Environmental Factors in workplace - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Environmental Factors in workplace


Numerous environmental factors can affect the health and well-being of employees. These include air quality, noise, lighting and more. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environmental Factors in workplace

Environmental Factors in Industry
  • Ergonomics researchers have found
  • Identifying the effect that the environment has
    on mans psychological and physiological process.
  • Ensuring that work patterns, equipment and
    machine interfaces are designed in such a way to
    minimize the individual variations in
  • Ensuring that all necessary protective systems
    are designed to take an account of psychological
    and physiological needs and variations in man.

  • The various factors affecting working performance
  • Temperature
  • Illumination
  • Noise
  • Vibrations
  • Housekeeping and maintenance
  • Plant layout
  • Color schemes and safety color code
  • Humidity and Air-conditioning.

Effect of environmental factors on human body and
  • Temperature
  • Working in high or low temperature will induce
    heat and cold stress. The effects of working in
    high and low temperatures are explained below

Working in Hot Temperature
  • Heat is being constantly generated due to bodily
    activity called metabolism. As the human body is
    required to be maintained at a particular
    temperature called normal body temperature.
  • When the body is unable to cool itself through
    sweating, serious heat illnesses my occur.

High Temperature High Humidity Physical Work
Heat Illness
  • The major effects on human body of excess
    temperature are

1. Heat Stroke
  • Heat stroke is the most serious heat-related
    illness. It occurs when the body becomes unable
    to control its temperature the body's
    temperature rises rapidly, the sweating mechanism
    fails, and the body is unable to cool down.
  • the skin becomes hot, dry and red. Victims may
    act strangely, be weak, confused, have a fast
    pulse rate, headache or be dizzy. In later
    stages, victims may faint or have convulsions.
  • Heat stroke can kill. Anyone in this condition
    must be taken to a hospital immediately. During
  • Remove excess clothing from the victims
  • Fan and spray their bodies with cool water
  • Offer sips of cool, salted water.

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2. Heat Exhaustion
  • Heat exhaustion is a condition whose symptoms may
    include heavy sweating and a rapid pulse, a
    result of your body overheating. If lost water
    and salt are not replaced, the body dehydrated.
    Signs of heat exhaustion include
  • Heavy sweating
  • Cool, moist skin
  • Muscle or abdominal cramps.
  • Weak pulse
  • Normal or low blood pressure.
  • Victims may be tired, weak, clumsy, upset or
    confused. They are usually very thirsty, panting
    and may have blurred vision. Victims should be
    moved to a cool area, given cool, salted water to
    drink and have their clothing loosened.

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Heat Exhaustion Treatment
  • Get out of the heat. - Seek shade or get indoors
    and preferably in air conditioning if you
  • Hydrate. Sweating cools you down, but it causes
    you to lose fluids and electrolytes, which are
    minerals that help keep you hydrated. To treat
    heat exhaustion, you need to replenish those
    fluids by drinking water or a sports drink .
  • Use cool water. Help to bring your body
    temperature down by taking a cool bath or shower.
  • Loosen your clothing. Remove any tight or
    unnecessary clothing if you notice symptoms of
    heat exhaustion

3. Heat Cramps.
  • Painful cramps in the stomach, arms and legs can
    result if heavy sweating drains a person of salt.
    Cramps may occur suddenly- at work or after
  • When heat cramps occur, move the victims to a
    cool area, loosen their clothing and have them
    drink cool, salted water (mix at one teaspoon of
    salt per gallon of water ).
  • If cramps continue, provide first aid and take
    victims to a doctor.

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4. Heat Rash
  • Heat rash is the most common problem in hot work
    environments. Heat rash also known as prickly
    heat . Heat rash develops when blocked pores
    (sweat ducts) trap perspiration under your
    skin. As sweating increases, these papules give
    rise to a prickling sensation.

treat or prevent heat rash- To keep your skin
cool- wear loose cotton clothing- use
lightweight clothes - take cool baths or
showers- drink plenty of fluid to avoid
dehydrationTo calm the itching or prickly
feeling- Apply something cold, such as a damp
cloth or ice pack (wrapped in a tea towel) for up
to 20 minutes- Tap or pat the rash instead of
scratching it- Do not use perfumed shower gels
or creams
  • Symptoms
  • The symptoms of heat rash are
  • small, raised spots
  • an itchy, prickly feeling
  • mild swelling
  • The symptoms of heat rash are often the same in
    adults and children.

Working in cold Temperature
  • Working under cold conditions can lead to various
    injuries or health effects, which are
    collectively known as cold stress. Workers may
    experience cold stress when working
  • Outdoors on a cold day.
  • In a refrigerated room.
  • In an unheated building.
  • In cold water, rain , or snow.
  • While handling clod objects or materials.
  • People who work indoors can also be exposed to
    cold such as freezer r cool room workers, meat
    workers, mortuary workers, and florists.

What is cold stress
  • When the body is unable to warm itself, serious
    cold-related illnesses and injuries may occur,
    and permanent tissue damage and death may result.
  • Working in cold, windy and wet conditions can
    cause cold stress in workers. Cold stress refers
    to cold-related illnesses that happen when the
    body can no longer maintain its normal
  • Types of cold stress include trench foot,
    frostbite, and hypothermia.

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What is Hypothermia
  • a medical emergency in which your body loses heat
    faster than it can produce it, causing a
    dangerous drop in the core body temperature.
    Without rapid and decisive treatment, the heart,
    lungs, and other organs can begin to shut down,
    leading to organ failure and death.

