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Title: History of Art and Technology

History of Art and Technology
  • 1900 to 1975

The Invention of the Light Bulb
  • Sir Joseph Swan in 1860
  • Developed perfected by Thomas Edison in 1879
  • Carbonized thread in a vacuum

Other Important Inventions
  • Daimler and Benz invent the gas powered
    automobile in 1889
  • Lumière brothers invent film 1895
  • First flight by Wright brothers in 1903

Constructivism and Tatlin
  • Russia, associated with the Revolution of 1917.
  • Tatlin and Constructivists saw art as a way of
    building a new political and social order.
  • Embraced the use and aesthetic of industrial
    materials and techniques.
  • Tatlin saw his tower as a way of exercising
    control over the forms encountered in our
    everyday life.

Monument for the Third International Vladimir
Tatlin, 1920
  • Wry use of the concepts and aesthetics of the
  • Created machine-like robotic costumes for
  • Noted for distancing and irony.

John Hearfield and George Grosz demonstrating at
the International Dada Fair, Berlin, 1920.
  • Term invented by Flippo Tommaso Marinetti.
  • Announced on the front page of Le Figaro in Paris
    on February 20, 1909.

Futurist Manifesto
  • 1. We intend to sing the love of danger, the
    habit of energy and fearlessness.
  • 2. Courage, audacity, and revolt will be
    essential elements of our poetry.
  • 3. Up to now literature has exalted a pensive
    immobility, ecstasy, and sleep. We intend to
    exalt aggressive action, a feverish insomnia, the
    racers stride, the mortal leap, the punch and
    the slap.
  • 4. We affirm that the worlds magnificence has
    been enriched by a new beauty the beauty of
    speed. A racing car whose hood is adorned with
    great pipes, like serpents of explosive breatha
    roaring car that seems to ride on grapeshot is
    more beautiful than the Victory of Samothrace.
  • 5. We want to hymn the man at the wheel, who
    hurls the lance of his spirit across the Earth,
    along the circle of its orbit.
  • 6. The poet must spend himself with ardor,
    splendor, and generosity, to swell the
    enthusiastic fervor of the primordial elements.
  • 7. Except in struggle, there is no more beauty.
    No work without an aggressive character can be a
    masterpiece. Poetry must be conceived as a
    violent attack on unknown forces, to reduce and
    prostrate them before man.

  • 8. We stand on the last promontory of the
    centuries!... Why should we look back, when what
    we want is to break down the mysterious doors of
    the Impossible? Time and Space died yesterday. We
    already live in the absolute, because we have
    created eternal, omnipresent speed.
  • 9. We will glorify warthe worlds only
    hygienemilitarism, patriotism, the destructive
    gesture of freedom-bringers, beautiful ideas
    worth dying for, and scorn for woman.
  • 10. We will destroy the museums, libraries,
    academies of every kind, will fight moralism,
    feminism, every opportunistic or utilitarian
  • 11. We will sing of great crowds excited by work,
    by pleasure, and by riot we will sing of the
    multicolored, polyphonic tides of revolution in
    the modern capitals we will sing of the vibrant
    nightly fervor of arsenals and shipyards blazing
    with violent electric moons greedy railway
    stations that devour smoke-plumed serpents
    factories hung on clouds by the crooked lines of
    their smoke bridges that stride the rivers like
    giant gymnasts, flashing in the sun with a
    glitter of knives adventurous steamers that
    sniff the horizon deep-chested locomotives whose
    wheels paw the tracks like the hooves of enormous
    steel horses bridled by tubing and the sleek
    flight of planes whose propellers chatter in the
    wind like banners and seem to cheer like an
    enthusiastic crowd.

  • Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash
  • Giacomo Balla, 1912

  • Unique Form of Continuity in Space
  • Umberto Boccioni, 1913

Light Space ModulatorLászló Moholy-Nagy
Light Prop for an Electric StageLászló
Moholy-Nagy, 1930
  • The light prop revolves slowly, while 70 15-watt
    lightbulbs flash through the sculpture in 2 ½
    minute cycles.
  • One of the first sculptures to use electric
  • Not to exist as object/sculpture in itself.
  • Designed to cast changing shadows on the wall.
  • Predicted that light would bring about a new kind
    of art.

