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English in Psychology 1 :

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Title: English in Psychology 1 :


1
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5
CHAPTER ONEPsychology and its Fields
  • Key Words
  • Psychology/Psychologist
  • Introspection
  • Mental processes
  • Behaviorism
  • Gestalt Psychology
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Cognitive Psychology

6
The second verb used in ing form (line 8)
  • They recorded and measured the results of their
    introspections ..., (and they used) using the
    same verbal instruction to each person who
    participated.

7
Deleting words or phrases in parallel structures
(line 13)
  • For hundreds of years, philosophers had been
    reflecting on (the mind) and speculating about
    the mind.

8
The use of passive sentence and its structure
(line 20)
  • He believed that introspection produced results
    which could never be proved or disproved.
  • Object be Past Participle
  • His idea was accepted.

9
Relating subject to its verb (line 30)
  • It largely replaced Wundts introspectionism,
    (and it advocated that) advocating that human
    being should be regarded as complex animals

10
The use of colon to introduce new information
(line 34)
  • ...Watson believed, that psychology could make
    any claims to being a science itself to emulate
    the natural, psychology must adopt its objective
    methods.

11
Comprehension Review
  • 1-The opening of the first psychology laboratory
    is the sign of the actual beginning of psychology
    as a discipline.

T
12
Comprehension Review
  • 2- The first psychologists studies their own
    thoughts, images and feelings, in order to know
    more about human mind.

T
13
Comprehension Review
  • 3- Introspection method was rejected mainly
    because it gave objective evidence.
  • 4- According to behaviorists, the same objective
    method could be used to study man and animals.

F
T
14
Comprehension Review
  • 5- Today, all psychologists agree that scientific
    psychology is the study of human behavior.

F
15
Vocabulary Review
  • Gestalt psychologists advocated the idea that
    the whole of someones behavior is not the same
    as its part together.
  • a. challenged b. supported
  • c. marked d. analyzed

16
Vocabulary Review
  • Behaviorists believed the only way to make
    psychology scientific was to emulate methods used
    in chemistry and physics.
  • a. imitate b. relate
  • c. assign d. retain

17
Vocabulary Review
  • Observers who let their personal opinions
    influence their judgment or measurement are
    described as subjective.
  • a. objective b. unbiased
  • c. personal d. cognitive

18
Vocabulary Review
  • He asked for some time to ------ on my suggestion
    before he accepted it.
  • a. interpret b. reflect
  • c. salivate d. associate

19
Vocabulary Review
  • Behavioral motives of which the individual is not
    aware are called ---------- motives.
  • a. perceptible b. creditable
  • c. prestigious d. unconscious

20
Vocabulary Review
  • A persons ----------- consists of those
    characteristics that shows his or her behavior.
  • a. personality b. validity
  • c. speculation d. prejudice

21
Vocabulary Review
  • It is easier to create mental ------- for
    concrete stimuli rather than abstract ones.
  • a. gestures b. images
  • c. functions d. species

22
Vocabulary Review
  • Psychiatrists, psychologists, and ----------all
    help people solve their psychological problems.
  • a. psychoanalyze
  • b. psychoanalysts
  • c. psychoanalytic
  • d. psychoanalyses

23
Vocabulary Review
  • The -------- of the patients personality showed
    that he was suffering from a serious mental
    problem.
  • a. analysts b. analytical
  • c. analysis d. analytic

24
Vocabulary Review
  • Studies show that subjects must have experience
    with the environment to be able to correctly
    ---------- the stimuli within it.
  • a. perceptual b. perceptible
  • c. perception d. perceive

25
Chapter TwoThe Process Approach (Experimental
Psychology)
  • Key Words
  • Experimental Psychology
  • Cognition/cognitive
  • Physiological Processes
  • Comparative Psychology
  • Learning

26
The use of dash to introduce a list (line 1)
  • This category itself divides into four main areas
    cognitive processes, physiological processes,
    comparative psychology, and learning and ...

27
Deletion of repeated words (line 14)
  • ...how the functions of the nervous system and
    endocrine system are related to (behavior and
    mental processes) and influence behavior and
    mental processes.

28
Recognizing parts of speech from suffixes (line
19)
  • conscious ness consciousness
  • observe tion observation
  • observe able observable
  • implicit ly implicitly
  • condition ed conditioned

29
The frequent use of passive structure in English
(line 25)
  • The study of animal behavior was inspired by
    Darwins theory of evolution and it ...

30
The use of relative clause to modify the subject
(line 41)
  • Social learning theorists, who share many of the
    basic principles of Conditioning Theory, ...

31
Comprehension Review
  • 1- We can infer and observe our mental processes
    directly.
  • 2- Physiological psychologists try to find what
    each part of the brain does.

F
T
32
Comprehension Review
  • 3- Comparative psychology and animal psychology
    have the same meaning.

F
33
Comprehension Review
  • 4- Learning processes make an important issue in
    social and developmental psychology.
  • 5- Social learning theorists reject the basic
    principles of conditioning.

