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Arenguuuringud 5' Arenguhindamine II

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V lja kujunenud valdkonnad instrumentide komplekt hindamaks maailma riikide ... Tolerance is not concession, condescension or indulgence. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Arenguuuringud 5' Arenguhindamine II


1
Arengu-uuringud5. Arenguhindamine II
  • Mati Heidmets
  • 10.11.2008

2
Arengumõõdikud
  • Välja kujunenud valdkonnad instrumentide
    komplekt hindamaks maailma riikide/ühiskondade
    arengutaset. Tuntumad konstruktid, mida
    hinnatakse
  • Vabadus (poliitilised vabadused, majandusvabadus,
    demokraatia)
  • Tervis, haigestumine, eluiga, hälbiv käitumine
  • Võrdsus (ebavõrdsus, võrdsed võimalused)
  • Majanduskeskkond, tehnoloogia, innovatsioon,
    internet
  • Riigi võimekus
  • Keskkonnaseisund
  • Usaldus, sallivus, rahumeelsus, subjektiivne
    rahulolu, õnn, väärtused
  • Igaühe kohta mis see on, kes mõõdab/hindab ja
    kuidas, millised andmebaasid olemas, näited
    tulemustest

3
Majanduskeskkond
  • World Bank Doing Business Report
  • Vt http//www.doingbusiness.org/
  • Riikide järjestus http//www.doingbusiness.org/ec
    onomyrankings/
  • Näitajad
  • Starting a Business
  • Dealing with Construction Permits
  • Employing Workers
  • Registering Property
  • Getting Credit
  • Protecting Investors
  • Paying Taxes
  • Trading Across Borders
  • Enforcing Contracts
  • Closing a Business

4
WB doing business rankings
  • 1.Singapore 1,9,5,1,13,7,2,2,14,2
  • 2.New Zealand
  • 3.USA
  • 18.Georgia 10,11, 4,11,48, 33,102, 64,42,105
  • 19.Belgium
  • 20.Germany
  • 22.Estonia 23, 19, 163, 24,43, 53,34,5,30,58
  • ..
  • 38.Spain
  • 39.Armenia 47, 73,48,2,36, 83,143,118,64,42
  • 40.Kuwait
  • ..
  • Source World Bank, Doing Business 2008 report
  • 57.Turkey
  • 71.Kazakhstan
  • 96.Azerbaidijan
  • 106.Russia
  • 135.Iran
  • 139.Ukraine
  • 153.Tajikistan
  • 159.Afganistan
  • 178.Congo

5
Innovatsioon. Internet
  • European Innovation Scoreboard
  • The European Innovation Scoreboard (EIS) is the
    instrument developed at the initiative of the
    European Commission, under the Lisbon Strategy,
    to provide a comparative assessment of the
    innovation performance of EU Member States. The
    EIS 2007 includes innovation indicators and trend
    analyses for the EU27 Member States as well as
    for Croatia, Turkey, Iceland, Norway,
    Switzerland, Japan, the US, Australia, Canada and
    Israel.
  • Vt 2008 aruannet
  • http//www.proinno-europe.eu/index.cfm?fuseaction
    page.displaytopicID5parentID51
  • Internetikasutajad
  • http//www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm

6
Innovatsiooniindeks, 2007
  • .

7
Internet users per 1000 people, 2006
(calculated from CIA World Factbook)
  • Netherlands 891
  • Iceland 869
  • New Zealand 780
  • USA 692
  • Estonia 512
  • Latvia 447
  • Lithuania 357
  • Source www.nationmaster.com
  • Turkey 222
  • Russia 165
  • Azerbaijan 80
  • Armenia 49
  • Georgia 39
  • Kazakhstan 26
  • Bangladesh 2
  • Niger 1

8
Läbikukkunud riigid
  • A failed state is a state whose central
    government is so weak or ineffective that it has
    little practical control over much of its
    territory. The level of control required to avoid
    being considered a failed state varies
    considerably amongst authorities. Furthermore,
    the declaration that a state has "failed" is
    generally controversial and, when made
    authoritatively, may carry significant
    geopolitical consequences
  • Since 2005 the United States think-tank, the Fund
    for Peace and the magazine Foreign Policy,
    publishes an annual index called the Failed
    States Index.
  • Riikide järjestust vt
  • http//www.fundforpeace.org/web/index.php?optionc
    om_contenttaskviewid99Itemid140

9
Failed states, 2007 Allikas http//www.fundforpe
ace.org/web/index.php?optioncom_contenttaskview
id99Itemid140
  • .

10
Keskkond
  • Ökoloogiline jalajälg
  • The ecological footprint is a measure of human
    demand on the Earth's ecosystems. It compares
    human demand with planet Earth's ecological
    capacity to regenerate it. It represents the
    amount of biologically productive land and sea
    area needed to regenerate the resources a human
    population consumes and to absorb and render
    harmless the corresponding waste, given
    prevailing technology and resource management
    practice. Using this assessment, it is possible
    to estimate how many planet Earths it would take
    to support humanity if everybody lived a given
    lifestyle.
  • Andmed riikide kohta http//www.footprintnetwork.
    org/en/index.php/GFN/page/footprint_for_nations/

11
Ökoloogiline jalajälg, 1961
12
Ökoloogiline jalajälg, 2001
13
Ecological Creditors and Debtors Allikas
http//www.footprintnetwork.org/gfn_sub.php?conten
tcreditor_debtor
  • .