Light Display Black and White and Grey.
László Moholy-Nagy
  • Hungarian artist.
  • Worked with both light and movement.
  • First to embrace new technologies in a
    multi-dimensional way, in film, photography,
    theater and kenetic-light construction. First
    multi-media artist.
  • Associated with the Bauhaus in Germany.
  • Leaves Germany and to form the New Bauhaus in

  • Light Space Modulator series used in film
    collaboration with his future wife, Sibyl.
  • Film entitled Light Display Black and White and
  • Im not thinking in chronological termsat least
    not in the accepted sense. The rhythm of this
    film has to come from the lightIt has to have a
    light chronology. Light beams overlap as they
    cross through dense air theyre blocked,
    refracted, condensed. The different angles of
    entering light indicate time. The rotation of
    light from east to west modulates the visible
    world. Shadows and reflexes register a
    constantly changing relationship of solids and

Kinetic Art
  • Well established by 1915.
  • Modernist interest out of Futurism and Cubism in
    movement and dynamism and in industrial processes
    and materials.
  • The poetics of the machine. Machine values
    merged into art.
  • Established a relationship of the body to the
  • Artists saw it as a natural progression and
    extension of sculptural concerns, i.e. 3D space,
    volume, time.
  • Saw sculpture as a system.

Rotary Glass Plate (Precision Optics)Marcel
Duchamp, 1920
Rotary Demisphere (Precision Optics)Marcel
Duchamp, 1925
The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors,
Even.Marcel Duchamp , 1915-1923
Marcel Duchamp
  • While in the United States in 1920 Duchamp
    experiments with kenetics.
  • Creates his Retinal Paintings while working on
    The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even.
  • Rotary Glass Plate, narrow motorized glass panels
    that when viewed from the front appear as one
    flat spiral.
  • Rotary Demisphere, a series of circles painted on
    the convex face of a black demisphere. When
    viewed spinning it appears as if the sphere is

The Motorized Mobile that Duchamp LikedAlexander
Calder, 1932
Naum Gabo
  • Russian, associated with Constructivists, but
    does not consider himself as such.
  • Devoted to Tatlins program for art.
  • Considered himself a realist. Writes the
    Realist Manifesto
  • He calls artists to create in the manner of

  • The realization of our perceptions of the world
    in the form of space and time is the only aim of
    our pictorial art and plastic art
  • The plumb-line in our hand, eyes as precise as a
    ruler, in a spirit as taut as a compasswe
    construct our work as the universe constructs his
    own, as the engineer constructs his bridges, as
    the mathematician his formula
  • We know that everything has its own essential
    image chair, table, lamp, telephone, book,
    house, manthey are all entire worlds with their
    own rhythm, their own orbits.

Kenetic Sculpture 1Naum Gabo, 1920
Drawing for Kinetic ConstructionNaum Gabo, 1922
Fritz Langs Metropolis
  • Produced in NYC in 1923, released in 1927.
  • Based on a play by Czech author Karel Capek
    entitled R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) which
    opened in Prague in January 1921.
  • First use of the word Robot.
  • R.U.R's theme, in part, was the dehumanization of
    man in a technological civilization.
  • In fact, in an essay written in 1935, Karel Capek
    strongly fought that this idea was at all
  • "It is with horror, frankly, that he rejects all
    responsibility for the idea that metal
    contraptions could ever replace human beings, and
    that by means of wires they could awaken
    something like life, love, or rebellion. He would
    deem this dark prospect to be either an
    overestimation of machines, or a grave offense
    against life."

Homage to New York Jean Tinguely, 1960
Homage to New York (remnant)Jean Tinguely, 1960
  • Sculpture designed for performance at the Museum
    of Modern Art in New York.
  • Worked is a machine that destroyed itself.

