100+ Guidelines for Pre Terminated Fiber Optic Cable Installation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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100+ Guidelines for Pre Terminated Fiber Optic Cable Installation

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Here are some best Guidelines which will Pull you out for the best information. Never directly pull on the fiber itself. Never exceed the maximum pulling load rating. Never exceed the cable bend radius. Always roll the cable off the spool instead of spinning it off the spool end. Make sure your fiber cable is long enough for the run. If Pre Terminated fiber optic cable is installed in the same tray as copper ones, always place the copper cables below. For More:  – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 100+ Guidelines for Pre Terminated Fiber Optic Cable Installation


1
101 Guidelines For Pre Terminated Fiber Optic
Cable Installation
2
Introduction
  • Pre Terminated cabling solutions are ideally
    suited for data center environments where the
    cable routes are well defined and where the time
    for deployment, ease of installation, network
    reliability and manageability are paramount.
  • The manufacturer should also provide 100 testing
    in a quality-controlled environment before the
    cabling is shipped out to the work-site. Make
    sure the pre terminated copper or optical fiber
    purchased through a manufacturer uses components
    that have been tested and verified by a third
    party to exceed TIA and IEEE standards.
  • When selecting pre terminated cable assemblies,
    be sure to use a reliable provider that can offer
    services such as guaranteed cabling performance,
    design assistance, certified contractor training,
    and the ability to support large quantities of
    assemblies in the required delivery window.

3
Guidelines
  1. Never directly pull on the fiber itself. Fiber
    optic cables have Kevlar aramid yarn or a
    fiberglass rod as their strength member. You
    should pull on the fiber cable strength members
    only!
  2. Never exceed the maximum pulling load rating. On
    long runs, use proper lubricants and make sure
    they are compatible with the cable jacket. On
    really long runs, pull from the middle out to
    both ends. If possible, use an automated puller
    with tension control or at least a breakaway
    pulling eye. Know and observe the maximum
    recommended load rating of the cable.
  3. Never exceed the cable bend radius. Fiber is
    stronger than steel when you pull it straight,
    but it breaks easily when bent too tightly. These
    will harm the fibers, maybe immediately, maybe
    not for a few years, but you will harm them and
    the cable must be removed and thrown away!
  4. Always roll the cable off the spool instead of
    spinning it off the spool end. This will put a
    twist in the cable for every turn on the spool!
    Never twist the fiber cable. Putting a twist in
    the cable can stress the fibers too
  5. Make sure your fiber cable is long enough for the
    run. Fiber splicing make things complicated and
    expensive. And it needs special protection. Try
    to make it in one pull.
  6. Indoor cables can be installed directly, but you
    might consider putting them inside innerduct.
    Innerduct provides a good way to identify fiber
    optic cable and protect it from damage, generally
    a result of someone cutting it by mistake! You
    can get the innerduct with pulling tape already
    installed.
  7. Plan the Installation. Create a detailed, written
    plan of installation. You can eliminate 95 of
    the problems installers can encounter by simply
    creating this plan. The plan should include
    equipment and supplies, fiber cable
    specification, location of equipment, testing
    requirements, data forms for testing, personnel
    experience level and assignment, installation
    methods, identification of potential problem
    areas, safety issues, etc.
  8. Pull, do not push cables. Pushing can result in
    violation of the bend radius.
  9. Monitor the supply reel. Monitoring the supply
    reel during installation is necessary to prevent
    violation of minimum bend radius

