How to Approach Pharmacology in MBBS? (1) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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How to Approach Pharmacology in MBBS? (1)

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Pharmacology is the scientific study of how pharmaceuticals and chemicals impact living beings. A drug is any chemical molecule, natural or manmade, that has an effect on a biological system. It could include studying how organisms process medications, identifying and validating new drug targets, and designing and developing new drugs to prevent, treat, and cure disease. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: How to Approach Pharmacology in MBBS? (1)


1
How to Approach Pharmacology in MBBS?
2
Pharmacology is the scientific study of how
pharmaceuticals and chemicals impact living
beings. A drug is any chemical molecule, natural
or manmade, that has an effect on a biological
system. It could include studying how organisms
process medications, identifying and validating
new drug targets, and designing and developing
new drugs to prevent, treat, and cure
disease. Within the broad field of pharmacology,
there are numerous sub-specialties-
Pharmacodynamics is the study of medications
impacts on biological systems, with a focus on
the chemical characteristics, physiological, and
behavioral consequences of drugs resulting from
interactions with molecular targets like receptor
proteins or enzyme systems. Pharmacokinetics, on
the other hand, is the study of how biological
systems interact with drugs. It includes studies
of drug absorption, distribution,
biotransformation, and excretion, which provide
critical information for the design of drug
treatment schedules in various patient
populations and experimental animals, as well as
the prediction of drug-drug interactions that may
improve or compromise the efficacy and safety of
therapeutic agents.
3
CBME-Based Pharmacology for UnderGrads The
curriculum in pharmacology has witnessed a change
from dispensing pharmacy-based curriculum to an
applied approach, where the emphasis is on how
the student prescribes rationally, taking into
view the various facets of the medicine and the
patient. Traditional pharmacology education has
been criticized for failing to prepare students
for medical practise or to teach students how to
use medications safely and rationally. The
mention of these in the textbooks is perfunctory.
The need for a change to a competency-based
curriculum was thus felt worldwide, and hence,
the new CBME Curriculum has emphasized the
below-mentioned competencies for an
undergraduate student.
4
  • Be able to recognize common drug formulations,
    appreciate their benefits and drawbacks, and
    choose the best one for a specific illness.
  • Be familiar with the national essential drugs
    list, the criteria used to create it, its
    benefits, and how to utilise it in practise.
  • Select personal or P-drugs for common conditions
    and make a proper prescription for a specific
    patient.
  • Be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of
    pharmaceutical promotion and be able to
    appropriately respond to them.
  • Recognize commercial and non-commercial sources
    of drug information and use them to stay current
    and prescribe medications.
  • Be aware of the dangers of misusing drugs in
    general, and antimicrobials in particular. Be
    able to analyze prescriptions using the WHO
    prescribing indicators and be able to use the
    same as a guide to their own prescribing
    behaviour.
  • Communicate relevant drug and nondrug information
    about common diseases to patients in order to
    ensure drug therapy compliance.
  • Be able to recognise, track, and report negative
    medication reactions.
  • Understand the need of calculating medicine doses
    and determining accurate drug doses when
    necessary.
  • Be able to advise patients on proper drug
    administration, including the use of specific
    equipment, as well as proper storage and disposal
    of medications.