F
F
34
Vocabulary Review
  • A lot of knowledge can be attained by observing
    others verbal and non-verbal behavior.
  • a. influenced b. encouraged
  • c. spread d. reached

35
Vocabulary Review
  • It could be inferred from her behavior that she
    had a mental problem.
  • a. deduced b. attained
  • c. reflected d. emulated

36
Vocabulary Review
  • Forgetting occurs when the learned material is
    not retained in memory.
  • a. varied b. influenced
  • c. stored d. compared

37
Vocabulary Review
  • Piagets theory of cognitive development had a
    great -------- on ideas about childrens mental
    processes.
  • a. remedy b. prejudice
  • c. temptation d. impact

38
Vocabulary Review
  • Learning by modeling and learning by imitation
    are two synonyms for --------- learning.
  • a. remedial b. functional
  • c. observational d. conditional

39
Vocabulary Review
  • Observing animals in their natural environment is
    the best way to -------- accurate
    information about their behavior.
  • a. consult b. retain
  • c. attain d. evolve

40
Vocabulary Review
  • Forgetting takes place when for some reason brain
    is not able to -------- the learned material.
  • a. retain b. confine
  • c. reflect d. advocate

41
Vocabulary Review
  • Darwin suggested that features of successive
    generations are changed through
    ------------processes.
  • a. evolutionary b. inferential
  • c. attainable d. implicit

42
Vocabulary Review
  • A theory of forgetting says that loss of --------
    happens because the learned material is not used.
  • a. permeation b. retention
  • c. inspiration d. implication

43
Vocabulary Review
  • When an organism learns to respond in a
    particular way to a stimulus that previously did
    not produce the response, the --------
    process is complete.
  • a. conditioning b. consultation
  • c. diagnosis d. heredity

44
Vocabulary Review
  • Comparative psychologists may raise birds of
    different ----------in complete darkness and test
    what effect this could have on their ability to
    fly or gather food.
  • a. genders b. species
  • c. subdivisions d. observations

45
Vocabulary Review
  • Instead of asking their patients direct
    questions, psychiatrists may prefer to ---------
    ask for the information they needed.
  • a. imply b. implicitly
  • c. implicit d. implication

46
Vocabulary Review
  • Psychoanalysts use different techniques to
    ---------- their patients unconscious mind.
  • a. impermeable b. permeation
  • c. permeable d. permeate

47
Vocabulary Review
  • John Watson established a system for the study of
    behavior in which only the ------------ responses
    were studied.
  • a. observable b. observer
  • c. observe d. observation

48
CHAPTER THREE The Person Approach
  • Key Words
  • Approach
  • Developmental Psychology
  • Abnormal Psychology
  • Individual Differences
  • Personality
  • Intelligence
  • Social Psychology

49
Two uses of the suffix ly (line 4)
  • adjective ly adverb
  • Quick ly quickly
  • happy ly happily
  • Noun ly adjective
  • Order ly orderly
  • man ly manly

50
Additional information after comma (line 8)
  • Since changes in behavior occur rapidly in the
    early years of life, child psychology, the study
    of childrens behavior, ...

51
Shortened relative clause (line 18)
  • The kinds of behavior (that are) found in
    disturbed children are frequently quite different
    from the behaviors (that are) found in disturbed
    adults, ...

52
Comprehension Review
  • 1-We can understand somebodys behavior better if
    we know its changes.
  • 2- Developmental psychologists generally study
    age groups.
  • 3- There are many similarities between adults
    and childrens psychological disorders.

T
F
F
53
Comprehension Review
  • 4- Those characteristics that dont last long are
    NOT considered a part of a persons personality.
  • 5- According to some psychologists IQ tests are
    NOT valid.

T
T
54
Comprehension Review
  • 6- The term intelligence has a clear definition.
  • 7- Our self-concept is completely the result of
    the way others treat us.

F
F
55
Vocabulary Review
  • His enduring mental disorder caused him to lose
    all his opportunities.
  • a. serious b. clinical
  • c. lasting d. active

56
Vocabulary Review
  • Anxiety and smoking are two of the underlying
    causes of heart attacks.
  • a. basic b. genetic
  • c. valid d. objective

57
Vocabulary Review
  • Quite frequently, an individual with a
    personality ---------- does not believe help is
    needed.
  • a. endurance b. diagnosis
  • c. progress d. disorder

58
Vocabulary Review
  • A set of characteristics ----------a persons
    personality.
  • a. diagnose b. comprise
  • c. recognize d. prescribe

59
Vocabulary Review
  • Economics and politics are best studied together
    because the two subjects ----------.
  • a. contrast b. overlap
  • c. vary d. fluctuate

60
Vocabulary Review
  • The noise of traffic is a continual source of
    ----------.
  • a. disturbance b. deviance
  • c. contribution d. expression

61
Vocabulary Review
  • His strong determination helped him not to
    -------- from a normal life.
  • a. disturb b. prejudice
  • c. deviate d. progress

62
Vocabulary Review
  • One of the questions psychology tries to answer
    is whether behavior occurs because of
    ---------- or environment.
  • a. nurture b. heredity
  • c. evolution d. cognition

63
Vocabulary Review
  • Later in education, we have to -------- to more
    difficult tasks.
  • progressively b. progressing
  • c. progress d. progressive

64
Vocabulary Review
  • Murder is considered the most serious form of
    ----------.
  • a. criminal b. criminalize
  • c. criminally d. criminality

65
CHAPTER FOURApplied Psychology
  • Key Words
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry/Psychiatrist
  • Counseling Psychology
  • School/Educational Psychology
  • Industrial Psychology
  • Organizational Psychology

66
Recognizing part of speech from word parts (line
3)
  • Psychology
  • Psychologist
  • Psychological
  • Psychologically

67
Relative clause to modify people (line 12)
  • This difference in training means that the
    clinical psychologist, who does not have medical
    training, ...

68
Review of modal verbs (line 16)
  • He can run fast.
  • You can/may use my car.
  • I may/might leave tomorrow.
  • You should see a doctor.
  • You must obey traffic rules.