4
Continue...
  1. Communicate along the path of installation. When
    installing long runs, communicate and monitor
    along the path of the installation. Fiber cables
    can and do jump from unmonitored pulleys. The
    minimum crew should have one person monitoring
    the pulling equipment, one monitoring the supply
    reel, and one coordinating all involved in the
    installation.
  2. Use proper tools and techniques. A vehicle for
    pulling the cable is not a proper tool, unless a
    breakaway swivel is also used. Proper techniques
    depend on the cable design and the location of
    the installation. For example, proper technique
    is pulling a cable into a conduit. Proper
    technique is placing or laying a cable in a cable
    tray or raceway.
  3. Use fiber optic cable lubricant. Lubricate the
    cable when installing in conduits. Lubrication
    reduces the pulling load and the chance of
    breakage. The lubricant has to be compatible with
    the cable jacket material.
  4. Train installation personnel. Properly train and
    instruct the people who will do the installation.
    Proper training reduces expense through reduction
    of breakage and excess attenuation.
  5. Use the figure 8 technique. Divide long pulls
    into several shorter pulls, using the figure 8
    technique for storing Pre Terminated Fiber cable
    at the intermediate locations. The cable is
    placed on the ground in a figure 8 pattern. This
    pattern is large, at least 10-20 feet from top to
    bottom of the pattern. When all the cable is
    placed in this pattern, the pattern is lifted and
    flipped over, so that the loose end is on top.
    This loose end is pulling into the next section
    of conduit or duct. This technique prevents
    twisting in the cable.
  6. Comply with vertical rise limits. Know and
    observe the maximum vertical rise distance limit.
    Exceeding this limit can result in fiber
    breakage, excess attenuation, and, in loose tube
    cables, fibers sliding from cables. Cables in
    vertical installations that are longer than the
    vertical rise limit must be tied off at distances
    less than this limit. Loose tube cables must be
    looped.
  7. Allow for thermal expansion and contraction. In
    outdoor installations, a common practice of 2.5
    foot sag for 150 foot span is good for thermal
    expansion and contraction. Failure to allow for
    thermal expansion can result in increased
    attenuation and breakage of fibers.
  8. For tough installations, use loose buffer tube
    fiber cables. Loose tube cables can be more
    forgiving of abuse than tight buffer cables. The
    reason is that the excess length of fiber in the
    buffer tube and the ability of fiber to move from
    low stress region to higher stress region.

5
Continue...
  • Observe the temperature operating range. Install
    a cable in locations in which the temperature
    range imposed is within the temperature operating
    range. Violation of the temperature operating
    range can result in excessively high attenuation
  • Cap or seal water blocked cables. Cap off or seal
    the ends of cables with water blocking gel or
    grease. These materials can flow out of the
    cable, causing maintenance problems in cable end
    boxes
  • Protect fibers and buffer tubes. Confine fibers
    and buffer tubes in protective structures, such
    as splice trays and cable end boxes. Fibers and
    buffer tubes do not have sufficient strength to
    resist breakage due to normal handling of copper
    cables
  • Loop vertically installed loose tube cables.
    Install vertical, unfilled, loose tube cables
    with loops to prevent the fiber from slipping to
    the bottom of a vertical run. If this happens,
    attenuation can increase and fibers eventually
    break.
  • Check continuity and attenuation. Check the
    continuity and attenuation of the cable before
    each operation. These checks should be performed
    as-received/before installation, after
    installation, after splicing, and after connector
    installation.
  • Mark cable as Fiber Optic Cable. Mark cable as
    fiber optic cable in all locations in which it
    can be easily reached. Such marking will alert
    electricians to the nature of the cable.
  • Make As-Built Data logs. Make as-built data logs
    on all cables. Keep these data available to those
    who will perform maintenance and troubleshooting.
    These data logs should include both insertion
    loss measurement and OTDR measurements.
  • Safety precaution no food, drink or smoke. Do
    not eat, drink, or smoke in any area in which
    bare glass fiber is created. Bare glass fibers
    can cause splinters which are very difficult to
    find and remove.
  • Safety precaution do not look into fiber
    without checking status. Never look into a fiber,
    cable, or connector unless you know for sure that
    there is no laser light in the fiber. For
    extensive work with fiber optics, safety glasses
    with IR filter is recommended.
  • Leave service loops. Leave cable and fiber
    service loops everywhere. You will regret not
    doing so. Service loops allow you to pull excess
    cable or fiber into a location where you have
    experienced a problem. It is much cheaper to pull
    in a service loop than to replace an entire run
    of fiber cable.

