experiences for Cattle
  • Lameness caused by swollen joints, broken bones,
    or hoof damage
  • Physical injuries
  • Infectious diseases
  • Rough handling
  • Certain research procedures
  • Certain management practices (e.g., castration,
    dehorning, branding)

51
Relieving Pain and Distress
  • Call the individual listed on the contact sheet
    for that animal use protocol
  • Relieve the causative factor
  • Provide first aid when necessary

52
Euthanasia(painless, rapid death)
  • Worker safety and humane euthanasia are important
    considerations
  • Refer to the most recent American Veterinary
    Medical Association panel on euthanasia
  • IV administration of barbiturates
  • Penetrating captive bolt and exsanguination
  • Gunshot to the head

53
Examples of Research Procedures
  • Physical restraint
  • Invasive procedures
  • Blood collection
  • Jugular vein
  • Tail vein

54
Physical Restraint
  • Manual restraint
  • Mainly for young animals
  • Mechanical restraint
  • Squeeze chute
  • Pharmaceutical restraint
  • Metabolism stalls

55
Examples of Invasive Research
  • Major surgery is any surgery that penetrates and
    exposes a body cavity or produces substantial
    impairment of physical or physiological function
  • Chronic catheterization or cannulation
  • Venous
  • Ruminal fistula

56
  • This training module is dedicated to the memory
    of Dr. Julie Morrow for her outstanding
    contribution to animal welfare research and the
    production of this training module.
  • Born July 21, 1960,
  • Died January 5, 2003.

57
  • FASS Ag Guide Beef
  • Subcommittee
  • Frank Mitloehner, PhD, University of California,
    Davis,
  • Chair
  • Janice Swanson, PhD, Kansas State University
  • Bob Smith, DVM, Oklahoma State University
  • Dan Sehnert, BS, University of California, Davis
  • Temple Grandin, PhD, Colorado State University
  • Appreciation is expressed to the USDA-ARS,
    Lubbock, TX, staff Jeff Dailey and Adam Lewis,
    as well as faculty, staff, students,
    and animal research unit managers in the animal
    science departments at Texas Tech University and
    the University of California, Davis.
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