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Yellow Fever Vaccination (1)

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Yellow Fever is a serious viral infection that’s usually spread by a type of daytime biting mosquito known as the Aedes aegypti. It can be prevented with a vaccination. Know more: – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Yellow Fever Vaccination (1)


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  • Yellow Fever Vaccination

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Yellow Fever is a serious viral infection thats
usually spread by a type of daytime biting
mosquito known as the Aedes aegypti. It can be
prevented with a vaccination. Yellow fever
mainly occurs in sub-Saharan Africa (countries to
the south of the Sahara desert), South America
(especially the Amazon) and in parts of the
Caribbean. Yellow fever can be fatal. About 8
of people who get yellow fever die from it.
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Luckily, there is a very effective vaccination
for yellow fever. Some countries require proof of
vaccination (a certificate) against yellow fever
before they let you enter the country. Vaccinatio
n is the single most effective way of preventing
yellow fever. In the UK, Stamaril (produced by
Sanofi Pasteur MSD) is the only licensed yellow
fever vaccine. A single dose of the yellow fever
vaccine will protect against yellow fever for
life. It is no longer recommended to have a
booster dose every 10 years (WHO, World Health
Organisation, July 2016).
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Ideally, you should have the yellow fever
vaccination at least 10 days before your travel.
This will allow enough time for your body to
develop protective antibodies against the yellow
fever infection.
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The yellow fever vaccination is recommended
for
  • Anyone traveling to, or living in, areas or
    countries where yellow fever is endemic.
  • Anyone traveling to a country where an
    International Certificate of Vaccination or
    Prophylaxis (ICVP) against yellow fever is
    required for entry.
  • You must have a yellow fever vaccination at least
    10 days before you travel. This will allow enough
    time for your body to develop protective
    antibodies against the yellow fever infection.

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Certificate of proof of vaccination
  • Under regulations set out by the World Health
    Organization (WHO), anyone traveling to a country
    or area where the Aedes aegypti mosquito is found
    must have the vaccine or have an International
    Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis
    (ICVP). You can find a list of all the countries
    that require you to have an ICVP in the WHO
    International travel and health guide. You can
    also search the country information on NaTHNaC to
    find out whether the places you are visiting
    require an ICVP.

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  • If you have been traveling in an at-risk area
    during the past month, it is a good idea to carry
    your certificate with you. This will help avoid
    potential problems with immigration. It is
    possible for travelers without a valid yellow
    fever vaccination certificate to be vaccinated
    and held in isolation for up to 10 days. An ICVP
    is not required for entry into the UK.
  • If you lose your certificate, you may be able to
    get another one reissued as long as you have
    details of the vaccination batch number and the
    date you had the vaccination.

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  • Always consult staff at a designated vaccination
    centre if you are planning to travel to an area
    where there is a risk of getting yellow fever. If
    you tell them where you are traveling to, they
    will be able to advise you about whether you need
    to be vaccinated against yellow fever and whether
    you need an ICVP.

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Who should not be vaccinated?
People who should not have the yellow fever
vaccination include Babies under nine months
of age babies who are six to nine months old
should only be vaccinated if the risk of getting
yellow fever during travel is unavoidable. Pregna
nt women unless the risk of yellow fever is
unavoidable. Breastfeeding women unless the
risk of yellow fever is unavoidable.
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  • People whose immune systems are lowered
    (immunosuppressed) such as people with HIV and
    those receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • People who are allergic to eggs the vaccine
    contains small amounts of egg white protein,
    albumin.
  • People who have had a severe allergic reaction
    (anaphylaxis) to a previous dose of the yellow
    fever vaccine.
  • People who are allergic to any of the ingredients
    in the vaccine (including eggs).

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  • People who have a condition that affects the
    thymus gland (part of your immune system that is
    located in your upper chest)
  • People who are currently very unwell (such as
    with a high fever) this is to avoid confusing
    the diagnosis of your current illness with any
    side effects from the vaccine
  • Yellow fever naïve travellers those who have
    not been previously exposed to the vaccine who
    are 60 years of age or over should be
    individually assessed by the travel doctor or
    nurse.

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  • Exemption letters
  • In cases where having a yellow fever vaccination
    is not advised, your GP may be able to issue you
    with an exemption letter. The letter should be
    written on headed notepaper and include the
    practice details. It may be accepted by some
    immigration authorities although this is not
    guaranteed. If you are traveling from an area
    where there is a risk of yellow fever without a
    valid yellow fever certificate, immigration
    officials are legally entitled to quarantine you
    for a period of at least seven days at the point
    of arrival into a country.

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Side effects of the vaccine After having the
yellow fever vaccine, 10-30 of people will have
mild side effects such as headache, muscle pain,
soreness at the injection site and mild
fever Reactions at the injection site usually
occur one to five days after being vaccinated,
although other side effects may last for up to
two weeks. An allergic reaction to the vaccine
occurs in one case out of every 130,000 doses of
the vaccine that are given. Yellow fever
vaccine-associated neurological disease
(YEL-AND).
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Rarely, the yellow fever vaccine is associated
with a neurological condition known as yellow
fever vaccine-associated neurological disease
(YEL-AND). Neurological means that it affects the
nerves and the nervous system, including the
brain and spinal cord. YEL-AND occurs in around
four cases out of every 1 million doses given.
However, for people who are 60 years of age or
over and yellow fever vaccine naïve, the
incidence of YEL-AND increases to around one in
every 50,000. This needs to be balanced against
the risk of acquiring the disease.
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Preventing mosquito bites As well as getting the
yellow fever vaccination before traveling, you
should also take steps to avoid being bitten by
mosquitoes. The mosquitoes that carry yellow
fever bite during daylight hours. Although it may
not always be possible, you should try to
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Avoid places where mosquitoes live, such as
swamps, forests and jungles. Choose
air-conditioned accommodation. Mosquitoes do not
like air-conditioned spaces. Choose
accommodation with mesh screening over the
windows and doors. Wear loose fitting,
long-sleeved tops and trousers, even in the heat
of day.
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Use insect repellent containing DEET on exposed
skin, such as Jungle Formula. 50 DEET is
sufficient. Burn a mosquito coil or use a
plug-in device that releases insecticide in your
accommodation. Use a mosquito net where
possible, especially in bedrooms that are not
air-conditioned.
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  • Phone 0115 9475498 Nottingham
  • 0114 3583930 Sheffield
  • Email info_at_travel-doc.com
  • Website www.travel-doc.com

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  • Thank you
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