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Title: ias foundation course online


1
EDEN IAS
Educational Development Enrichment
Network STEPS DAILY MAINS ANSWER
WRITING NAME_____________________________________
__________________________________ DATE__________
__________________________________________________
____________ SUBJECT____________________________
________________________________________
INVIGILATORS SIGNATURE
CANDIDATES SIGNATURE
11-B/8, FIRST FLOOR TEWARI HOUSE, OPPOSITE METRO
PILLAR NO. 137 PUSA ROAD, KAROL BAGH, NEW
DELHI CONTACT 011-40197652 9315215980
9315227819 Email edenias96_at_gmail.com
connect.edenias_at_gmail.com website www.edenias.com
2
  • INSTRUCTIONS FOR CANDIDATES
  • Please read each of the following instructions
    carefully before attempting questions
  • There are FOUR questions printed in ENGLISH.
  • All the questions are compulsory.
  • The number of marks carried by a question is
    indicated against it.
  • Word limit in the questions, wherever specified
    should be adhered to.
  • Content is more important than length.
  • Any page or portion of the page, left blank in
    the Question-cum-Answer(QCA) Booklet must be
    clearly struck off.

NOTE
Candidates performance in the test would be
evaluated on the basis of five parameters
viz. 1.Understanding of the Questions. 2.Quality
of Content in the Answers. 3.Decipherment of the
Command. 4.Structuring of Arguements.
5.Presentation and Conclusion.
FEEDBACK
3
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
Indian Society is institutionalized, multiclass,
multi-ethnic and assimilative in
nature-Elucidate.
Q. 1
10
4
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
Discuss various evidences that substantiate the
existence of Pangaea and indicate that another
one is impending. 10
Q. 2
5
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
6
EDEN IAS
STEPS
The Industrial Revolution has two phases one
material, the other social one concerning the
making of things, the other concerning the making
of men.-Comment. 15
Candidates must not write on this margin
Q. 3
7
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
8
EDEN IAS
STEPS
With detailed illustrations and suitable examples
highlight the differences between Nagara,
Dravida and Vesara types of temple
architecture.
Candidates must not write on this margin
Q. 4
15
9
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
10
EDEN IAS
  • (MODEL ANSWERS)
  • STEPS 18/06/2018- (General Studies-I)
  • Q1. Indian Society is institutionalized,
    multiclass, multi-ethnic and assimilative in
    nature- Elucidate. (10)
  • Approach
  • Try to focus on the various key words used in the
    question. There are four important key words
    used in the question viz. institutionalized,
    multiclass, multi-ethnic and assimilative.
  • The Command of the question (in this case
    Elucidate) must not be missed. The answer
    should be written in the light of the command.
    Otherwise it is a useless exercise. Elucidate
    means To explain or to make something appear
    more cogent and clear.
  • It is only a ten-marker and hence content should
    be balanced in such a way that all key words are
    given adequate and as much as possible equal
    space in your answer.
  • You can also provide some examples it would add
    more muscle to your arguments.
  • Answer
  • India is a vast country and its society is highly
    evolved. Social life continues in India from the
    Indus Valley Civilization around 2500 BC to the
    present day. During this very long period, Indian
    society has undergone many changes it
    assimilated many cultures and was influenced by
    many foreign societies. It not only gave
    adequate space to everyone but also created an
    ecosystem where others can contribute and
    flourish. Blood and kinship ties drive the Indian
    Social Fabric. Indian Society is highly
    institutionalized, multiclass, multi-ethnic and
    assimilative in nature.
  • Institutionalization Indian society is
    institutionalized in nature in the form of well
    developed systems like Family, Marriage, Gotra
    and Caste System. The Indian Social life is
    dominated and crowded by institutions. An
    average Indian person traverses through these
    institutions at different times, throughout the
    course of his life.
  • Multi-class Indian Society is multi-class in
    nature due to the coexistence of several classes
    in
  • India. These classes have both economic and
    social manifestations. The classes in India are
    not only a direct outcome of unequal
    distribution of wealth but also due to denial of
    opportunity.
  • Multi-Ethnic Ethnicity is a biological concept
    that roughly relates to racial divisions. India
    has seen bands of immigration and thus almost
    all the major ethnic groups are found in India.
    For instance Negrito, Proto-astroloid, Nordic,
    Mongoloid, Western Brachycephals etc. However the
    different races have intermingled in India to
    such an extent that to segregate one from the
    other is almost impossible today. India is thus
    both Multi-Ethnic and mixed-blood society.

