Essential Networking Terminology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Essential Networking Terminology


There are various terms that are frequently used in networking and it is essential to have knowledge about these terms. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essential Networking Terminology

Essential Networking Terminology
Table of Contents
  • Connection, Packet, Network Interface
  • LAN, WAN
  • Protocol
  • Port, Firewall
  • NAT, VPN
  • TCP/IP Model
  • Interfaces
  • Medium Access Control

Connection, Packet, Network Interface
  • Connection- In the context of networking, a
    connection indicates those pieces of related
    information which a network transfers. Prior to
    the transfer of data, a connection is built which
    exists till data transfer takes place.
  • Packet- A packet carries data between two ends.
    It refers to the most basic unit of data that a
    network transfers. Each packet has a header
    portion. Information about the packet, such as
    source, destination, timestamps etc. is contained
    in this portion. The data that is being
    transferred is contained in the main portion,
    which is usually called the body.
  • Network Interface- It refers to any type of
    software interface or networking hardware. It can
    be associated with a physical device or it can be
    a virtual interfaces representation.

  • LAN- LAN is the abbreviation for Local Area
    Network. It is either a network or a certain
    portion of a network which cannot be accessed
    publicly by the Internet. Its examples are the
    networks in houses and offices.
  • WAN- WAN is the abbreviation for Wide Area
    Network, which in terms of a network is more
    extensive than a LAN. It usually refers to the
    Internet. Any interface that is connected to a
    WAN is assumed to be reachable through the

  • A protocol refers to a collection of standards
    and rules which specifies the language that a
    device uses for communication. There are various
    protocols which are used in networking. These are
    usually implemented in different layers. Its
    examples are TCP (Transmission Control Protocol),
    UDP (User Datagram Protocol), ICMP (Internet
    Control Message Protocol) etc.

Port, Firewall
  • Port- A port is essentially an address that is
    associated with a single machine which can be
    linked to a specific piece of software. It does
    not indicate a physical interface or location. It
    enables a server to use more than one application
    for the purpose of communication.
  • Firewall- A firewall refers to a program that
    functions by creating rules for different types
    of traffics acceptability on the relevant ports.
    It decides whether the incoming as well outgoing
    traffic to a server should be allowed or not.
    Usually a firewall blocks those ports that are
    not being used by a particular application on a

  • NAT- NAT is the abbreviation for Network Address
    Translation. It refers to the way that is
    involved in translating incoming requests to a
    routing server. Usually physical LANs implement
    it for routing requests via an IP address to the
    relevant backend servers.
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  • VPN- VPN is the abbreviation for Virtual Private
    Network. It connects separate LANs over the
    Internet, while ensuring privacy. It is used for
    connecting remote systems, usually for security
    related reasons.

TCP/IP Model
  • The TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)/IP
    (Internet Protocol) model, which is known as the
    Internet Protocol suite refers to a layering
    model. It is not only simple but is widely used.
    This model has 4 layers and follows a horizontal
    approach. Session and presentation layers are
    used in the application layer in TCP/IP. This
    type of model network layer provides
    connectionless services. It is not easy to
    replace protocols in TCP/IP model.

1-800-123 -8156
  • Whoa! Thats a big number, arent you

  • Interfaces refer to the points that are
    associated with networking communication. Each
    interface has a virtual or a physical networking
    device. Usually a server has one configurable
    network interface for every wireless Internet
    card or Ethernet that is being used.
    Additionally, it specifies a virtual network
    interface, which is known as the localhost
    interface. This serves the purpose of connecting
    processes and applications on a computer to other
    processes and applications. Often one interface
    is configured by administrators to service
    traffic to the Internet and some other interface
    is configured for a private network or LAN.

Medium Access Control
  • Medium Access Control is a communications
    protocol which is used for differentiating
    specific devices. Every device should have a
    unique Media Access Control Address (MAC Address)
    which differentiates it from the other devices on
    the Internet. When devices are addressed using
    their MAC address, it lets a device be referenced
    uniquely, regardless of its name being changed by
    any software during operation.

  • IP- IP is the abbreviation for Internet Protocol
    and is one of the main protocols that ensures the
    functioning of the Internet. Its implementation
    takes place in the Internet layer of the IP/TCP
  • ICMP- ICMP is the abbreviation for Internet
    Control Message Protocol and is used for
    exchanging messages among devices for indicating
    availability or error related conditions. ICMP
    packets are used in various network diagnostic
    tools and serve as a feedback mechanism with
    regard to network communications.
  • TCP- Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is
    implemented in the transport layer of an IP/TCP
    model for establishing reliable connections.

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