69
The use of neither/nor either/or, and both
(line 32)
  • Neither Ali nor John can leave the class.
  • Either Ali or John can leave the class.
  • Both Ali and John left.

70
Subject appears at the beginning of the second
clause (line 47)
  • Using tests and information gained from
    consultations with the student and his or her
    parents, the school psychologist tries to ...

71
Comprehension Review
  • 1-The clearest difference between a clinical
    psychologist and a psychiatrist is in their
    academic degrees.
  • 2- Ph.D. is the short form for Doctor of
    psychology.

T
F
72
Comprehension Review
  • 3- In most states, a clinical psychologist is NOT
    allowed to commit a patient to a hospital for
    care and treatment.
  • 4- Clinical psychologists are better able to do
    research work than psychiatrists.

F
T
73
Comprehension Review
  • 5- Psychotherapy methods are used more by
    psychiatrists.
  • 6- Counseling and school psychologists use tests
    to obtain the information they need.

F
T
74
Comprehension Review
  • 7- An educational psychologist cannot do the job
    of a school psychologist.

F
75
Vocabulary Review
  • A marriage guidance counselor helps people find
    the right person to marry.
  • a. master b. adviser
  • c. reinforcer d. interpreter

76
Vocabulary Review
  • A medicine such as aspirin can --------- a
    headache.
  • a. alleviate b. confine
  • c. retain d. advocate

77
Vocabulary Review
  • A doctor --------- medicine after diagnosing a
    disease.
  • a. adapts b. delegates
  • c. performs d. prescribes

78
Vocabulary Review
  • There is no ------------ for advanced cases of
    cancer.
  • a. paralysis b. arousal
  • c. credit d. remedy

79
Vocabulary Review
  • We should ------------ an experienced person
    before making important decisions.
  • a. speculate b. inspire
  • c. consult d. disturb

80
Vocabulary Review
  • I prefer to read the English ---------- of
    famous books and not their translations.
  • a. subdivision b. version
  • c. manipulation d. deduction

81
Vocabulary Review
  • A clinical psychologist with an M.A. should work
    under the ------------of a psychiatrist.
  • a. fluctuation b. distinction
  • c. supervision d. consultation

82
Vocabulary Review
  • The main purpose of counseling or -----------
    psychology is to help people overcome their
    personal problems.
  • a. clinical b. cognitive
  • c. experimental d. physiological

83
Vocabulary Review
  • His ------------- behavior makes him quite
    different from others.
  • a. distinction b. distinctions
  • c. distinctive d. distinctively

84
Vocabulary Review
  • Since ---------- originated in Freuds medical
    and psychiatry practice, it was first adopted by
    psychiatrists.
  • a. psychoanalyze
  • b. psychoanalysis
  • c. psychoanalytic
  • d. psychoanalytically

85
CHAPTER FIVEWhat is Development?
  • Key Words
  • Development
  • Developmental Psychology
  • Cognitive Development
  • Physical Development
  • Socio-emotional Development
  • Continuity
  • Domain

86
The use of dash to give more information (line
4)
  • Developmental psychologists must try to
    distinguish development and more specifically,
    human development from all other

87
Review of different relative clauses (line 25)
  • The man who came here is sick.
  • The man (whom) you saw is intelligent.
  • The book (that) you bought is interesting.

88
Comprehension Review
  • 1-Brain damage is an example of physical
    development.
  • 2- A developmental psychologist is interested in
    how an individuals characteristics change as he
    gets older.

F
T
89
Comprehension Review
  • 3- All psychologists agree that development is
    continuous and gradual.
  • 4- Psychological growth is getting bigger and
    better every day and every way.

F
F
90
Comprehension Review
  • 5- The meaning of different behaviors at
    different ages is one of the questions of
    developmental psychology.
  • 6- A childs development is studied by obtaining
    information from all the three domains.

T
T
91
Vocabulary Review
  • Beethoven had an inborn talent for music.
  • a. natural b. physical
  • c. intellectual d. hypothetical

92
Vocabulary Review
  • Politeness is a necessary quality for a
    successful person.
  • a. feeling b. intuition
  • c. curiosity d. characteristic

93
Vocabulary Review
  • The twins were so alike that it was impossible to
    ---------- one from the other.
  • a. vanish b. distinguish
  • c. assimilate d. contribute

94
Vocabulary Review
  • Mentally disordered people can be easily
    ---------- by their abnormal behavior.
  • a. enhanced b. exhausted
  • c. recognized d. proceeded

95
Vocabulary Review
  • When her father died, I sent her
    a(n)---------- note to share her sorrow.
  • a. prejudice b. association
  • c. stability d. sympathy

96
Vocabulary Review
  • Some individuals have a natural -----------
    towards fatness.
  • a. tendency b. analogy
  • c. grimace d. concept

97
Vocabulary Review
  • A researcher should have a(n)------------
    selection of his experiments subjects.
  • a. random b. overt
  • c. total d. inborn

98
Vocabulary Review
  • Mentally disordered people are easily
    ------------ by their abnormal behavior.
  • a. recognize b. recognition
  • c. recognizable d. recognizably

99
Vocabulary Review
  • The two theories are not completely unrelated.
    They ------------ in many ways.
  • a. interconnect b. interconnection
  • c. interconnected d. interconnecting

100
Vocabulary Review
  • He was very ------------ with me when my father
    died.
  • a. sympathize
  • b. sympathy
  • c. Sympathetically
  • d. sympathetic

101
CHAPTER SIXThe Nature-Nurture Interaction
  • Key Words
  • Nature/Heredity
  • Nurture/Environment
  • Interaction
  • Polygenic
  • Genotype/Phenotype
  • Expression

102
Adding deleted words for better comprehension
(line 7)
  • They attempt to integrate distinctive
    contributions of heredity and environment, of
    nature and nurture, (and they attempt) not to
    separate them.