11
India as merchants, rulers, invaders, traders,
travelers, refugees etc. Indian not only welcomed
them but also imbibed some of their values to
enrich Indian Culture and society. Unity in
Diversity is an inherent feature of the Indian
society. Diversity in India exists at various
levels and in different forms. However, beneath
this diversity, there is an underlying current of
fundamental unity in social institutions and
practices.
  • Q2. Discuss various evidences that substantiate
    the existence of Pangaea and indicate that
    another one is impending. (10)
  • Approach
  • In the introduction try to give a brief
    explanation of Pangaea through Continental Drift
    of Wegener, in not more than two to three lines.
    Do not waste your time in explaining the
    continental drift theory. Address the true demand
    of the question. After all it is only a ten-
    marker.
  • The question is just asking for evidences in
    support of the claim that Pangaea once existed,
    so
  • try to give as many evidences as you can.
  • Try to provide some illustrations to substantiate
    your evidences. Illustrations could be diagrams,
    flowcharts, maps etc.
  • Finally through Plate- Tectonics and Sea Floor
    Spreading prove that another super continent is
    impending.
  • Answer
  • Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that
    existed during the late Paleozoic and early
    Mesozoic eras. As per Alfred Wegeners
    Continental Drift Theory it assembled from
    earlier continental units approximately 335
    million years ago, and it began to break apart
    about 175 million years ago In contrast to the
    present Earth and its distribution of continental
    mass, much of Pangaea was in the southern
    hemisphere and surrounded by a super-ocean,
    Panthalasa. Pangaea was the most recent
    supercontinent to have existed and the first to
    be reconstructed by geologists. The following are
    some of the evidences in support of the
    existence of Pangaea.
  • Jig-Saw Fit It has been noted that the
    coastlines of South America and West Africa seem
    to match up, however more particularly the
    terrains of separate continents conform as well.
    Examples include the Appalachian Mountains of
    eastern North America linked with the Scottish
    Highlands, the familiar rock strata of the Karroo
    system of South Africa matched correctly with
    the Santa Catarina system in Brazil, and the
    Brazil and Ghana mountain ranges agreeing over
    the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Fossil remains There are various examples of
    fossils found on separate continents and in no
    other regions. This indicates that these
    continents had to be once joined together because
    the

12
extensive oceans between these land masses act as
a type of barrier for fossil transfer. Four
fossil examples include the Mesosaurus,
Cynognathus, Lystrosaurus, and Glossopteris.
  • JIG SAW FIT
  • Typical Behaviour of Lemmings Lemmings are small
    animals in Scandinavia whenever there is
    population pressure among lemmings they run
    towards the west as the Urals act as a barrier in
    the east. However as they reach the Atlantic
    Shores they flounder in to the ocean. This
    typical behaviour only proves that once land
    existed beyond that point.
  • Gold Placer Deposits in Brazil They are believed
    to be sourced from Africa and River Niger is
    held responsible for such deposition. It is
    possible only when Africa and South America are
    joined.
  • Paleomagnetic evidence The old rocks of
    Appalachians in North America and Kjollen in
    Western Europe show striking Paleomagnetic
    similarity (Same Magnetic inclination or dip).
    This proves that they were formed almost at the
    same latitude. This is possible only when they
    were joined.
  • Carboniferous Glaciations Many parts like Africa
    and Peninsular India have traces of glacial
    deposits. When one looks at their present climate
    such glaciations appears an extremely bleak