6
Continue...
  1. Segregate or isolate the work area. Rope off or
    otherwise isolate the area of cable installation
    to prevent access to unauthorized or untrained
    personnel. This will avoid safety problems such
    as fiber splinters and unintentional abuse.
  2. For direct burial installations, the cable should
    lie flat in a trench, free of any large stones or
    boulders that may deform the cable.
  3. Do not allow vehicles to drive over a cable.
  4. Ensure that the proper cable length has been
    installed before cutting off excess cable.
  5. Avoid placing cable reels on their sides or
    subjecting them to shock from dropping.
  6. Fiber optic cables should be placed in their own
    dedicated ducts or trays. Do not mix copper cable
    and fiber cable in the same ducts or trays.
  7. After the fiber optic cable is installed into a
    duct or innerduct, end plugs should be installed
    to provide an effective water seal. The ducts and
    innerducts should be kept free of debris and
    maintained watertight at all times.
  8. Ducts and innerducts should be sized to meet
    present and future cable installation
    requirements. A maximum 40 fill ratio is a good
    rule of thumb to follow for duct size.
  9. The fiber pulling rope or tape should be
    sequentially marked (foot or meter) for easy
    identification of distance.
  10. The pulling tape should have a rating for greater
    than maximum anticipated pulling tension.
  11. Before the start of any cable pull, all ducts and
    cable vaults should be carefully inspected for
    damage or deterioration, and to address any
    safety concerns.
  12. The electric spark generated by a fusion splicer
    can cause an explosion when flammable gases are
    present. Fusion splices should therefore not be
    used in vaults.
  13. To minimize cable tensions, reel vault locations
    should be set near the sharpest bend locations.
    Pulling and reel locations should also be set at
    corner vaults where possible.

7
Continue...
  1. Identify lightwave equipment that will be used
    and ensure that the equipment will function
    properly with the fiber cable being installed.
  2. When an Indoor/Outdoor rated fiber cable enters a
    building, it should be spliced to an indoor-type
    fiber cable within 50 feet from the cable
    entrance to meet NEC code.
  3. All vertical cable must be secured at the top of
    the run. A split mesh grip is recommended to
    secure the cable.
  4. The vertical attachment point should be carefully
    chosen to comply with the cables minimum bend
    radius while holding the cable securely.
  5. If future cable pulls in the same duct or conduit
    are a possibility, the use of innerduct to
    sectionalize the available duct space is
    recommended. Without this sectionalization,
    additional cable pulls can entangle an operating
    cable and could cause an interruption in service.
  6. A small amount of slack cable (20-30 feet) can be
    useful in the event that cable repair or
    relocation is needed.
  7. Cables should be tested after shipping. Damage to
    cabling can occur during shipping or
    installation. Failing to test fiber cabling after
    it is delivered is a common mistake made by
    installers.
  8. If insertion loss suddenly increases with an
    adapter or connector, the cause may be dirt. You
    should always clean the connector and adapter
    before plugging them in.
  9. Properly attach the pulling eye and swivel to the
    cable. Ensure that the pulling eye and swivel
    assembly have no sharp edges and can easily fit
    through all conduits, pull boxes, and cable
    trays.
  10. When pulling the fiber out of a section, coil the
    cable on the floor in a figure 8 pattern to avoid
    twisting. Continue the cable pull until all the
    cable has been pulled through
  11. Identify the exact fiber optic cable route and
    ensure that it meets all installation
    specifications. Obtain all required fiber cable
    installation authorizations and permits along the
    route.

8
Continue...
  1. Record all required fiber optic facility details,
    including proper route drawings, fiber
    assignments, loss readings, OTDR traces, etc.
  2. Prepare emergency repair plans.
  3. Only remove connector and adapter duct caps prior
    to making the connection. Do not let the
    connector tough any surface once the duct cap has
    been removed.
  4. When making a connection, the connector should
    attach to the adapter smoothly. Do not rotate the
    connector when making the connection.
  5. For screw-in connectors such as FC connector,
    tighten them only finger tight. Never force a
    connector onto an adapter.
  6. A fiber optic cable should be tested three
    separate times during an installation on the
    reel, the splicing test, and the final acceptance
    test.
  7. Extreme caution should be observed when
    performing an aerial installation. The proper
    personnel should be contacted so that they are on
    the site when work is performed near high-voltage
    lines.
  8. Cables that are installed in the vicinity of
    high-voltage power lines should be grounded,
    including all-dielectric cables.
  9. Maintain proper clearance between the fiber optic
    cable and power cable at all times. Always make
    allowances for power cable sag due to weather and
    current conditions. Cable sag increases in warm
    weather or when power cable is passing heavy
    current.
  10. When a steel messenger wire is used for aerial
    installation, avoid zigzagging the messenger wire
    from one pole side to the other. Instead, make
    sure it is kept on one side as much as possible.
  11. Follow Building Codes Always obey all local, and
    national, fire and building codes. Be sure to
    firestop all cables that penetrate a firewall.
    Use plenum rated cable where it is mandated,
    etc., etc.
  12. Do make every effort to pull cables from a
    conduit in as straight an angle as possible.
    Pulling on an angle can cause damage to the cable.

