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IRON AND STEEL IN EUROPEAN UNION

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Woortz steel produced in India and Sri Lanka from around 500 year BC was ... of carbon steel and low/hight alloyed steels, following main operations are performed: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: IRON AND STEEL IN EUROPEAN UNION


1
IRON AND STEEL IN EUROPEAN UNION
  • By
  • Rubén Robles
  • J. Clemente Elices
  • Ángel Cobo
  • 12-7-2007

2
GENERAL INFORMATION
  • Ancient steel.
  • Woortz steel produced in India and Sri Lanka
    from around 500 year BC was produced in a wind
    furnace, blown by the monsoon winds. In the 4th
    century BC Steel weapons like the Falcata were
    produced in the Iberian peninsula. Crucible steel
    was produced in mery by 9th century AD

3
GENERAL INFORMATION
  • STEEL NOW
  • Iron and steel are important products that are
    widely used. The production of crude steel in the
    European Union stood at 155.3 million tonnes in
    1999, equivalent to about 20 of world

4
GENERAL INFORMATION
The apparent steel consumption per capita in the
EU in 1995 was 367 kg/capita
5
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF STEEL IN THE EU
The most steelworks are localice in the center of
europe Germany is the country with most
steelworks, Producing 40 millon tonnes of crude
steel in 1996
6
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTIONOF STEEL IN EU
7
REST OF WORLD (2006) CIFRES
8
STRUCTURE OF THE IRON AND STEEL BREF
  • Sinter plants
  • Pelletisation plants
  • Coke oven plants
  • Blast furnaces
  • Basic oxygen steelmaking
  • Electric arc furnace steelmaking

9
BASIC OXYGEN STEELMAKING
  • Accounting for 60 of the world's total output of
    crude steel, the Basic Oxygen Steelmaking process
    is the dominant steelmaking technology
  • The primary raw materials for are 70-80 liquid
    hot metal from the blast furnace and the balance
    is steel scrap
  • These are charged into the Basic Oxygen Furnace
    (BOF) vessel
  • Oxygen (99.5 pure) is "blown" into the BOF at
    supersonic velocities. It oxidizes the carbon and
    silicon contained in the hot metal liberating
    great quantities of heat which melts the scrap.

10
BASIC OXYGEN STEELMAKING
  • The product is molten steel.
  • From here it may undergo further refining in
    a secondary refining process or be sent directly
    to the continuous caster where it is solidified
    into semifinished shapes blooms, billets, or
    slabs.

11
BASIC OXYGEN STEELMAKING
12
BOF-BAT
  • Process-integrated measures
  • PI.1 Energy recovery from the BOF gas
  • PI.2 Lowering the zinc-content of scrap
  • PI.3 On-line sampling and analysis of steel
  • End-of-pipe techniques
  • EP.1 Primary de-dusting
  • EP.2 Particulate matter abatement from pig iron
    pre-treatment
  • EP.3 Secondary de-dusting
  • EP.4 Dust hot-briquetting and recycling
  • EP.5 Treatment of wastewater from wet de-dusting
  • EP.6 Treatment of wastewater from continuous
    casting

13
BOF-BAT
  • PI.1 Energy recovery from the BOF gas
  • Generally, two systems can be used to recover
    energy from the BOF gas
  • Combustion of BOF gas in the converter gas duct
    and subsequent recovery of the sensible heat in a
    waste heat boiler.
  • Suppression of BOF gas combustion and storage of
    the BOF gas in a gasholder for subsequent use.

14
BOF-BAT
  • PI.2 Lowering the zinc content of scrap
  • A high zinc content in the blast furnace
    has an adverse affect on correct operation. This
    zinc mainly originates from the scrap charged
    into the basic oxygen furnace. The release of Zn
    can fluctuate strongly from one cast to another.
    The same problem, but to a lesser extent, applies
    to lead (Pb) or cadmium (Cd).

15
BOF-BAT
  • PI.3 On-line sampling and steel analysis
  • Oxygen steelmaking is a batch process. In
    order to monitor progress samples are taken from
    the steel bath for analysis. It used to be
    necessary to interrupt oxygen blowing and tilt
    the BOF in order to take the sample. This was a
    time consuming process and it increased emissions
    from the BOF. In a modern plant samples are taken
    on-line during oxygen blowing by means of a
    sub-lance.

16
BOF-BAT
  • EP.1 Primary de-dusting
  • During oxygen blowing, BOF gas is
    generated.This gas is loaded with a large amount
    of particulate matter. The BOF gas is recovered
    for use as a fuel. Primary de-dusting is usually
    performed by venturi-type scrubbers
    (approximately 90 of the plants) or dry
    electrostatic precipitators. Prior to the venturi
    or the ESP, coarse particulates are usually
    removed by means of a deflector

17
BOF-BAT
  • EP.2 Particulate matter abatement from pig iron
    pre-treatment

18
BOF-BAT
  • EP.3 De-dusting of secondary off-gases
  • Secondary off-gases result from following
    operations
  • - reladling and deslagging of hot metal
  • - BOF charging
  • - tapping of liquid steel and slag from BOF
    (converters) and ladles
  • - secondary metallurgy and tapping operations
  • - handling of additives
  • - continuous casting

19
BOF-BAT
  • EP.4 Dust hot-briquetting and recycling with
    recovery of high Zn concentrated pellets for
  • external
  • reuse.