103
A comma is sometimes used to introduce more
information (line 8)
  • From the very beginning, the interaction between
    genes, the smallest units that carry information
    about heredity,...

104
Relating the subject to its verb (line 19)
  • The genetic code is present in each cell of the
    developing individual, beginning with the
    fertilized egg.

105
Conditional sentence type 2, with if deleted
(line 24)
  • Were we able (if we were able) to decipher ...,
    we still would not be able to predict the
    phenotype.

106
A review of conditional sentences
  • 1. If I see him, I will talk to him.
  • 2. If I had a car, I would drive.
  • 3. If I had studied harder, I would have passed
    the exam.

107
Structure of passive sentences (line 31)
  • These genes may be blocked from expressing
    themselves fully
  • Object be Past Participle
  • The car was painted.

108
Adverbial clause of time (line 47)
  • When there is little touching and other forms of
    loving interest, and little stimulation of the
    mind, intelligence is ...

109
Comprehension Review
  • 1-In the past child development was directed
    either by nature or nurture.
  • 2- Most human characteristics are determined by
    only one gene.

F
F
110
Comprehension Review
  • 3- A person may inherit a certain gene but may
    NOT exhibit the trait caused by that gene.

T
111
Comprehension Review
  • 4- Very dark skin is caused by a genotype for
    dark skin and continuous sunlight in the
    environment.

T
112
Comprehension Review
  • 5- The environment has no effect on the
    expression of an individuals intelligence.
  • 6- Sociability is an example of a polygenic
    trait.

F
T
113
Vocabulary Review
  • There should be a lot more -------
    between educational psychologists and school
    teachers.
  • a. interact b. interaction
  • c. interactive d. interactively

114
Vocabulary Review
  • If we accept his -----------, it may provide an
    explanation foe the cause of some humans phobias.
  • a. hypothesize b. hypothesis
  • c. hypothetical d. hypothetically

115
Vocabulary Review
  • Having a good diet can be ----------- to good
    health.
  • a. conducive b. extensive
  • c. subjective d. speculative

116
Vocabulary Review
  • In some countries, private schools have been
    -------------- into the government education
    system.
  • a. contributed b. integrated
  • c. disposed d. conceived

117
Vocabulary Review
  • We can conclude that both heredity and
    environment --------- to influence different
    traits.
  • a. assimilate b. fluctuate
  • c. interconnect d. interact

118
Vocabulary Review
  • Scientists sometimes make a(n) ------------
    between the way water moves in waves and the way
    light travels.
  • a. inference b. persistence
  • c. analogy d. energy

119
Vocabulary Review
  • His heavy smoking was a(n) -------- cause
    of his early death.
  • a. evolutionary
  • b. contributory
  • c. prejudiced
  • d. disturbed

120
Vocabulary Review
  • Intelligence is a(n) ----------- trait, because
    more than one gene is responsible for its
    expression.
  • a. reversible b. intuitive
  • c. intellectual d. polygenic

121
Vocabulary Review
  • In extreme ----------- the skin is a milky color
    and the hair is very light.
  • a. albinism b. disorder
  • c. temperament d. phenotype

122
Vocabulary Review
  • The information that --------- hold determines
    the way in which the organism will develop.
  • a. genes b. genotype
  • c. phenotype d. genetics

123
CHAPTER SEVENCognitive Development Piagets View
  • Key Words
  • Cognitive Development
  • Stage Theory
  • Assimilation
  • Accommodation
  • Sensorimotor

124
Some uses of as (line 4)
  • This book is the same as mine.
  • Ali is as intelligent as John.
  • He works as a psychologist.
  • I saw him as he left.

125
Subject at the end of passive sentences (line 7)
  • Such ideas were challenged by the Swiss
    psychologist, Jean Piaget.
  • Object be P.P. bysubject

126
Sometimes it does not refer to anything, it
just fills the subject position (line 15)
  • In particular, it appears that in many respects
    ...
  • It is strange that he left here.

127
too before adjectives or adverbs (line 25)
  • The tea is too hot to drink.
  • He is too young to drive.
  • I have too much work to go on a trip.

128
Deleting subject in parallel sentences (line 42)
  • ... he sees the same porpoises breathing, (he)
    watches them being petted by their trainer, and
    (he) is allowed to touch one himself.

129
Comprehension Review
  • 1-Jean Piaget believed that childrens cognitive
    abilities are less fully developed than adults.
  • 2- All psychologists accept Piagets theory as an
    exact description of cognitive development.

F
F
130
Comprehension Review
  • 3- The underlying mechanisms of cognitive
    development are studied by Piaget.
  • 4- Object permanence is a very important
    achievement of the first stage.

T
T
131
Comprehension Review
  • 5- The beginning of the second stage is marked by
    the use of mental images and verbal symbols.

T
132
Comprehension Review
  • 6- Wrong answers to the cardboard tube and balls
    test indicate that the child is in the
    preoperational stage.

F
133
Comprehension Review
  • 7- Conceptual categories appear in the third
    stage.
  • 8- The individuals at the formal operation stage
    may NOT actually use their advanced forms of
    thought and reasoning.