If medical care isnt immediately available,
follow the steps below. -- Move the victim
to a warm room or shelter. - Remove wet
clothing. - Warm the center of the body
first (chest, neck, head, and groin) using an dry
layers of blankets, clothing, or towels. -
If the victim is conscious, warm sugary beverages
may help increase the body temperature. -Do not
give alcohol or caffeine. - Monitor the
victims body temperature. Once body temperature
has risen, keep the victim dry and wrapped in a
warm blanket.
  • Mild Hypothermia shivering, lack of
    coordination, slurred speech, and pale, cold
  • Moderate Hypothermia cessation of shivering,
    mental confusion, slow and shallow breathing,
    slow and weak pulse, and an inability to walk or
  • Severe Hypothermia severe muscle
    stiffness, sleepiness or unconsciousness,
    extremely cold skin, and an irregular or
    difficult to find pulse

  • Frostbite Symptoms
  • As frostbite worsens, victims will no longer feel
    the area, which is why it is essential to monitor
    the color and look of the skin using the
    guidelines below.
  • Early Stages Skin is pale yellow or white
    and may itch, sting, burn, or feel like pins and
  • Intermediate Stages Skin becomes hard and
    looks shiny or waxy. There may be little or no
    feeling in the area.
  • Late Stages Skin is hard and cold to the
    touch and darkens quickly. Skin may appear blue
    and then black.

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Lightning or Illumination is one of the most
important environmental factor. Poor lightning
can include a range of problems such as
  • Insufficient light-not enough light for need
  • Glare-too much light for need
  • Improper contrast
  • Poorly distributed light
  • Lightning is important in the work environment
    for the following reasons
  • Efficient and acute performance of visual tasks
  • Worker safety and health
  • Productivity

Poor lightning can adversely affect the safety
and health of workers by contributing to -
Eye/visual fatigue (vision diminishes with age)-
General stress and strain (headaches etc.) poor
psychological health increased possibility of
errorsincreased probability of accidents by
misjudging the position, shape of an object.
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  • Noise Noise is also a factor in relation to
    efficiency of workers. It is a frequent cause of
    fatigue, irritation and thus loss of output.

- loud music- the use of heavy machinery-
workplace transportelectrical tools such as
circular saws and cutter headsproduction
linespneumatic tools such as drills, grinders
and riveting gunselectrical motors and generators
  • Main sources of noise at work
  • Noise is a common hazard and is present to some
    extent in almost all workplaces. It is the most
    common health hazard in industries such as
    entertainment, manufacturing, agriculture,
    ship-building, textiles, mining and quarrying,
    food and drink, woodworking, metal working and
    construction. Some common sources of noise are

  • Effects of NoiseNoise is a physical and social
    problem with several undesirable effects.
  • It can cause hearing loss if of higher level (a
    physical effect).
  • Causes annoyance (a psychological effect), which
    can result in sleep disturbance, stress, tension,
    and loss of performance.

  • Vibration
  • Many workers are exposed to vibration daily while
    using vibrating equipment or machinery.
  • Workers operating hand-held equipment, such as
    chain saw or jackhammer, are exposed to hand-arm
  • Workers sitting or standing on a vibrating floor
    or seat are exposed to whole-body vibration
    because the vibration affects almost their entire
  • The risk of injury from exposure to either type
    of vibration depends on the intensity and
    frequency of the vibration, the duration of
    exposure and the part (s) of the body affected.

  • Hand-arm Vibration
  • Hand-arm vibration damages blood vessels in the
    hands and fingers, reducing the flow of blood and
    harming the skin, nerves and muscles.
  • This is called Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome
    (HAVS) , also known as Vibration-induced White
    Finger (VWF), dead-finger.
  • Major sources of vibration among hand tools are
    grinders, sanders, drills, impact wrenches,
    jackhammers, riveting and chipping hammers and
    chain saws.

  • Whole-body vibration
  • Whole body vibration can cause fatigue, insomnia,
    headaches and shakiness during or shortly after
  • Whole-body vibration can affect the entire body
    and result in a number of health disorders.

  • Housekeeping
  • Housekeeping is defined as a place for
    everything and everything in its place. Good
    housekeeping means having no unnecessary item
    about and keeping all necessary items at their
    proper places.

  • Signs of poor housekeeping
  • There are many signs of poor housekeeping such
  • Cluttered and poorly arranged work areas
  • Untidy or dangerous storage of materials (for
    example, materials stuffed in corners
    overcrowded shelves)
  • Dusty, dirty floors and work surfaces
  • Items that are in excess or no longer needed
  • Tools and equipment left in work areas instead of
    being returned to proper storage places
  • Broken containers and damaged materials
  • Overflowing waste bins and containers
  • Spills and leaks.

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  • Colour
  • In industry colors are used to
  • To reduce rejections
  • Improve lighting conditions.
  • Decorate the environment.
  • Increase efficiency and productivity.
  • Reduce accidents and increase safety.
  • Reduce 'rejects'.

  • Humidity and Air-conditioning
  • Air-conditioning is applied for the following
  • To provide comfort to industrial workers.
  • To provide proper conditions of temperature and
    humidity for the manufacturing process.
  • To maintain ultra-clean atmosphere.
  • For drying the products.
  • To preserve food during storage and transport.
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