13
possibility. In fact Africa and Peninsular India
were not only once joined but placed near the
South Pole (Part of Gondwanaland). The Modern
city of Durban was located at the South
Pole. Fossil distribution, glacier-made scars
and other lines of evidence tell us that at least
three Pangea- like supercontinents have occurred
throughout the course of Earth's lifetime. There
was Nuna, which came together about 1.8 billion
years ago. After it split apart, the continents
recombined into Rodinia roughly 800 million
years later. Eventually, this too broke into
fragments. Pangea represented the next and to
date, most recent reunion of Nuna and Rodinia's
former components. Going forward, the
established pattern of drifting and merging will
only continue. Plate tectonics and Sea floor
spreading have only added credence to the drift
school. Among geologists, the consensus is that
a future Pangea-style supercontinent is going to
form at some point within the next 300 million
years. What's debatable, though, is the manner in
which that'll happen.
  • Q3. The Industrial Revolution has two phases
    one material, the other social one concerning
    the making of things, the other concerning the
    making of men.-Comment. (15)
  • Approach
  • The question has a dualistic nature and hence
    your answer should also incorporate such
    dualism. In simple words, first comment on the
    material changes brought about by Industrial
    revolution and then comment on the social
    repercussions that emanated out of the industrial
    revolution.
  • The command used in the question should be
    deciphered properly. In this instance the
  • command that is used is Comment- which means to
    express an opinion or reaction in speech or
    writing.
  • Answer
  • The Industrial Revolution, which took place from
    the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during
    which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in
    Europe and America became industrial and urban.
  • Some of the Material changes brought about by
    industrial revolution were
  • Commercialized production of goods - Products
    were now made by machine and at much faster
    pace. Thus it affected the price of goods and the
    goods became cheaper due to economies of scale.
  • Innovation and specialisation got a push - Since
    mass production at cheaper rates was the main
    aim of the industrialists as they wanted to
    create maximum profit innovation in technology
    and machinery along with specialisation got an
    impetus during the industrial revolution. The
    textile industry, in particular, was transformed
    by industrialization.
  • Transportation and the Industrial Revolution -
    The transportation industry also underwent
    significant transformation during the Industrial
    Revolution. Before the advent of the steam
    engine, raw materials and finished goods were
    hauled and distributed via horse-drawn wagons,
    and by boats along canals and rivers.

14
  • Communication in the Industrial Revolution -
    Communication became easier during the
    Industrial Revolution with such inventions as the
    telegraph. In 1837, two Brits, William Cooke
    (1806-1879) and Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875),
    patented the first commercial electrical
    telegraph. By 1840, railways were a
    Cooke-Wheatstone system, and in 1866, a telegraph
    cable was successfully laid across the Atlantic.
  • Banking and secondary markets in the Industrial
    Revolution - The Industrial Revolution also saw
    the rise of banks and industrial financiers, as
    well as a factory system dependent on owners and
    managers. A stock exchange was established in
    London in the 1770s
  • However with all these material developments the
    social sphere also transformed drastically.
  • Some of the social repercussions of the
    Industrial revolution were
  • The emergence of Bourgeoisie The Industrial
    Revolution brought about a greater volume and
    variety of factory-produced goods and raised the
    standard of living for many people, particularly
    for the middle classes.
  • Capitalism was accepted as the model of growth -
    An economic system based on profit, free
    enterprise, the private ownership of means of
    production, and lack of government interference
    was celebrated during the industrial revolution.
    The invisible hand of Adam Smith was ruling the
    order.
  • Poverty, hunger and inequality - However, life
    for the poor and working classes continued to be
    filled with challenges. Wages for those who
    labored in factories were low and working
  • conditions could be dangerous and monotonous.
    Unskilled workers had little job security and
    were easily replaceable. Children were part of
    the labor force and often worked long hours and
  • were used for such highly hazardous tasks as
    cleaning the machinery.
  • Lack of hygiene and diseases - Additionally,
    urban, industrialized areas were unable to keep
    pace with the flow of arriving workers from the
    countryside, resulting in inadequate,
    overcrowded housing and polluted, unsanitary
    living conditions in which disease was rampant.
  • Stage set for emergence of socialism -
    Conditions for Britains working-class began to
    gradually improve by the later part of the 19th
    century, as the government instituted various
    labor reforms and workers gained the right to
    form trade unions.
  • Prior to the Industrial Revolution, which began
    in Britain in the late 1700s, manufacturing was
    often done in peoples homes, using hand tools
    or basic machines. Industrialization marked a
    shift to powered, special-purpose machinery,
    factories and mass production. The iron and
    textile industries, along with the development
    of the steam engine, played central roles in the
    Industrial Revolution, which also saw improved
    systems of transportation, communication and
    banking. While industrialization brought about
    an increased volume and variety of manufactured
    goods and an improved standard of living for
    some, it also resulted in often grim employment
    and living conditions for the poor and working
    classes.