Radio DrawingJean Tinguely, 1962
La Rotozaza No. 1Jean Tinguely, 1967
Jean Tinguely
  • Associates himself with Dada.
  • Non-functional, non-purposeful machines.
  • Everything is in movement including that which is
    static. Art should reflect this movement.
  • Work always has Dadaist absurd sense of humor.
  • Began putting together awkward machines in early
  • Called early machines metamatic that would
    create paintings, often painting the audience.
  • La Rotozaza caught balls and threw them beyond
    the viewers reach.
  • Homage to New York was built with Billy Kluver.
    Blew smoke in the eyes of the viewer as it
    destroyed itself.

Pacific ElectricCharles Frazier, 1968
Aerial SculptureCharles Frazier, 1965
Charles Frazier
  • Sculptures designed to fly through air.
  • Remote controlled and gas powered.
  • One minute flight time.
  • In the tradition of Leonardo DaVinci.
  • Maholy-Nagy dreamed of sculptures that would
    exist in the sky.
  • Beginning with the Constructivists artists wanted
    a sculpture that would be unattached to the a

John WhitneyPioneer of computer graphics and
Arabesque, 1975
John Whitney
  • Paris from 1937 to 1938. While in Paris, he
    studied Schoenberg's Twelve Tone techniques with
    Rene Liebowitz and worked on the animation of
    abstract designs.
  • Returning to the United States in 1939, he joined
    with his painter brother, James Whitney, to
    collaborate on several experimental films.
  • Five Abstract Film Exercises (1940-1945) won
    first prize at the First International
    Experimental Film Competition in Belgium in 1949.
  • Solomon Guggenheim Fellowship in 1948 that
    allowed John Whitney to study the composition of
    music combined with graphics.
  • He was particularly interested in a study of the
    music of sine waves. John said of this period,
    "The artist/composer shapes time with his hands."
    "Time has become visual."
  • By 1959, John began his pioneering work in the
    development of mechanical analog systems which
    founded the principles and techniques of
    "incremental drift" and "slit-scan."
  • Whitney's first analog computer was made from an
    M-5 Anti-aircraft Gun Director and later with
    modifications from an M-7

  • Permutations was completed in 1966 it was an
    early artistic film constructed entirely off the
    black-and-white monitor of a large computer
    system (IBM 360, IBM 2250 Display, written in
    GRAF and FORTRAN).
  • Color was added by editing with an optical
    printer. It is an elegant abstract work composed
    of architectures of color dots that develop
    pattern while displaying a kinetic rhythm.
  • Arabesque (1975) was his final film using the
    computer/optical printer.
  • In 1986, John Whitney joined with Jerry Reed to
    develop a program combining computer graphics and
    music composing.
  • From 1986-1992, the Whitney-Reed RDTD
    (Radius-Differential Theta Differential)
    composing program was refined. The product of
    this work was the invention of a music/graphic
    instrument that produces a direct matching of
    "tonal action with graphic action." Whitney said,
    "I believe that visual design belongs with
    musical design."
  • Whitney believed that strong emotion flows from
    the combination of Music and Visual elements.
    "I've struggled to define my vision. The union of
    color and tone is a very special gift of computer

History of Computer Graphics
  • 1950s
  • John Whitney Sr. devises his own computer
    assisted mechanisms to create some of his graphic
    artwork and short films.
  • Pioneering artists Stan VanderBeck, Ken Knowlton,
    Michael Noll and others at Bell Labs in New
    Jersey created computer assisted graphics using
    analog computer devices and plotter output.
    Later, in the mid 1960s, digital computers and
    film recorders would be used.

Studies in Perception IKenneth Knowlton and Leon
Harmon, 1966
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Studies in Perception I
  • Kenneth Knowlton Leon Harmon,1966
  • 6 X 12
  • Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ
  • Scanned a photograph with a special camera that
    converted electrical signals to numerical
    representations on magnetic tape.
  • Printed on microfilm plotter then enlarged.