5
Pharmacology for UnderGrads Pharmacology for
UnderGrads clarifies fundamental principles and
keeps students up to date on the latest
developments. It is one of the best online
Pharmacology courses since the modules are
aligned with the standard pharmacology textbook,
making it easy for students to follow an
organized approach. The CBME curriculum has
recently changed to emphasize the integration of
all topics as well as the students clinical
skills. The relevance of application-based
learning has been emphasized in CBME, and the
test questions are structured to measure
students clinical knowledge. This course has
well-integrated this unique way of studying the
subject. Pharmacology for UnderGrads was created
under the guidance of Dr. Sandeep Kaushal and Dr.
Nirmal George to make Pharmacology an exciting
and entertaining trip without the need to
memorize every drug and categorization. The
faculty has discussed the art of studying
pharmacology, including how to prepare for the
theory, practical, and NEET/NEXT PG Exams. The
lectures are well-illustrated with pertinent
visuals, flowcharts, tables, and boxes to help
viewers grasp and recall information fast. The
lectures animations assist students in
connecting concepts to their daily lives. Each
topic is supported by pharmacological notes and
MCQs that serve as a revision aid. Additionally,
each section is added with relevant questions
with answer keys for self-assessment.
6
Mistakes to avoid while studying
Pharmacology Ignoring the taxonomy of significant
drug families would be a big mistake. Undirected
learning without a clear understanding of the
purpose of reading a topic is a complete waste of
time. Nausea and vomiting are surely the
most common pharmacological side effects,
however, it is highly necessary to focus on
specific ones. Not placing enough emphasis on
recalling the mechanism of action of a specific
family of a drug. Reading dense notes with
numerous references to diverse research that have
no therapeutic application must be
avoided. Relying primarily on books while
ignoring other resources such as videos,
flowcharts, and so on. Not practising enough MCQs
and focusing only on the theoretical part instead
of clinical discussions.
7
Easiest Way to Learn Pharmacology Choose the
right reference material  After youve attended
all of your lectures, youll require a lot of
revision material. The ideal method would be to
approach pharmacology books with MCQs, keynotes,
and simple graphics. Apart from textbooks, watch
CBME-based Pharmacology videos that aim to
provide conceptual clarity. Take Good Notes  To
avoid forgetting about a large number of
medications in Pharmacology, take legible and
informative notes during all of your lectures so
that you may refer to them later. While writing
improves memory, having visually appealing notes
increases your chances of recalling
concepts quickly throughout the exam. Organize
the topics using flowcharts, tables, graphs, and
graphics. Test your knowledge with your buddy 
Keep assessing your knowledge whenever you are
with your friends. This will ensure that you are
on the same page as them and will help you to
know the different techniques your friends use to
remember the vast amount of drugs. Break down
drugs by indication and class  Sort medications
by what theyre used for, and then by their
class. Indications, contraindications, and other
characteristics of medications in the same class
are often the same. Learn them in general terms
you can always return to your CPGs for specifics,
but you must first know what to use. Also, while
learning the physically equivalent system
(respiratory drugs/cardiovascular drugs, etc.),
learn pharmacological actions. Create your chart
 Make a chart in alphabetical order and read it
over and over again. The chart must include the
drug name, the generic names, the dosages, the
indications, the contraindications, as well as
the mechanism of action, the drug type, and
diseases or conditions it is given for. Practise
Previous Years Question Papers Solving
previous years question papers is crucial in
pharmacology. This can serve as a fantastic
pre-exam practise test while also teaching you
exam patterns and questioning techniques. By
attempting as many questions as possible, you can
get familiar with the test format and
the important topics that are asked most often in
the exam. Find a teaching methodology that works
for you  If you need comprehensive
understanding, leave some time for
self-assessment daily. If you want to make
learning interesting, DigiNerves Pharmacology
for UnderGrads course adopts a CBME-based
approach. Access video lectures, MCQs, notes,
IBQs, and VBQs to stimulate visual memory.
8
Scope of Pharmacology Pharmacologists must have a
strong foundation in physiology, cell biology,
biochemistry, and molecular biology to gain
specific expertise and experimental methodologies
for studying areas of drug action. Such study
could focus on molecular interactions, cellular
and subcellular signal transduction pathways,
tissue and organ regulation, as well as
integrated physiological or behavioural responses
in organisms. The knowledge gathered assists in
the development of novel medications as well as
rational therapies, which entail the safe and
effective use of drugs for therapeutic purposes.
Furthermore, pharmacologists interdisciplinary
knowledge provides them with a unique perspective
on several biomedical difficulties, as well as
improved employment opportunities in a variety of
scientific domains. Here are some professions to
consider Academic Researcher Biomedical
Scientist Clinical Research Associate Clinical
Scientist- Biochemistry Clinical Scientist-
Immunology Medicinal Chemist Pharmacologist Resear
ch Scientist (Life Sciences) Research Scientist
(Medical) Scientific Laboratory
Technician Community Pharmacist Higher Education
Lecturer Medical Sales Representative Medical
Science Liaison Neuroscientist Patent
Attorney Regulatory Affairs Officer Science
Writer
9
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Q1. What are the types
of pharmacology? Ans. Pharmacology has two major
branches Pharmacokinetics is the study of how
medications are absorbed, distributed,
metabolised, and excreted. Pharmacodynamics
includes a pharmacological mechanism of action,
refers to the molecular, biochemical, and
physiological impacts of medications. Q2. What is
the difference between pharmacology and
pharmacy? Ans. A drug can be broadly described as
any human-made, natural, or endogenous chemical,
and pharmacology is the discipline of medicine
and biology concerned with the study of drug
activity. The science and art of making and
dispensing medications studied and created by
pharmacologists is known as pharmacy. Q3. How can
I become a pharmacologist? Ans. Pharmacologists
need an advanced degree such as a Ph. D., Pharm.
D., or M.D. Students who want to work in clinical
pharmacology should have a medical degree. Q4.
What is the scope of studying Pharmacology? A
degree in pharmacology can lead to research
positions in academia, industry, scientific civil
service, and hospitals. You can work as a liaison
between pharmaceutical corporations, doctors, and
patients. Besides, product management or areas
such as marketing and medical information are
also approached.
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