15
  • Q4. With detailed illustrations and suitable
    examples highlight the differences between
    Nagara, Dravida and Vesara types of temple
    architecture. (15)
  • Approach
  • The question calls for detailed illustrations and
    thus it is expected from the aspirant to draw
    some diagrams or charts while explaining the
    various features of the Nagara, Dravida and
    Vesara types of temple architecture.
  • The command should be deciphered correctly which
    in this case is Highlight. Highlight means to
    draw special attention or notice towards
    something, either by speech, written records or
    visual dimensions.
  • It also calls for suitable examples and thus you
    should provide relevant examples of the three
    types in your answer.
  • In conclusion you can either write about the
    impact of socio-economic life on temple
    architecture or conclude with some similarities
    that exist between the three types of temple
  • architecture.
  • Note Here I am providing some extra information
    as well which will address your requirements
    regarding this topic.
  • Answer
  • A number of architectural texts known as the
    Shilpashastras were written in early medieval
    times. These refer to three major styles of
    temple architecture, Nagara, Dravida, and Vesara.
    The
  • Nagara style is associated with the land between
    the Himalayas and Vindhyas.
  • Dravida style with the land between the Krishna
    and Kaveri rivers,
  • Vesara style is sometimes associated with the
    area between the Vindhyas and the Krishna river.