T
T
134
Vocabulary Review
  • A poet can --------- his feelings, but a painter
    expresses his feelings in drawings and colors.
  • a. verbalize b. verbalization
  • c. verbal d. verbally

135
Vocabulary Review
  • Her mood --------- from happiness to extreme
    depression when she heard the bad news.
  • a. variable b. variably
  • c. variability d. varied

136
Vocabulary Review
  • This judge is very skillful in -------
    he can use general principles to solve particular
    cases.
  • a. deduce b. deduction
  • c. deductive d. deductively

137
Vocabulary Review
  • Some movies are suitable only for mature
    audience.
  • a. adolescent b. expert
  • c. curious d. adult

138
Vocabulary Review
  • The tension between contrasting feelings may
    cause mental disorders.
  • a. tendency b. sympathy
  • c. pressure d. expression

139
Vocabulary Review
  • Dont ever ---------- your enemy. He might be
    more intelligent than you are.
  • a. underestimate
  • b. assimilate
  • c. sympathize
  • d. contribute

140
Vocabulary Review
  • This chemical reaction has ------. H2 and O
    combine to make water, and then water can be
    analyzed into H2 and O.
  • a. conduciveness b. reversibility
  • c. accommodation d. interconnection

141
Vocabulary Review
  • Most -------- cells are located in almost
    protected positions in the body.
  • a. verbal b. overt
  • c. sensory d. genetic

142
Vocabulary Review
  • It is very difficult to measure --------
    qualities such as honesty, love, kindness etc.
  • a. concrete b. random
  • c. abstract d. verbal

143
Vocabulary Review
  • Unlike psychology, physics generally deals with
    forces that act on --------- objects.
  • a. mature b. concrete
  • c. random d. variable

144
CHAPTER EIGHTClassical Conditioning
  • Key Words
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Stimulus
  • Response
  • Conditioned
  • Reinforcement
  • Experiment

145
The use of colon to give some explanation (line
4)
  • During his investigation, he noticed a curious
    fact the dogs which were subjects in his studies
    ...

146
Shortened relative clauses (line 17)
  • This was followed by a second stimulus (that was)
    known to produce a strong effect on salivation
    (dried meat powder (that was) put...

147
Review of passive sentences (line 22)
  • Ali has called me.
  • I have been called.
  • Ali painted the house.
  • The house was painted.
  • Ali will paint it.
  • It will be painted.

148
Some uses of so (line 33,34)
  • I am so tired that I cant go.
  • Is he here? I think so.
  • He studied hard, so he passed.
  • So, you said he left.

149
Verbs used as adjectives (line 47)
  • This is a terrifying story.
  • The child was terrified.
  • The boring film tired everyone.
  • All the students were bored.

150
Comprehension Review
  • 1- The initial aim of Pavlov was to study the
    responses of dogs to certain stimuli.
  • 2- The bell was called a conditioned stimulus
    because it made the dogs salivate at first.

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Comprehension Review
  • 3- People also learn through classical
    conditioning.
  • 4- Albert was never afraid when the rat was NOT
    followed by the noise.
  • 5- The snake photo was presented as the
    conditioned response.

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152
Vocabulary Review
  • It is curious that some organisms sometimes dont
    react like other organisms of the same kind.
  • a. dynamic b. strange
  • c. suitable d. adaptable

153
Vocabulary Review
  • The field of psychology has undergone many
    changes during the 20th century.
  • a. comprised b. speculated c.
    experienced d. concerned

154
Vocabulary Review
  • Some new feelings may evoke old memories.
  • a. enhance b. introduce c. reduce
    d. produce

155
Vocabulary Review
  • People sometimes ---------- at the thought of
    something delicious.
  • a. salivate b. associate
  • c. condition d. maintain

156
Vocabulary Review
  • She has ----------- to enter the university by
    studying day and night.
  • a. turned out b. conditioned
  • c. set out d. undergone

157
Vocabulary Review
  • A mothers opinion of his child is naturally a(n)
    --------- one.
  • a. conditioned b. prejudiced
  • c. adaptive d. extensive

158
Vocabulary Review
  • If Pavlov had used the bell alone, it would not
    cause the dog to salivate because it would be
    a(n)---------- stimulus.
  • a. neutral
  • b. salivary
  • c. conditioned
  • d. unconditioned

159
Vocabulary Review
  • Those who have color ---------- hate people with
    different skin color.
  • a. arousal b. curiosity
  • c. prejudice d. status

160
Vocabulary Review
  • The thiefs strange behavior ------- the
    suspicion of the police.
  • a. reversed b. contrasted
  • c. tended d. aroused

161
Vocabulary Review
  • Young children have strong -------- to
    discover new things.
  • a. curiosity b. curious
  • c. salivate d. salivary

162
CHAPTER NINEOperant Conditioning Learning
Based on Consequences
  • Key Words
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Primary Reinforcer
  • Positive Reinforcer
  • Negative Reinforcer
  • Punishment

163
Review of sentence types (line 7)
  • He studied hard for the exam. (simple)
  • He studied hard and he passed. (compound)
  • He studied hard because he wanted to pass.
    (complex)

164
Review of modals (line 16)
  • I can drive.
  • It may/might rain tonight.
  • You can/may leave now.
  • You should be careful.
  • We must obey the law.

165
Deletion of repeated words (line 40)
  • ... where some response is followed by unpleasant
    stimuli or events, or (where some response is
    followed) by the omission of positive events.