9
Continue...
  1. The cable weight in an unsupported vertical rise
    shall be less than the specified long term
    operating load. Your manufacturers specification
    sheet should be consulted for specifics.
    Intermediate cable attachment points however are
    recommended for optimum performance.
  2. Bonding and Grounding Follow your company and
    local/national bonding and ground procedures when
    using fiber cable with metallic components.
  3. When pulling the cable off the reel onto
    messenger mounted cable blocks, special care
    should be given to size and location of the 1st
    and last pulley. The reel should be placed as far
    as practical from the 1st pulley to minimize the
    angle of the 1st bend. A cable shoot/pulley
    larger than the specified bend radius is
    recommended to minimize the cable bend at the
    first and last pulley locations or at any
    location with a change in direction.
  4. On runs from 40m to 100m, use proper lubricants
    and make sure they are compatible with the cable
    jacket.
  5. On runs over 100m, use proper lubricants and pull
    from the middle out to both ends.
  6. If possible, use an automated puller with tension
    control or at least a breakaway-pulling eye.
  7. Avoid placing fiber optic cables in raceways and
    conduits with copper cables to avoid excessive
    loading or twisting
  8. Attach cables with plastic clamps having large
    surface areas. Avoid pinching or squeezing cable.
    Cable clamps should be installed manually with
    gentle pressure
  9. Use a wet wipe to loosen particles on the end of
    the cable connector using a circular or straight
    wiping motion while using care to avoid wiping
    over area of pad that has already been used. Do
    not use a back and forth scrubbing action.
  10. Cleaning fiber optic transceivers. Choose an
    optical grade lint free swab that fits easily
    into the transceiver barrel. The swab should be
    gently placed into the barrel of the connector
    and rotate no more than one turn. DO NOT rotate
    back-and-forth or round-and-round because this
    could grind debris into the transceiver. The
    swabs should only be used ONCE
  11. Cable Blowing or Jetting in Duct Applications. A
    crash test should be performed to determine the
    maximum push force. Excessive pushing will cause
    the cable to cork screw in the duct or fold over
    which will damage the fiber.

10
Continue...
  1. Cable blowing. Consider the route to determine
    the maximum blowing distance. Follow the blowing
    equipment suppliers blowing distance
    recommendations 3000 to 6000 feet is a typical
    blowing length. A set up with multiple blowing
    machines may be required.
  2. Cable blowing. Maintain proper air flow to blow
    the cable verses pushing the cable. Use an air
    compressor with a minimum of 375 cfm. The minimum
    air pressure in the duct should be 100 psi with
    125 psi recommended.
  3. Cable blowing air cooler. Air compressor cooler
    should be used as recommended by the blower
    equipment manufacturer. Typically this is when
    the ambient air temperature exceeds 80F.
  4. Cable blowing. Use only cable/duct lubricants
    recommended by its blowing equipment manufacturer
    for optical fiber cable.
  5. Do not store cable within the closure or pedestal
    unless there is enough room to accommodate the
    minimum specified cable bend radius.
  6. Grounding Cable with metallic components shall
    follow the bonding and grounding requirements of
    the customer and local or national codes.
  7. Midspan access of fibers in buffer tubes To
    minimize fiber damage, use a Midspan Access Tool
    to open the buffer tube such as a Corning
    OFT-000. Care should be taken to use the correct
    insert size.
  8. Conduit Installations General Information Try to
    design the conduit run with a few bends as
    possible. If there are too many bends in the run
    then you may consider installing junction boxes
    in lieu of bends.
  9. Use plastic bushings on conduit ends to avoid
    damage to the cable during the pull
  10. For cables using aramid yarn alone as the
    strength member, the jacket can be removed to
    expose the yarn. The yarn should be tied in a
    knot with the pull rope, so that the jacket will
    not be inadvertently used for strength.
    Optionally, the jacket can be tied into a tight
    knot before pulling. After pulling, the knot
    should be cut off.
  11. Buried cable installations. Identify cable
    locations with surface markers. Anticipate
    obstructions.