Main elements of Hindu Temples
Garbhagriha Literally means womb-house and is a cave like sanctum. Garbhagriha is made to house the main icon (main deity)
Mandapa It is the entrance to the temple. May be a portico or colonnaded (series of columns placed at regular intervals) hall that incorporate space for a large number of worshipers Some temples have multiple mandapas in different sizes named as Ardhamandapa, Mandapa and Mahamandapa
Shikhara or Vimana They are mountain like spire of a free standing temple. Shikhara is found in North Indian temples and Vimana is found in South Indian temples. Shikhara has a curving shape while vimana has a pyramidal
16
like structure
Amalaka A stone disc like structure at the top of the temple shikara.
Kalasha Topmost point of the temple above Amalaka.
Antarala (vestibule) A transition area between the Garbhagriha and the temples main hall (mandapa).
Jagati A raised platform for sitting and praying.
Vahana Vehicle of the temples main deity along with a standard pillar or Dhvaj.
NAGARA STYLE The Nagara style has its origin in
the structural temples of the Gupta period,
especially the Dashavtara temple of Deogarh and
the brick temple of Bhitargaon. Two distinct
features of the Nagara style are planning and
other elevation. The plan is square with a
number of gradual projections in the middle of
each side which imparts it a cruciform shape.
When there is one projection on each side, it is
called triratha, two projections
Pancharatha, three projections Saptharatha
and four projections Navaratha. These
projections can occur throughout the height of
the structure. In elevation it exhibits a tower
(shikhara) gradually inclining towards in a
convex curve. The projections in the plan are
also carried upwards to the top of the shikhara.
It is also called the rekha shikhara. In Nagara
style temples, the structure consists of two
buildings, the main shrine taller and an
adjoining shorter mandapa. The main difference
between these two is the shape of the shikhara.
In the main shrine, a bell shaped structure
further adds to the height. In this style, the
temples mainly are formed of four chambers,
first the Garbhagriha, then second Jagmohan,
third Natyamandir and fourth chamber the
Bhogamandir. Originally in Nagara style there
were no pillars. DRAVIDA STYLE The Dravida
Architectural style is associated with the
temples of southern India or Deccan. The earliest
traces of Dravida architectural features go back
to Gupta period and are not restricted to the far
south i.e. in Gupta period these traces occur in
northern and central India along with Deccan,
like in the Parvati temple at Lad Khan, Kont
Gudi and Meguti temples at Aihole. The
outstanding and the common characteristics of the
Dravida style is the pyramidal elevation of the
tower (vimari), which consists of a
multiplication of storey after storey slightly
reduced than the one below, ending in a domical
member, technically known as the stupi or stupica.
17
  • The two most important characteristics of Dravida
    temple architecture is
  • Temples of this style has more than 4 sides in
    the sanctum.
  • Tower or Vimana of these temples are pyramidal.
  • In different temples dedicated pavilions can be
    seen like Shiva temples have dedicated mandapa of
    Nandi the bull or Vishnu temples have garuda
    mandapa. Boundary walls in south Indian temples
    were built in early medieval period where north
    Indian temples were not walled.
  • The Kailasanatha temple is a major example of the
    Dravida Architecture. The Kailasanatha temple
    complex is situated at Kanchi as a joint venture
    of Rajasimha or Narasimhavarman II and his son
    Mahendra III.
  • VESARA STYLE
  • It emerged during early medieval period. It is a
    hybrid style that borrowed from the northern and
    southern styles. So, it is a mixture of both
    Nagara and Dravida styles of temple
    architecture.
  • Temples built in the Deccan under the later
    Chalukyas of Kalyani and Hoysalas are considered
    examples of this style. Vesara style reduces the
    height of the temple towers
  • even though the numbers of tiers are retained.
    This is accomplished by reducing the height of
    individual tiers.
  • The semi circular structures of the Buddhist
    chaityas are also borrowed in this style, as in
    the Durga temple of Aihole. Many temples in
    Central India and Deccan have used the Vesara
    style with regional modifications. The trend of
    merging two styles was started by the Chalukyas
    of Badami (500-735 AD) who built temples in a
    style that was essentially a mixture of the
    Nagara and Dravida styles, further refined by the
    Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta (750-983 AD) in
    Ellora, Chalukyas of Kalyani (983-1195 AD) in
    Lakkundi, Dambal, Gadag etc. and epitomized by
    the Hoysalas (1000-1330 AD).
  • Most of the temples built in Halebid, Belur and
    Somanathapura are classified under this style.

18
EDEN IAS
Educational Development Enrichment
Network STEPS DAILY MAINS ANSWER
WRITING NAME_____________________________________
__________________________________ DATE__________
__________________________________________________
____________ SUBJECT____________________________
________________________________________
INVIGILATORS SIGNATURE
CANDIDATES SIGNATURE
11-B/8, FIRST FLOOR TEWARI HOUSE, OPPOSITE METRO
PILLAR NO. 137 PUSA ROAD, KAROL BAGH, NEW
DELHI CONTACT 011-40197652 9315215980
9315227819 Email edenias96_at_gmail.com
connect.edenias_at_gmail.com website www.edenias.com
19
  • INSTRUCTIONS FOR CANDIDATES
  • Please read each of the following instructions
    carefully before attempting questions
  • There are FOUR questions printed in ENGLISH.
  • All the questions are compulsory.
  • The number of marks carried by a question is
    indicated against it.
  • Word limit in the questions, wherever specified
    should be adhered to.
  • Content is more important than length.
  • Any page or portion of the page, left blank in
    the Question-cum-Answer(QCA) Booklet must be
    clearly struck off.