  • Bill Fetter experimented with early vector
    graphic CAD at Boeing (Seattle) in the late l950s
    using an IBM 7094 computer with punch card input
    and a Gerber plotter.
  • Artist Ben Laposky uses analog computers to help
    him create oscilloscope artwork.
  • Vectorscope-type graphics display on the
    Whirlwind computer at MIT. A device similar to a
    light pen allowed direct input to the screen.
  • Lawrence Livermore National Labs connects
    graphics display to IBM 704 use film recorder
    for color images
  • DAC-1 (Design Augmented by Computers) First
    computer aided drawing system. Created by Don
    Hart and Ed Jacks at General Motors Research
    Laboratory and IBM.

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  • 1960's
  • Bell Labs
  • "Computer assisted graphics" were being created
    as a new and unique art-form by people such as
    Charles Csuri, Ken Knowlton and John Whitley Sr.
  • Many pioneering artistic films were created at
    Bell Labs from about 1963 to 1967 by artists and
    programmers such as E.E.Zajac, Kenneth C.
    Knowlton, A.M. Noll, Lilian Shwartz, and Stan
  • The very first computer graphics company was
    formed in 1968 Drs. David C. Evans and Ivan E.
  • Practical commercial and industrial use of
    computer graphics begins to take hold in many
    areas of design and manufacturing.
  • Architectural and urban planning programs are
    used at Skidmore, Owings Merrill in Chicago and
    in the University of Texas School of

  • In the late 60s, the Electronics Laboratory of
    General Electric (Syracuse, NY) produces a
    prototype visualization system for NASA and the
    Office of Naval Research. The system produced
    real-time color raster graphics on a monitor as a
    training aid to astronauts going to land on the
  • William Fetter of Boeing coins the term "computer
    graphics" for his human factors cockpit drawings.
  • "Sketchpad A Man-Machine Graphical Communication
    System" is presented by Ivan Sutherland as his
    Ph.D. thesis at MIT. The user could input simple
    lines and curves by drawing directly on the
    screen with a light pen. The computer, the TX-2,
    had 320 kilobytes of memory and a 9 inch
    monochromatic CRT.
  • Charles Csuri created an analogue computer and
    used it to make transformations of a drawing. He
    completed a series of drawings based upon the
    paintings of old masters such as Durer, Goya,
    Ingres, Klee, Mondrian and Picasso.

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  • 1963
  • 1st computer art competition, sponsored by
    Computers and Automation magazine.
  • 1965
  • 1st computer art exhibition, at Technische
    Hochschule in Stuttgart
  • 1st U.S. computer art exhibition, at Howard Wise
    Gallery in New York
  • 1966
  • Permutations With a grant from IBM and a Fortran
    programmer named Jack Citron(sp?), John Whitney
    Sr. made the first digital computer short film.
  • An IBM 2250 Graphic Display Console created dot
    patterns which were then recorded onto black and
    white 35mm film. The filmed images were then
    further enhanced with a specially designed
    optical printer to add secondary motion and

Virtual Reality
  • As Associate Professor at Harvard, Ivan
    Sutherland and his student, Bob Sproull, took
    earlier "Remote Reality" vision systems of the
    Bell Helicopter project, and turned it into
    "Virtual Reality" by replacing the camera with
    computer images.
  • The first such computer environment was no more
    than a wire-frame room with the cardinal
    directions -- North, South, East, and West
    initialed on the walls. The viewer could "enter"
    the room by way of the West door, and turn to
    look out windows in the other three directions.
  • Affectionately called "The Sword of Damocles"
    because of its ceiling mounted gear, what they
    called the "Head-Mounted Display," later became
    known as Virtual Reality.