20
BOF-BAT
  • EP.5 Treatment of wastewater from wet de-dusting
  • In most oxygen steelmaking plants, scrubbers
    are used to reduce emissions to air from the
    primary gas flow. This potentially transfers
    pollution from air to water so the wastewater
    generated is usually recycled and treated before
    discharge. The water from the scrubbers mainly
    contains suspended solids Zinc and lead being
    the main heavy metals present.

21
BOF-BAT
  • EP.6 Treatment of wastewater from continuous
    casting.

22
EMERGING TECHNIQUES-BOF
  • The following techniques have been identified as
    emerging techniques
  • - Near net-shape casting and horizontal casting
  • - Processing of Zn-rich sludges/dusts
  • - New reagents in the desulphurisation process
  • - Application of foaming techniques in pig iron
    pre-treatment and steel refining
  • - Replacing air above the hot metal by inert
    gases (CO2, N2).

23
ELECTRIC STEELMAKING
24
ELECTRIC STEELMAKING
  • The direct smelting of iron-containing materials,
    such as scrap is usually performed in electric
    arc furnaces (EAF) which play an important and
    increasing role in modern steel works concepts
  • Today the percentage of electric arc furnace
    steel of the overall steel production in the EU
    are 35.3 .
  • In Italy and Spain the production of electric
    arc furnace steel higher than steel production
    via the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace route.

25
ELECTRIC STEELMAKING
  • For the production of carbon steel and
    low/hight alloyed steels, following main
    operations are performed
  • Raw material handling and storage
  • Furnace charging with/without scrap preheating
  • EAF scrap melting
  • Steel and slag tapping
  • Ladle furnace treatments for quality adjustment
  • Slag handling
  • Continuous casting

26
ELECTRIC STEELMAKING-BAT
  • Process-integrated measures
  • PI.1 EAF process optimisation
  • PI.2 Scrap preheating
  • PI.3 Closed loop water cooling system
  • End-of-pipe techniques
  • EP.1 Advanced emission collection systems
  • EP.2 Efficient post-combustion in combination
    with advanced off gas treatment
  • EP.3 Injection of lignite coke powder for off gas
    treatment
  • EP.4 Recycling of EAF slags
  • EP.5 Recycling of EAF dusts

27
ELECTRIC STEELMAKING-BAT
  • PI.1 EAF process optimisation

28
ELECTRIC STEELMAKING-BAT
  • PI.2 Scrap preheating

29
ELECTRIC STEELMAKING-BAT
  • PI. 3 Closed loop water cooling system
  • The most relevant use of water considered here
    is the water used for the cooling of the elements
    of the furnace. Additionally, some water may be
    used for the cooling of waste gas or in the
    secondary metallurgy section.

30
ELECTRIC STEELMAKING-BAT
  • EP.1 Advanced emission collection systems
  • The primary and secondary emissions to air are
    of high relevance. The available abatement
    techniques should be fed with the raw emissions
    as complete as possible. Thus the collection of
    the emissions is important. The combination of
    4th hole (in case of three electrodes)
    respectively of 2nd hole (in case of one
    electrode) direct extraction with hood systems
    (or furnace enclosure) or total building
    evacuation are the most favorite systems.

31
ELECTRIC STEELMAKING-BAT
  • EP.2 Efficient post-combustion in combination
    with advanced off gas treatment
  • Post combustion in the furnace is developed to
    use a maximum of chemical energy of the CO in the
    furnace and to improve the energy balance, but CO
    and H2 are never completely oxidised in the
    furnace for this reason, it needs post
    combustion.

32
ELECTRIC STEELMAKING-BAT
  • EP.3 Injection of lignite coke powder for off gas
    treatment
  • In order to reduce organic micropollutants in
    the total off gas (primary and secondary
    emissions), especially PCDD/F lignite coke powder
    can be dosed to the duct beforem the bag filters.

33
ELECTRIC STEELMAKING-BAT
  • EP.4 EAF slag recycling
  • EAF slag can be regarded as an artificial
    rock, similar to natural rock, consisting of
    iron-oxides (FeO), lime (CaO), silicium-oxide
    (SiO2), and other oxides (MgO, Al2O3, MnO) EAF
    slags are characterised by high strength, good
    weathering resistance, and also high resistance
    against polishing. They also have properties,
    that make them suitable for use in hydraulic
    engineering.

34
ELECTRIC STEELMAKING-BAT
  • EP.5 EAF dust recyling
  • There are two method of dust recycling
  • Recycling of precipitated dusts
  • Zinc recovery and removal of heavy metals

35
EMERGING TECHNIQUES-EAF
  • Scrap sorting
  • New furnace concepts
  • Comelt EAF
  • State of Development / Realisation
  • Contiarc furnace

36
FURTHER READING
  • www.worldsteel.com
  • www.aceralia.es
  • www.wikipedia.com
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