NOTE
Candidates performance in the test would be
evaluated on the basis of five parameters
viz. 1.Understanding of the Questions. 2.Quality
of Content in the Answers. 3.Decipherment of the
Command. 4.Structuring of Arguements.
5.Presentation and Conclusion.
FEEDBACK
20
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
The Constitutional guarantee of a Welfare State
in India shall remain elusive unless the state
plays a positively discriminatory role with
respect to the rights of the dis
abled.-Comment. 10
Q. 1
21
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
What are the factors that create an imbalance of
power within a culture? How can they act as a
hurdle in the delivery of social justice. 10
Q. 2
22
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
23
EDEN IAS
STEPS
The South Asian region is geopolitically fragile
hence India should play a leading role in the
region.- Critically Examine. 15
Candidates must not write on this margin
Q. 3
24
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
25
EDEN IAS
STEPS
The Doctrine of Colorable legislation as
enunciated by the Supreme Court of India is a
bulwark against any constitutional fraud.
Elucidate. 15
Candidates must not write on this margin
Q. 4
26
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
27
EDEN IAS
  • (MODEL ANSWERS)
  • STEPS 19/06/2018- (General Studies-II)
  • Q1. The Constitutional guarantee of a Welfare
    State in India shall remain elusive unless the
    state plays a positively discriminatory role
    with respect to the rights of the
    disabled.-Comment.
  • Approach
  • First and foremost spell the idea of Welfare
    State in as many words as possible within the
    given time and space constraints.
  • Highlight the idea of affirmative action and
    positive discrimination.
  • Try to link these two concepts viz. Welfare state
    and Affirmative action with the various
    challenges faced by the disabled.
  • Answer
  • According to Aristotle, the state was a means to
    fulfill certain fundamental needs of human
    nature and was an instrument for development of
    individuals personality in association of fellow
    citizens.
  • A welfare state is a concept of government where
    the state plays a key role in the protection and
    promotion of the economic and social well-being
    of its citizens. It is based on the principles of
    equality of opportunity, equitable distribution
    of wealth, and public responsibility for those
    unable to avail themselves of the minimal
    provisions for a good life.
  • Affirmative action, also known as positive action
    is the policy of protecting members of groups
    that are known to have previously suffered from
    discrimination. Affirmative action has sought to
    achieve goals such as bridging inequalities in
    employment and pay, increasing access to
    education, promoting diversity, and redressing
    apparent past wrongs, harms, or hindrances.
  • The newly published report by the Equality and
    Human Rights Commission (EHRC) titled
    'Disability report Being disabled has clearly
    outlined that very little progress has being made
    over the past two decades. Things are still very
    challenging for people with disabilities and, in
    many cases, getting worse.

28
  • Deteriorating access to justice.
  • Welfare reforms significantly affecting the
    already low living standards of disabled people.
  • Welfare state can also mean the creation of a
    "social safety net" of minimum standards of
    varying forms of welfare. The idea of Welfare
    will remain elusive unless disability is treated
    with affirmative action. The state while making
    such laws must keep in mind that both physical
    and mental disability along with various degrees
    of disability is given adequate leverage and
    space.
  • Q2. What are the factors that create an imbalance
    of power within a culture? How can they act as a
    hurdle in the delivery of social justice?
  • Approach
  • Systematically highlight the various factors that
    create an imbalance of power within a culture.
  • Discuss the idea and motive behind Social
    Justice.
  • Finally point out how such power-imbalances can
    lead to a stigma and limitations.
  • Answer
  • There are many factors that create an imbalance
    of power in a culture. Most of the factors and
    values are so deeply ingrained in our society
    that we go along with them without ever
    questioning if they are 'right' or not. For
    example, gender roles and uneven opportunities
    for children. Gender roles are a large problem
    in our society that many people aren't aware of.
    This is a problem all over the world, including
    India.
  • Imbalance of power within a culture may also
    arise from prejudice, caste-based, class-based,
    region- based, religion-based or race-based
    disabilities. Social discrimination is defined as
    sustained inequality between individuals on the
    basis of illness, disability, religion, sexual
    orientation, or any other measures of diversity.