14
Subjektiivne maailmapilt
  • Inimese subjektiivne vaade elule usaldus,
    rahulolu, rahumeelsus, sallivus, õnn, väärtused
  • Sallivuse defitsiit ja sallivuse tootmine
    arenguprobleem?!
  • Sallivus hoiak, tunne, mida poliitiliselt
    reguleeritakse?

15
Sallivus UNESCO Declaration of the principles of
tolerance - 1995
  • Article 1 - Meaning of tolerance
  • Tolerance is respect, acceptance and appreciation
    of the rich diversity of our world's cultures,
    our forms of expression and ways of being human.
    ...
  • Tolerance is harmony in difference. It is not
    only a moral duty, it is also a political and
    legal requirement. Tolerance, the virtue that
    makes peace possible, contributes to the
    replacement of the culture of war by a culture of
    peace.
  • Tolerance is not concession, condescension or
    indulgence. Tolerance is, above all, an active
    attitude prompted by recognition of the universal
    human rights and fundamental freedoms of others.

16
UNECSO 1995 ...
  • Tolerance is the responsibility that upholds
    human rights, pluralism (including cultural
    pluralism), democracy and the rule of law.
  • Consistent with respect for human rights, the
    practice of tolerance does not mean toleration of
    social injustice or the abandonment or weakening
    of one's convictions.
  • In the modern world, tolerance is more essential
    than ever before. Without tolerance there can
    be no peace, and without peace there can be no
    development or democracy.
  • In order to generate public awareness, emphasize
    the dangers of intolerance and react with renewed
    commitment and action in support of tolerance
    promotion and education, we solemnly proclaim 16
    November the annual International Day for
    Tolerance.

17
Miks sallivus?
  • Avatud maailm erinevused ärritavad.
  • Täna poliitika ja usu kõrvale ka teistsugune
    keel, käitumine, riietus, hoiakud, suhted...
    Ärritavad nudistid, autistid, tüsedad,
    koolikohustuse vältijad, taimetoitlased, homod
    ja lesbid, maa- ja vanaususlised
  • Sallivus ärrituse mahasurumine, agressiivsuse
    mahasurumine
  • Üldine hoiak - sallivus on väärtus, sallivust
    on vähe. Vaidlus - kas sallida
    kultuuripraktikat, mis näit vastuolus lääneliku
    arusaamaga inimõigustest? Kas on põhjendatud
    sallimatust?
  • Mis toodab sallivust kindlustunne, isiklik
    kogemus.
  • Sallival inimesel identiteedipiirid laiad. Erich
    Fromm ja ligimesearmastus!

18
Sallivus suhtumine immigratsiooni ja
multikultuursusesse(Allikad Pew Global
Attitudes, 2007, EIA, 2006)
  • .
  • Vastuseis multikultuursele ühiskonnale EL
    liikmesriikides 2003, ( küsitletutest kes
    väljendasid vastuseisu, /Resistance to
    multicultural society)
  • Kreeka 59
  • Eesti 51
  • Läti 44
  • Tsehhi 39
  • Belgia 37
  • Küpros 36
  • Saksamaa 34
  • Leedu 33
  • Slovakkia 29
  • Austria 27
  • Itaalia 24
  • Soome 24
  • Taani 22
  • Prantsusmaa 22
  • Malta 22
  • Holland 22

19
Suhtumine islamiusulistesseAllikas
http//pewglobal.org/reports/display.php?ReportID
262
  • .

20
Usaldus Eesti institutsioonide usaldusväärsus,
2007Allikas J.Kivirähk EIA 2007, 64
21
Rahumeelsus global peace index
  • Global Peace Index is an attempt to measure the
    relative position of nations and regions
    peacefulness. It is maintained by the Institute
    for Economics and Peace and developed in
    consultation with an international panel of peace
    experts from peace institutes and think tanks,
    together with the Centre for Peace and Conflict
    Studies, University of Sydney, Australia with
    data analysed by the Economist Intelligence Unit
  • The list was launched first in May 2007 and then
    recently in May 2008 and is claimed to be the
    first study to rank countries around the world
    according to their peacefulness.
  • The research team was headed by The Economist
    Intelligence Unit in conjunction with academics
    and experts in the field of peace. They measured
    countries' peacefulness based on wide range of
    indicators, 24 in all.