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  • 1968
  • Cybernetic Serendipity The Computer and the Arts
    exhibition at London Institute of Contemporary
    Arts (ICA)
  • The UK's Computer Arts Society (CAS) is founded
    by John Lansdown at the Royal College of Art.
  • The EVENT ONE computer art exhibition is held at
    the Royal College of Art.
  • Chuck Csuri's short film Hummingbird is purchased
    by Museum of Modern Art for permanent collection.
  • Dicomed is founded as a manufacturer of hardware
    and software products to apply computer graphic
    technology to the field of radiology by scanning
    x-ray films, converting the information into
    digital data, enhancing it and redisplaying the
    processed image.
  • Bill Fetter contributed to the first (vector
    based) computer generated television commercial
    in 1968 while at Boeing.

  • 1969
  • The first major public Computer Art show is held
    in London. Cybernetic Serendipity also publishes
    a book of the same name.
  • Bell Labs developed the first frame buffer for
    storing and displaying 3bit images.
  • Relatively affordable frame buffers became
    available in the mid to late 70s which opened up
    the commercial market for true CG production.
  • Michael Noll arranges some of the first public
    gallery showings of computer generated art in the
    United States.
  • Nelson Max at Lawrence Livermore National
    Laboratories uses CG to illustrate basic biologic
    research the first "scientific visualizations".

  • 1972
  • PONG developed by Nolan Bushnell. (Later founder
    of Atari)
  • First feature film appearance of CG West World.
    A "block pix" scene done at Information
    International Inc. (III aka "Triple I") Led by
    John Whitney Jr., digitally processed film was
    used to portray a pixelated android point of
  • 1973
  • First physical structure designed entirely with
    computer-aided geometric modeling software A
    large Easter egg which is still standing in
    Vegreville, Alberta, Canada. "The Easter Egg
    Capitol of the World".

  • 1974
  • Breakthroughs in image techniques involving
    fractals, morphing, image compositing, and
    Mip-Map texture mapping and many others.
  • Three 8bit buffers could be combined to create
    the first RGB color frame buffer.
  • Three additional framebuffers were added to a
    total of six. At 60,000 each (plus the 80,000
    for the first) what this meant in todays dollars
    is about 2million worth of equipment.
  • 1975
  • Hunger by Peter Foldes "First fully animated
    figurative film every made using computer
  • The venerable icon of early computer graphics,
    the famous "Utah Teapot" is designed by Martin
    Newell at the University of Utah.

Utah Tea pot
Utah Teapot
  • 1976
  • Future World Gary Demos, John Whitey Jr and a
    team at Triple-I creates the first feature film
    appearance of 3D CG a 3D polygonal
    representation of actor Peter Fondas head. was
    rendered and filmed out at 3000 pixel resolution.
  • 1977
  • Star Wars (Twentieth Century Fox), The Death Star
    simulation was designed and created by pioneering
    algorithmic artist Larry Cuba.
  • 1980's
  • The first digital computers used in CG as we know
    it today were introduced in the early 1980s by
    companies such as Apple Computer and Silicon
    Graphics Inc.
  • The consumer market began with the Macintosh
    personal computer and its MacDraw and MacPaint

Minimalism and the use of industrial materials
and processes.
  • Artists explore industrial processes as means of
  • Distancing and the removal of the artists hand
    in the creation of the work of art.
  • New materials allowed for new textures and
  • New processes created new kinds of sculpture that
    played with light.
  • Art as ideacan be fabricated by anyone.

UntitledDonald Judd, 1968
Holograms (Making Faces)Bruce Nauman, 1968
UntitledLarry Bell, 1966-67
Solid State Construction 12Norman Zammit, 1969
Monument V.TatlinDan Flavin, 1966-69
Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.)
  • 1966, Founded by Robert Rauschenberg and Swedish
    engineer Billy Klüver employed by Bell
    Laboratories. Klüver had come to New York to
    assist Jean Tinguely on Homage to New York.
  • Stressed collaboration between artists,
    musicians, dance, scientists and engineers.