166
Changing verbs into nouns (line 57)
  • Reinforcement reinforcement
  • Acquire tion acquisition
  • Suppress sion suppression
  • Arouse al arousal
  • Tend ency tendency

167
Comprehension Review
  • 1-Most psychologists believe that operant
    conditioning is the result of two kinds of
    events.
  • 2- A positive reinforcer increases the tendency
    to do a certain action again.

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Comprehension Review
  • 3- A positive reinforcer can have the same effect
    in different contexts.
  • 4- When we perform an action to escape a negative
    reinforcer, we may do that action again and
    again.

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Comprehension Review
  • 5- There is NOT much difference between
    punishment and a negative reinforcer.
  • 6- We may suppress a form of behavior because of
    a negative reinforcer.

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170
Vocabulary Review
  • As his anger was not ----------, I decided not
    to argue with him.
  • a. suppressible
  • b. suppress
  • c. suppressing
  • d. suppression

171
Vocabulary Review
  • It needs a lot of time and energy to acquire a
    good knowledge of English.
  • a. control b. gain
  • c. advise d. connect

172
Vocabulary Review
  • In the ---------- of an economic crisis, it is
    not wise to lower the taxes.
  • a. inference b. context
  • c. acquisition d. implication

173
Vocabulary Review
  • The doctor advised him to really --------- from
    smoking.
  • a. regard b. retain
  • c. refrain d. reverse

174
Vocabulary Review
  • An intelligence test can --------- as a way of
    finding how intelligent someone is.
  • a. serve b. infer
  • c. interact d. prevent

175
Vocabulary Review
  • In a class, the teachers praise of a students
    correct response is a best ----------- reinforcer
    for that behavior.
  • a. conditioning b. stimulus
  • c. negative d. positive

176
Vocabulary Review
  • A constant tendency to ---------- ones anger may
    have unpleasant results.
  • a. perform b. associate
  • c. suppress d. embarrass

177
Vocabulary Review
  • It is necessary to understand ---------- in order
    to be able to understand social roles.
  • a. intellect b. status
  • c. inference d. permanence

178
Vocabulary Review
  • He was really -------- when he found out that he
    didnt have enough money to pay for his lunch.
  • a. prejudiced b. embarrassed
  • c. persisted d. impressed

179
Vocabulary Review
  • Alfred Nobels name is always --------- with
    Noble Prize.
  • a. gestured b. acquired
  • c. counteracted d. associated

180
Vocabulary Review
  • First language --------- by children has
    different stages.
  • a. emotion b. variation
  • c. acquisition d. exclusion

181
CHAPTER TENHow Can Language be Defined?
  • Key Words
  • Learning
  • Performance
  • Permanent
  • Temporary
  • Behavioral
  • Potential Behavior

182
Passives with modals (line 1)
  • He will repair it.
  • It will be repaired.
  • She might write it.
  • It might be written.
  • He must painted it.
  • It must be painted.

183
Changing nouns into adjectives (line 8)
  • Behavior al behavioral
  • Evolution ary evolutionary
  • Danger ous dangerous
  • History ic historic

184
The use of certain prepositions with certain
verbs (line 15)
  • Infer from
  • Associate with
  • Think of
  • Face with
  • Be based on
  • Assign to

185
A clause as the subject or object of verb (line
47)
  • What we learn at any time is influenced by ...
  • What you say is true.
  • I want to know what he did.

186
Comprehension Review
  • 1-A permanent change in behavior is always a form
    of learning.
  • 2- If a behavioral change is observed only once,
    it cannot be considered learning.

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Comprehension Review
  • 3- We can call a behavioral change a form of
    learning when it is related to what has happened
    before in our lives.

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Comprehension Review
  • 4- Learning is also the natural result of growing
    up.
  • 5- An exam is one of the ways to find out if
    learning has happened or not.

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Comprehension Review
  • 6- Only our performance can show if learning has
    occurred.
  • 7- According to the second definition current
    performance is almost the same as potential
    behavior based on learning.

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Comprehension Review
  • 8- Howe believes that we learn because we want to
    protect ourselves and make our capacities larger.
  • 9- An adaptive change helps us to be more
    effective in our environment.

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191
Vocabulary Review
  • George didnt openly agree with my suggestion,
    but his agreement was --------- in his pleasant
    smile.
  • a. implicitly b. imply
  • c. implicit d. implication

192
Vocabulary Review
  • His ------------ learning ability enabled him
    to major in two different fields.
  • a. extend b. extensive
  • c. extension d. extensively

193
Vocabulary Review
  • They could not --------- to the new weather
    conditions when they migrated from Spain to
    Norway.
  • a. adapt b. adaptation
  • c. adaptive d. adaptable

194
Vocabulary Review
  • It is really difficult to separate memory and
    learning they are closely interlinked.
  • a. disturbed b. counted
  • c. changed d. joined

195
Vocabulary Review
  • Science and technology have brought about great
    changes in the 20th century.
  • a. caused b. counted
  • c. needed d. separated

196
Vocabulary Review
  • He didnt call her a liar, he implied that she
    was not telling the truth.
  • a. recognize b. suggested
  • c. allowed d. distinguish

197
Vocabulary Review
  • As theoretical constructs are not directly
    observable, they cant be measured easily.
  • a. stages b. states
  • c. amounts d. concepts

198
Vocabulary Review
  • His ------- character allows him to feel
    comfortable in all kinds of environments.
  • a. adaptive b. curious
  • c. reversible d. prejudiced