29
  • Q3. The South Asian region is geopolitically
    fragile hence India should play a leading role in
    the region.- Critically Examine. (15)
  • Approach
  • Highlight the stakes of India in the
    geopolitically fragile South Asian region.
  • Discuss some of the institutions and how India
    can use the existing institutional framework to
    further her objectives in the region.
  • Finally before you draw attention of the
    evaluator towards the volatility and
    unpredictability of foreign policy in the 21st
    Century.
  • Answer
  • Since Independence, India has played a leading
    role in multilateral fora. It was a founder
    member of NAM (Non Aligned Movement), SAARC
    (South Asian Association for Regional
    Cooperation), BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Initiative
    for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic
    Cooperation), BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India,
    China and South Africa), and BCIM (Bangladesh,
    China, India and Myanmar). However nowhere else
    the Indian stakes are as high as in South Asian
    regional politics. Indian regional security and
    economic growth is intertwined with the future of
    South Asia.
  • Combined with the simultaneous re-emergence of
    powers like China, Korea, Indonesia and others,
    and with Japan now behaving as a more normal
    power, geopolitics around southern Asia has
    become much more complex. Power is much more
    evenly distributed in the world than it was
    during the Cold War and immediately thereafter.
    The centre of gravity of the world economy and
    politics is now the Asia-Pacific.
  • According to Harsh V. Pant, The Great Game of
    this century will be played on the waters of the
    Indian Ocean. Though Indias location gives it
    great operational advantages in the IOR, it is by
    no means certain that New Delhi is in a position
    to hold on to its geographical advantages. China
    is rapidly catching up and its ties with Sri
    Lanka are aimed at expanding its profile in this
    crucial part of the world. Indian policymakers
    realize that unless they are more proactive they
    might end up losing this game for good
  • Indias stakes in SAARC are, if anything, higher.
    It is the most important country in South Asia,
    and India was the progenitor of the idea of a
    primarily economic grouping of countries of South
    Asia. Admittedly, SAARC has been on
    life-support for much of the period, but had
    begun to display a new vigour and dynamism of
    late. To undermine SAARC due to the ongoing
    conflict between India and Pakistan may well be
    an instance of throwing the baby out with the
    bathwater.
  • International diplomacy is hardly a zero-sum
    game. It has become even more complicated with
    the passage of time. Hence, giving a new
    direction to the countrys foreign policy demands
    careful consideration and assessment of all
    relevant aspects. Systemic, national and
    decision-making factors must determine foreign
    policy choices. Maintaining coherence and balance
    is also a vital aspect.

30
  • Undoubtedly, Indias foreign policy has to evolve
    in keeping with the changes and shifts taking
    place across the globe and especially in South
    Asia. Permanence in relations, and consistency in
    alignments, is not a signal virtue in the world
    of the 21st century. Not all relationships can or
    should be regarded as cast in stone, and
    impervious to change. This applies equally to
    ideologies. Nevertheless changes, if any, must
    not take place in an episodic manner, or as a
    series of isolated steps.
  • Q4. The Doctrine of Colorable legislation as
    enunciated by the Supreme Court of India is a
    bulwark against any constitutional fraud.
    Elucidate. (15)
  • Approach
  • Elaborate the Doctrine of Colorable legislation.
    Draw its relationship with the Theory of
    Separation of Powers.
  • Highlight the limitations of this Doctrine.
  • Discuss how it is a Fraud on the Constitution. In
    other words how it breaks the spirit of the
    constitution by making a mockery of
    Constitutionalism and Constitutional limitations.
  • Answer
  • Doctrine of Colorable Legislation is built upon
    the founding stones of the Doctrine of Separation
    of Power. Separation of Power mandates that a
    balance of power is to be struck between the
    different components of the State i.e. between
    the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary.
    The Primary Function of the legislature is to
    make laws. Whenever, Legislature tries to shift
    this balance of power towards itself then the
    Doctrine of Colorable Legislation is attracted to
    take care of Legislative Accountability.
  • The literal meaning of Colorable Legislation is
    that under the color or guise of power
    conferred for one particular purpose, the
    legislature cannot seek to achieve some other
    purpose which it is otherwise not competent to
    legislate on.
  • This Doctrine also traces its origin to a Latin
    Maxim
  • Quando aliquid prohibetur ex directo, prohibetur
    et per obliquum