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Nine Evenings Theater and Engineering
  • Established Experiments in Art and Technology
  • NYC, October 13 - 23, 1966 at the 69th Regiment
    Armory. The site of the controversial 1913
    Armory Exhibition.
  • Nineteen engineers donated 2,500 hours during
  • Cost was 100,000.
  • Total audience was 10,000.
  • Nine participating artists contributing two
    performances each.
  • Interminable technical problems and delays.
  • Critical failure.

Variations VIIJohn Cage, Nine Evenings, 1966
John CageVariations. Thirty photocells were
mounted at ankle level around the performance
area. The cells activated a variety of sound
sources as the performers moved. These sounds
came from contact microphones placed on a
blender, juicer, fan, and toaster, 20 radio
channels, and two Geiger counters. In addition
Cage had ten open phone lines to sites in New
York City like Luchows restaurant, the Aviary,
and the 14th Street Con Edison electric power
John Cage on Variations VII
  • making use of the sound system which has been
    devised collectively for this festivalusing as
    sound sources only those sounds which are in the
    air at the moment of performance, picked up via
    the communication bands, telephone lines, and
    microphones, together with, instead of musical
    instruments, a variety of household appliances
    and frequency generators.

Two Holes of WaterRobert Whitman, intermedia
theater piece, Nine Evenings, 1966
Robert WhitmanTwo Holes of Water Seven cars,
carrying film and television projectors, drove
out onto the Armory floor and parked facing the
back wall covered with white paper. On the
balcony, television cameras shot performances
two girls moving slowly in front of a curved
mirror, a girl typing. A small fiber optic camera
showed the inside of a coat pocket. Whitman fed
images of these live performances and off-air
television images to television projectors in the
cars. He also cued the drivers to turn on the
films of nature subjects and other films he had
Steve PaxtonPhysical Things.
A polyethylene air-inflated structure occupied
most of the Armory floor. The audience could walk
through the structure freely, encountering
projections, sounds and performers. Outside the
structure, wire loops suspended above the
audience generated sounds of music, screaming
jungle birds and a discourse on fishing the
audience heard through small pick-up devices.
David Tudor Bandoneon!
As Tudor played the bandoneon, ten contact
microphones picked up the sound and distributed
it to four processing devices. The output of a
forty- channel filter was fed to 12 speakers, and
controlled the spotlights on the balcony. An
audio processing and modifying circuit fed four
transducers attached to wood and metal structures
and horn speakers on the Armory floor. Another
device controlled images on three television
Carriage DirectnessYvonne Rainer, Nine Evenings,
Carriage DirectnessYvonne Rainer
  • Dancers were moved about the space by Rainer via
  • Slide projections, light, sound and various
    photo-chemical phenomena were programmed and
    performed by TEEM (Theater Electronic
    Environmental Modular Systems.)

Yvonne RainerCarriage Discreteness. On the
floor were spread out cubes, planks, sheets and
beams of different materials masonite, wood,
styrofoam, rubber, and so on. Seated in a high
balcony, Rainer transmitted instructions to the
performers to carry objects from one place to
another. Accompanying these movements were
"events" pre-programmed on ACTAN drum switches,
which included film and slide projections, a
super ball and pieces of foam rubber dropped from
the ceiling, and a collapsing screen.
SoloDeborah Hay, Nine Evenings, 1966
SoloDeborah Hay
  • Dancers guided around the floor on motorized
    platforms. A tightly choreographed performance
    utilized dancers and carts. Eight formally
    dressed, seated players controlled the movement
    of the carts. The dancers entered, either walking
    or riding on a cart, and then walked or rode on
    the vehicles in solo, duet or trio formations,
    filling the large Armory floor with changing
    patterns of movement, light and sound.