199
Vocabulary Review
  • The capacity of our memory can be ------------ by
    practicing regularly.
  • a. fatigued b. reinforced
  • c. extended d. conditioned

200
Vocabulary Review
  • Air pollution is --------. It increases gradually
    and steadily day by day.
  • a. adaptable b. inferential
  • c. permanent d. cumulative

201
Vocabulary Review
  • What we actually do, that is, our -----------
    doesnt always indicate what we really know.
  • a. reinforcement
  • b. performance
  • c. competence
  • d. association

202
Vocabulary Review
  • When a certain behavior is repeated on a number
    of occasions, we can conclude that behavior
    has ---------- .
  • a. expression b. adaptation
  • c. inference d. permanence

203
Vocabulary Review
  • All hypothetical ---------- are measured by
    observing people's performance.
  • a. constructs b. reinforces
  • c. disorders d. remedies

204
CHAPTER ELEVENWhat does Motivation Mean?
  • Key Words
  • Motivation
  • Theory/Theorist
  • Competence
  • Emotion
  • Variable
  • Energize

205
Some common expressions (line 3)
  • Due to
  • In response to
  • In contrast
  • Regardless of
  • On the basis of
  • With regard to

206
Deletion in parallel structures (line 10)
  • Learning theorist, for example, have also been
    concerned with what arouses behavior, (and
    learning theorists have been concerned with) what
    gives it direction.

207
Words and expressions that show contrast
  • But/Yet
  • On the other hand
  • On the contrary
  • Nevertheless
  • However
  • In spite of

208
Words and expressions that show similarity
  • Also
  • Besides
  • Similarly
  • In addition to
  • Furthermore
  • As a matter of fact

209
Words and expressions that show result
  • So
  • Thus
  • Therefore
  • As a result
  • As a consequence

210
Comprehension Review
  • 1-Different psychologists give different
    definitions for motivation.
  • 2- The arousal, direction and persistence of
    behavior are studied only by motivation theorists.

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Comprehension Review
  • 3- Learning theorists do NOT focus on the study
    of those factors that arouse and energize
    behavior.
  • 4- The factors that arouse, energize and direct
    our behavior are almost the same.

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Comprehension Review
  • 5- What makes a person repeat a certain behavior
    is the main concern of motivation theorists.
  • 6- According to motivation theorists, some
    motivational processes underlie our behavior all
    the time.

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213
Vocabulary Review
  • He is a (n) -------- designer he has the
    necessary skills and knowledge, but he never
    works hard enough.
  • a. competence b. competent
  • c. compete d. competition

214
Vocabulary Review
  • David is a bit neurotic, but his wife is a very
    ----------- person.
  • a. stabilize b. stability
  • c. stable d. stably

215
Vocabulary Review
  • If a member does not pay his membership fees, he
    may be ------------ from the club.
  • a. excluded b. exclusion
  • c. exclusive d. exclusively

216
Vocabulary Review
  • We are living in a dynamic period in history the
    face of the world is changing quickly.
  • a. active b. meaningful
  • c. curious d. successful

217
Vocabulary Review
  • The --------- of black people from the elections
    caused great anger among them.
  • a. exclusion b. evolution
  • c. assignment d. commitment

218
Vocabulary Review
  • His speech had an effect on our --------- rather
    than our reasons.
  • a. motives b. emotions
  • c. perceptions d. associations

219
Vocabulary Review
  • Hunger, thirst and the need for air are some of
    our survival ------.
  • a. prejudices b. emotions
  • c. impressions d. motives

220
Vocabulary Review
  • Nothing stays the same around us , because our
    life environment is highly ---------.
  • a. stable b. variable
  • c. persistent d. intense

221
Vocabulary Review
  • There is no doubt about the ----------- of
    the new teaching method, because it can produce
    the desired effects very well.
  • a. prestige b. variation
  • c. efficacy d. stability

222
Vocabulary Review
  • The Kayhan reporter managed to get a(n)
    ----------- interview with the scientist. No
    other reporters took part in the interview.
  • a. contrasting b. immediate
  • c. thematic d. exclusive

223
Vocabulary Review
  • A good diet and enough sleep are necessary to
    --------- our health.
  • a. alleviate b. diagnose
  • c. maintain d. intensify

224
Vocabulary Review
  • One of the ways to find out about the -------- of
    someones emotion is to know how long it has been
    since the motive was last satisfied.
  • a. intensity b. tendency
  • c. competence d. maintenance

225
CHAPTER TWELVEAchievement, Power, and
Affiliation Some Human Motives
  • Key Words
  • Motivation/Motive
  • Achievement Motive
  • Affiliation Motive
  • Power Motive
  • Prestige
  • Achievement-Oriented

226
The use of certain prepositions with certain
adjectives (line 1)
  • Unhappy with
  • Worried about
  • Tired of
  • In favor of
  • Surprised at
  • Accustomed to

227
The use of colon to introduce explanation (line
11)
  • Many psychologists would answer through
    reference to important human motives.

228
Review of passive structure (line 28)
  • The same basic method is used for measuring all
    three of the motives...
  • Object be past participle

229
Shortened relative clauses (line) 51
  • Those (who hold) holding jobs (that require)
    requiring independent action and decision-making
    often have children (who are) higher in such
    motivation...

230
Comprehension Review
  • 1-The artist destroyed his painting because he
    thought he could paint better than that.
  • 2- The affiliation motive caused the woman to
    give up her law practice.

