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Forest In Illinois

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2. hydric soil - soil which is waterlogged and undrained ... will have hydrophytic vegetation and/or hydric soils, so they are true wetlands ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Forest In Illinois


1
Forest In Illinois
2
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3
Southern Catalpa
4
Forest Communities in Illinois
  • Illinois's major woodland types have been
    described according to forest community
    composition and are often named for the
    pre-dominant overstorey trees present
  • These forest communities recur predictably under
    certain soil moisture conditions and in specific
    physiographic areas
  • Most forests in Illinois can be placed in one of
    six communities oak-hickory, maple-beech,
    elm-ash-soft maple, oak-gum-cypress, oak-pine,
    loblolly-shortleaf pine, white-red-jack pine

5
Oak Hickory Forest
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Maple-Beech Forest
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Elm-Ash-Soft Maple Forest
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Oak-Gum-Cypress Forest
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Oak-Pine Forest
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Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Forest
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Red-White-Jack Pine Forest
12
Illinois Wetland Ecosystems
13
Wetland Definition
  • The "Federal Manual for Identifying and
    Delineating Jurisdictional Wetlands" was
    published in 1991 and was adopted in 1993
    defined wetlands as
  • Wetlands are lands transitional between
    terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water
    table is usually at or near the surface or the
    land is covered by shallow water..."

14
More on wetland definition
  • Critical to the definition of wetlands is that a
    wetland must have at least 1 of the following 3
    characteristics
  • 1. hydrophytic vegetation - plants which are
    adapted to grow in waterlogged soil - if these
    plants are present you definitely have a wetland
    - at least 470 wetland and aquatic plants have
    been identified in Illinois
  • 2. hydric soil - soil which is waterlogged and
    undrained
  • 3. wetland hydrology - the soil must be
    saturated with water or covered with shallow
    water at some time during the growing season of
    each year - this is the hardest standard to apply
    - for some fully functional wetlands are only
    flooded or saturated on occasional years - but
    they will have hydrophytic vegetation and/or
    hydric soils, so they are true wetlands

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Prairie Pothole Wetlands
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Illinois River Basin Wetlands
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Bald Cypress Swamps
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Wetland Draining Old School
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Wetland Draining Today
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Drainage Districts
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Riparian Wetlands
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Riparian Wetlands
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Stream Channelization
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Mississippi and Illinois River Dams
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Mississippi River Dam La Crosse, WI
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Wetland Types
31
Palustrine Wetlands
  • Palustrine wetland systems - nontidal wetlands
    covering areas with water up to 6.6 feet (2 m)
    deep
  • Prairie glacial marshes in of north-central
    Illinois are shallow basins within small
    watersheds and these are typical palustrine
    systems - they have seasonal fluctuations in
    water level due to annual rainfall patterns and
    annual changes in water level reflecting
    long-term climate variations (drought cycles)

32
Palustrine Types
  • Type I wetlands are seasonally flooded basins
    where soil is periodically waterlogged but drains
    well - so well it could be farmed most years.
    These wetlands occur as upland depressions or
    overflow bottomlands
  • Dominant vegetation varies with length of
    flooding and may include smartweed, wild millet,
    fall panicum, sedges, beggar-ticks, ragweed, and
    barnyard grass

33
Palustrine Type 1 Wetland
34
Palustrine Types
  • Type II wetlands are freshwater meadows where
    soil remains waterlogged within inches of the
    surface and standing water is present in spring
    and after heavy rainfall
  • common species include prairie cordgrass, reed
    canary grass, common reed (Phragmites), manna
    grass, sedges, rushes, and mints

35
Palustrine Type II Wetland
36
Palustrine Types
  • Type III wetlands are inland shallow freshwater
    marshes that usually have 6 inches of standing
    water, but may dry out in late summer
  • common species include grasses, bulrushes,
    spikerushes, cattails, arrowheads (Sagittaria),
    giant bur reed, smartweeds, and sedges

37
Palustrine Type III Wetland
38
Palustrine Types
  • Type IV wetlands are deep fresh marshes with 6
    inches to 3 feet of standing water
  • dominant plants include cattails, bulrushes,
    reeds, spikerushes, bur reeds, pondweeds, water
    milfoils, coontails, waterlilies (lotus) and
    duckweeds

39
Palustrine Type IV Wetland
40
Seepage Wetlands
  • Seepage wetlands are distinctive types of
    palustrine wetlands that form in areas of
    groundwater discharge - they are sometimes called
    fens or hanging bogs
  • Typically the soil is continuously saturated,
    although there may be little or no standing water

41
Seepage Wetland
42
Lacustrine Wetlands
  • Lacustrine wetland systems are found in the
    shallow protected areas of lakes with water depth
    in the deepest part of the wetland basin greater
    than 6.6 feet (2 m)
  • Wetlands in this system extend from the lakeshore
    to the point where at low water stage the water
    is 6.6 feet deep

43
Lacustrine Wetlands
  • Lacustrine wetlands are found along protected
    shores of our larger lakes
  • Lacustrine wetlands are often referred to as Type
    V wetlands or open freshwater wetlands
  • Typical vegetation includes emergent species of
    Type IV lining the shore, with floating and
    submerged aquatic plants in open water

44
Lacustrine Wetland
45
Lacustrine Wetland
46
Riparian Wetlands
  • These are riverine wetland systems which include
    wetland communities in river channels on sand
    bars, etc. overflow bottomland palustrine
    wetlands lacustrine wetlands in oxbow lakes and
    backwater marshes
  • These areas function together as an ecosystem
    where flowing water may supply moisture,
    sediments, and nutrients which are not available
    in upland systems

47
Riparian Vegetation
  • common species include those found in palustrine
    and lacustrine wetlands (mainly cattails, sedges,
    rushes, smartweed, arrowheads, reeds, bur reeds)
    as well as bottomland trees and shrubs including
    willows, cottonwood, silver maple, green ash, box
    elder, hackberry, slippery elm, American elm,
    basswood, black walnut, poison ivy, honeysuckles,
    dogwoods, gooseberry, raspberry, chokecherry,
    elderberry, burning bush

48
Riparian Wetlands
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Riparian Wetlands
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Riparian Wetlands
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