22
Rahumeelsuse mõõtmine
  • Methodology and Data SourcesThe
    indicatorsTwenty-four indicators of the
    existence or absence of peace were chosen by the
    panel, which are divided into three key thematic
    categories. Many of the indicators have been
    "banded" on a scale of 1-5 qualitative
    indicators in the index have been scored by the
    Economist Intelligence Unit's extensive team of
    country analysts, and gaps in the quantitative
    data have been filled by estimates. Indicators of
    quantitative data such as military expenditure or
    jailed population have been normalised on the
    basis ofx (x-Min(x)) / (Max (x) - Min (x))
  • Where Min (x) and Max (x) are respectively the
    lowest and highest values in the 140 countries
    for any given indicator. The normalised value is
    then transformed from a 0-1 value to a 1-5 score
    to make it comparable with the other indicators.

23
Rahumeelsuse mõõtmine
  • Measures of ongoing domestic and international
    conflict
  • Number of external and internal conflicts fought
    2001-06
  • Estimated number of deaths from organised
    conflict (external)
  • Number of deaths from organised conflict
    (internal)
  • Level of organised conflict (internal)
  • Relations with neighbouring countries
  • Measures of societal safety and securityLevel of
    distrust in other citizens
  • Number of displaced people as a percentage of the
    population
  • Political instability
  • Level of disrespect for human rights (Political
    Terror Scale)
  • Potential for terrorist acts
  • Number of homicides per 100,000 people
  • Level of violent crime
  • Likelihood of violent demonstrations
  • Number of jailed population per 100,000 people
  • Number of internal security officers and police
    per 100,000 people
  • Measures of militarizationMilitary expenditure
    as a percentage of GDP
  • Number of armed services personnel per 100,000
    people
  • Volume of transfers (imports) of major
    conventional weapons per 100,000 people
  • Volume of transfers (exports) of major
    conventional weapons per 100,000 people
  • UN Deployments 2007-08 (percentage of total armed
    forces)
  • Non-UN Deployments 2007-08 (percentage of total
    armed forces)
  • Aggregate number of heavy weapons per 100,000
    people
  • Ease of access to small arms and light weapons
  • Military capability/sophistication

24
Global peace indexAllikas http//www.visionofhu
manity.org/gpi/home.php
  • .

25
Subjektiivne heaolu. Õnnetunne
  • New Economics Foundation, http//www.neweconomics.
    org/gen/m1_i1_aboutushome.aspx
  • nef is an independent think-and-do tank that
    inspires and demonstrates real economic
    well-being.
  • We aim to improve quality of life by promoting
    innovative solutions that challenge mainstream
    thinking on economic, environment and social
    issues. We work in partnership and put people and
    the planet first.
  • nef was founded in 1986 by the leaders of The
    Other Economic Summit (TOES) which forced issues
    such as international debt onto the agenda of the
    G7 and G8 summits.
  • We are unique in combining rigorous analysis and
    policy debate with practical solutions on the
    ground, often run and designed with the help of
    local people. We also create new ways of
    measuring progress towards increased well-being
    and environmental sustainability.
  • nef works with all sections of society in the UK
    and internationally - civil society, government,
    individuals, businesses and academia - to create
    more understanding and strategies for change

26
Happy planet indexAllikas nef,
http//www.happyplanetindex.org/index.htm
  • .

27
Satisfaction with Life Index by Adrian White,
University of Leicester, Legend Green
Happiest gt Blue gt Purple gt Orange gt Red Least
Happy Grey Data not availablehttp//en.wikiped
ia.org/wiki/Satisfaction_with_Life_IndexInternati
onal_Ranking_.282006.29
  • .

28
Subjektiivne heaoluAllikas http//www.le.ac.uk/u
sers/aw57/world/sample.html
29
Maailma väärtuskaartAllikas R.Inglehart,
http//margaux.grandvinum.se/SebTest/wvs/articles/
folder_published/article_base_54


                                                
                   

30
Arenguanalüüsi loogika
  • Positiivselt esiletoodud arengud rohkem vabadust
    ja demokraatiat, kõrgem haridustase, parem tervis
    ja vähem hälbivat käitumist, piiranguteta äri,
    vähem korruptsiooni, oma ülesandeid täitev riik,
    uute tehnoloogiate kiire juurdumine, väiksem
    keskkonnakoormus, sallivus, rahumeelsus,
    õnnetunne
  • See läänemaailma tänane pilt arengust?!

31
Arenguanalüüsi areng
  • Suur pilt ja seosed erinevate arengudimensioonide
    vahel
  • Kas rikkus toodab õnne, kus on kasvu piirid, miks
    muutuvad väärtused, religioon ja areng, kust on
    pärit keskkonnasäästlik mõtteviis

32
Wealth and religiosityAllikas
http//www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/2275614130/
  • .

33
Heaolu ja ökoloogiline jalajälg(allikas UNDP)
  • .
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