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231
Comprehension Review
  • 3- Someone who wants others to obey him, has a
    strong power motive.
  • 4- Those who just try to get by, are low in
    achievement motivation.

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Comprehension Review
  • 5- Achievement, affiliation and power motives are
    measured quite differently.
  • 6- Differences in achievement motivation are
    mainly due to differences in child-rearing
    practices.

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Comprehension Review
  • 7- The intensity of achievement motivation does
    NOT usually affect other respects of life.

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Comprehension Review
  • 8- When persons low in achievement motivation
    fail, they blame other people and other things
    for their own failure.

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Comprehension Review
  • 9- A manager with good LMP does NOT let his
    emotional ties take away his chances of
    promotion.

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Comprehension Review
  • 10-If a person is low in power motivation, he is
    certainly high in affiliation motivation and vice
    versa.

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237
Vocabulary Review
  • It is not advisable to spend our time and energy
    on goals that are not -----------.
  • a. achievable b. achieve
  • c. achievement d. achieved

238
Vocabulary Review
  • You do not have to do all the work yourself. In
    fact, you should ---------- part of your duty to
    your secretary.
  • a. delegation b. delegated
  • c. delegate d. delegating

239
Vocabulary Review
  • A nice work setting is one where there is a
    sense of competition, but no one feels jealous of
    someone else.
  • a. desire b. motive
  • c. environment d. improvement

240
Vocabulary Review
  • Those who have only one main theme in life are
    usually more successful than those who spend
    their energy in different directions.
  • a. quality b. power
  • c. trait d. concern

241
Vocabulary Review
  • His latest book -----------to be a masterpiece.
  • a. got by b. turned out
  • c. thought of d. inferred from

242
Vocabulary Review
  • ------------ individuals seek a very high
    standard of performance for themselves.
  • a. Achievement-oriented
  • b. Motivation-oriented
  • c. Power-oriented
  • d. Affiliation-oriented

243
Vocabulary Review
  • It is undoubtedly --------- to spend enough time,
    energy and money to learn English.
  • a. achievable b. worthwhile
  • c. persistent d. exclusive

244
Vocabulary Review
  • The need to experience attachment to others
    through friendship, sociability or group
    membership is called the need for --------- .
  • a. power b. leadership
  • c. affiliation d. achievement

245
Vocabulary Review
  • His receiving the Noble Prize for medicine is a
    very -------------- achievement.
  • a. reversible b. variable
  • c. maintainable d. creditable

246
Vocabulary Review
  • The swimmer drowned because his legs had got
    --------- with a fishing net.
  • a. affiliated b. intensified
  • c. entangled d. delegated

247
Vocabulary Review
  • For people with high power motivation, the main
    ------- is how to get higher and higher
    positions.
  • a. setting b. impact
  • c. domain d. theme

248
CHAPTER THIRTEENThinking and Language
  • Key Words
  • Thinking
  • Sign Language
  • Hypothesis
  • Semantic
  • Experiment

249
Some common phrasal verbs (line 5)
  • Draw on
  • Carry on
  • Turn out
  • Give up
  • Turn off
  • Call on

250
Subject at the beginning of the second clause
(line 23)
  • While (he was) under the influence of the drug,
    the subject was ...
  • Having finished homework, Ali went to the park.

251
The use of present perfect (line 31)
  • The discussion so far has been about the use of
    vocal speech symbols...
  • I saw this film last year.
  • I have seen this film.

252
Passive present perfect (line 40)
  • ... it has been found that deaf children develop
    their own.
  • He has repaired the car.
  • The car has been fixed.
  • Object be past participle

253
Comprehension Review
  • 1-Our semantic long-term memory stores whatever
    is needed to produce language.
  • 2- Linguistic relatively hypothesis is widely
    accepted by language theorists.

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Comprehension Review
  • 3- Some experiments have proved the existence of
    small movements in the vocal apparatus while
    thinking.
  • 4- Other experiments have completely denied the
    small movements of the vocal apparatus.

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Comprehension Review
  • 5- In the experiment the drug had blocked the
    connection between his muscles and his brain.
  • 6- Only one kind of drug was used during the
    experiment.

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256
Comprehension Review
  • 7- According to the passage, a sign language
    does NOT express all our ideas.
  • 8- Knowing a sign language can improve a deaf
    persons performance on cognitive and thinking
    tasks.

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257
Vocabulary Review
  • The --------- caused by a stroke may be temporary
    or permanent.
  • a. paralysis b. paralyze
  • c. paralytic d. paralytically

258
Vocabulary Review
  • When someone is bitten by a poisonous snake, only
    a certain kind of drug can --------- the poison.
  • a. counteractive b. counteract
  • c. counteraction d. counteracting

259
Vocabulary Review
  • The --------- of correct sentences requires a
    certain number of rules as well as enough words.
  • a. generate b. generated
  • c. generative d. generation

260
Vocabulary Review
  • At first I thought he was joking, but later it
    became clear that he had literally left the
    university for ever.
  • a. really b. explicitly
  • c. infinitely d. effortfully

261
Vocabulary Review
  • Modern views usually oppose traditional ones.
  • a. limits b. opinions
  • c. changes d. effects

262
Vocabulary Review
  • We combine sounds to generate words and combine
    words to make sentences.
  • a. relate b. infer
  • c. produce d. influence

263
Vocabulary Review
  • ---------- languages were originally created for
    deaf people.
  • a. Semantic b. Sign
  • c. Vocal d. Written

264
Vocabulary Review
  • When the nerve of a muscle is cut off, the
    ----------- of that muscle bec
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