11
Continue...
  1. For cables using aramid yarn and an fiberglass
    central member, a pulling grip should be used.
    The strength member should be attached
    independently. This can be accomplished by
    weaving the strength member into the fingers of
    the grip, and then taping it together. All
    strength members should be gripped equally to
    ensure proper distribution of tension
  2. Test jumpers must be of the same fiber core size,
    performance and connector type as the cable
    system (e.g. 50/125 µm FX2000 jumpers for a
    50/125 µm FX2000 optical fiber system) and shall
    be one to five meters long
  3. Number of 90 degree turns. The number of 90
    degree turns on a pull shall not exceed 6 for
    aerial cables and 4 for underground
    cable-in-conduit.
  4. Pulling underground fiber optic cable. Special
    fiber optic blocks should be used on all turns or
    angles.
  5. And always use a swivel pulling eye because
    pulling tension will cause twisting forces on the
    cable
  6. If cables are present in ducts through which the
    fiber cable is to be pulled, the existing cable
    types should be identified and the owner of the
    cable called to inform him of the action, and to
    identify any safety concerns.
  7. Use a generous amount of cable pulling lubricant
    on the entire run, especially on the leader
    (pulling eye mesh). The person may stop the
    cable pull from time to time to prepare and apply
    more lubricant. Use only lubricant that is
    expressly designed for cable pulling. When
    working in freezing temperatures, use a lubricant
    that is designed not to freeze.
  8. It is important to use a rope size that give
    minimal stretching during the pull. Stretching of
    the rope is undesirable for several reasons
    including that it makes for a very unstable pull,
    and takes away control from those doing the
    pulling.
  9. Use extreme caution when removing the pull eye.
    Do not use a blade to slit the mesh. Instead, use
    a pair of electricians scissors or diagonal
    cutters. Work your way from the back of the cable
    toward the pull eye, while lifting the mesh
    upward, away from the cable.
  10. It is extremely important to take an accurate
    measurement when planning an order for a custom
    pre-terminated fiber optic cable assembly. These
    custom assemblies cannot be returned unless out
    of box defective.

12
Continue...
  1. For cables using aramid yarn and an fiberglass
    central member, a pulling grip should be used.
    The strength member should be attached
    independently. This can be accomplished by
    weaving the strength member into the fingers of
    the grip, and then taping it together. All
    strength members should be gripped equally to
    ensure proper distribution of tension
  2. Optional pulling eyes are highly recommended. The
    pulling eye (and associated cable netting) will
    protect the pre-terminated ends during the pull.
  3. Underground conduits, if newly installed, should
    be a minimum size of between 1.5? to 2?. If the
    run is long, or if you anticipate the possibility
    of additional future pulls Then you may want to
    install a conduit of up to 4? (or greater).
  4. Try to design the conduit run with a few bends as
    possible. If there are too many bends in the run
    then you may consider installing junction boxes
    in lieu of bends.
  5. Cable may be placed in a Figure 8 pattern if it
    needs to be removed from the reel. This pattern
    minimizes the accumulation of cable twist. Care
    should be taken to prevent cable damage while the
    cable is in this configuration.
  6. Riser cables are generally required for vertical
    applications and plenum cables are required where
    there is a positive air pressure space.

13
Conclusion
  • Pre-terminated cables are the plug-and-play
    solution for links between switches, servers, and
    patch panels in the data center. As the computing
    environments and business needs of organizations
    differ widely, not every enterprise will find the
    benefits of pre-terminated systems outweigh the
    investment.
  • Field-terminated copper and fiber cabling and
    connectivity systems are generally less costly to
    purchase in terms of the various components. Just
    to find a suitable solution system for your own
    network. Providing reliable quality, advanced
    testing system and favorable price, progress of
    FS.COM has never stopped. We offer a variety of
    pre-terminated optics including the breakout
    patch cable, pre-terminated trunk cable and
    adapter panels.
  • Fiber optic cables like SC fiber patch cable and
    LC to LC patch cord are also needed. If you have
    any requirement of our products, please send your
    request to us.
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