VehicleLucinda Childs, Nine Evenings, 1966
VehicleLucinda Childs
  • A 70kHzDoppler sonar system, especially designed
    for this piece, was activated by three red
    fireman's buckets Childs took from a performer in
    a Ground Effects Machine and hung from
    scaffolding. As she swung the buckets around
    inside the ultra-sonic sound beams, the reflected
    signals from the buckets mixed with the original
    70 kHz signal, and the resulting beat frequency
    fell in the audible range. These sounds were
    transmitted to the twelve speakers around the

Grass FieldsAlex Hay, Nine Evenings, 1966
Alex HayGrass Field. Hay wore a backpack of
specially designed differential amplifiers and FM
transmitters, which picked up brain waves, muscle
activity, and eye movement from electrodes placed
on Hay's head and body. These sounds were
broadcast to the audience as Hay carefully laid
out 64 numbered pieces of cloth. Then he sat
facing the audience, with his face being
projected on a large screen behind him, while two
performers systematically picked up the pieces of
Open ScoreRobert Rauschenberg
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Robert RauschenbergOpen Score. The first
movement was a tennis match between the artist
Frank Stella and a tennis professional. A
specially built FM radio transmitter fit in the
handle of each racquet. Each time the ball hit
the strings of the racquet, a contact microphone
picked up the "BONG," which was amplified through
12 speakers around the Armory. One stage light
went out with each "BONG." When the area was
completely dark, a crowd of 300 people entered.
Infra red television cameras picked up the
group's movements and projected these images to
three large screens seen by the audience.
Kisses Sweeter Than Wine,Oyvind Fahlstrom
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Oyvind Fahlstrom Kisses Sweeter than Wine.
Kisses was a complex theater performance
incorporating live actors, elaborate props,
slides, film and television projection.
Characters and images included Jedadiah Buxton,
an idiot savant who could multiply large numbers
in his head, played by Robert Rauschenberg Space
Girl, dressed in silver, who descended in a winch
hoist from the ceiling a girl in a plastic
swimming pool of Jello, and a remote-controlled
mylar inflated
Pepsi-Cola PavilionE.A.T., Osaka Japan, Worlds
Fair, 1970
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Pepsi-Cola Pavilion
  • Designed as environment inside and out.
  • Water cloud floated above the pavilion.
  • Triggered by movement and behavior of
  • The largest spherical mirror made.
  • Viewer saw a life-size image of him/herself
    floating in space projected onto 90 dome.
  • First light sound system ever designed for a
    spherical structure.
  • Designed as an open ended experience.

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OracleRobert Rauschenberg, 1965
  • Five part sculpture.
  • Remote controlled radio.
  • Music and sound are projected from each part in a
    predefined sequence.

SoundingsRobert Rauschenberg, 1968
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  • 8 X 36 made of 27 plexiglass panels with silk
    screen images on them.
  • Spectators clap or call out the panels light from
    behind revealing the images.

Art and Technology Exhibition
  • Curated by Maurice Tuchman and Jane Livingston.
  • Program ran from 1966 to 1971.
  • Artists were teamed up with industries to produce
    work for exhibition at the Los Angeles County
  • 76 artists participated.
  • 40 corporations.
  • Considered a critical failure.

Mud-MuseRobert Rauschenberg, 1968-70
  • In collaboration with Teledyne Corporation.
  • Recreates paint-pots of Yellowstone National
  • Mud activated by sound.

IcebagClaes Oldenburg, 1968-70
  • Done in collaboration with Disney/WED.
  • 16 high.
  • Designed to extend and uncoil as it moves upward.
  • Powered by hydraulic system.

Day Passage 1971 Rockne Krebs Argon and
helium-neon laser, mirrors. In collaboration
with Hewlett-Packard Corp. for Art and Technology
Watcher 1965-66 James SeawrightMotorized sound
sculpture. Light levels in room and internally
control the sculpture.
Electronic Peristyle 1968 James SeawrightViewer
enters the space and triggers various light,
sound and air patterns.
Moon MuseumForest Myers 1969Miniaturized
Iridium-plated drawings on ceramic wafer. To be
left on the moon. Drawings by Myers, Robert
Rauschenberg, Claus Oldenberg, Andy Warhol, David
Novros and John Chamberlain
Silver CloudsAndy Warhol, 1965-68
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