31
  • Limitations on the Application of Doctrine of
    Colorable Legislation
  • The doctrine has no application where the powers
    of a Legislature are not fettered by any
    Constitutional limitation.
  • The doctrine is also not applicable to
    Subordinate Legislation.
  • The doctrine of colourable legislation does not
    involve any question of bona fides or mala fides
    on the part of the legislature. The whole
    doctrine resolves itself into the, question of
    competency of a particular legislature to enact
    a particular law.
  • This Doctrine is also called as Fraud on the
    Constitution. The failure to comply with a
    Constitutional condition for the exercise of
    legislative power may be overt or it may be
    covert. When it is overt, we say the law is
    obviously bad for non- compliance with the
    requirements of the Constitution, that is to say,
    the law is ultra vires. When, however, the
    non-compliance is covert, we say that it is a
    fraud on the Constitution the fraud
    complained of being that the Legislature pretends
    to act within its power while in fact it is not
    so doing. Therefore, the charge of fraud on the
    Constitution is, on ultimate analysis, nothing
    but a picturesque and epigrammatic way of
    expressing the idea of non-compliance with the
    terms of the Constitution.

32
EDEN IAS
Educational Development Enrichment
Network STEPS DAILY MAINS ANSWER
WRITING NAME_____________________________________
__________________________________ DATE__________
__________________________________________________
____________ SUBJECT____________________________
________________________________________
INVIGILATORS SIGNATURE
CANDIDATES SIGNATURE
11-B/8, FIRST FLOOR TEWARI HOUSE, OPPOSITE METRO
PILLAR NO. 137 PUSA ROAD, KAROL BAGH, NEW
DELHI CONTACT 011-40197652 9315215980
9315227819 Email edenias96_at_gmail.com
connect.edenias_at_gmail.com website www.edenias.com
33
  • INSTRUCTIONS FOR CANDIDATES
  • Please read each of the following instructions
    carefully before attempting questions
  • There are FOUR questions printed in ENGLISH.
  • All the questions are compulsory.
  • The number of marks carried by a question is
    indicated against it.
  • Word limit in the questions, wherever specified
    should be adhered to.
  • Content is more important than length.
  • Any page or portion of the page, left blank in
    the Question-cum-Answer(QCA) Booklet must be
    clearly struck off.

NOTE
Candidates performance in the test would be
evaluated on the basis of five parameters
viz. 1.Understanding of the Questions. 2.Quality
of Content in the Answers. 3.Decipherment of the
Command. 4.Structuring of Arguements.
5.Presentation and Conclusion.
FEEDBACK
34
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
To what extent land reforms in India has
fulfilled the cherished idea of restructing of
agrarian equations and elimination of
exploitation in land relations. Discuss.
Q. 1
10
35
EDEN IAS
STEPS
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Extensive growth of information technology has
changed the communication Q. 2 conscious human
society into, an information global community.-
Elaborate 10
36
EDEN IAS
STEPS
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37
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Highlight the various causes responsible for the
spread of left wing extremism. Suggest a
methodology and strategy that the Indian state
should adopt against Naxalism.
Candidates must not write on this margin
Q. 3
15
38
EDEN IAS
STEPS
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39
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Mobilizing is the method of assembling and
organizing things to use immediately or for a
achieving a collective goal.- In the light of
the above statement present a systematic account
on the mobilization of natural resources in India.
Candidates must not write on this margin
Q. 4
15
40
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
41
  • EDEN IAS
  • (MODEL ANSWERS)
  • STEPS (20/06/2018) - WEDNESDAY (GS III)
  • Q1. To what extent land reforms in India has
    fulfilled the cherished idea of restructuring of
    agrarian equations and elimination of
    exploitation in land relations. Discuss. (10)
  • Approach
  • Discuss the idea of land reforms and its
    relevance in the Indian Context.
  • No need of explaining the individual legislations
    dealing with land-reforms. As it is only a ten
    marker thus lay out the broad objectives of Land
    reforms in India.
  • Highlight the shortcomings in your conclusion and
    try to end with a thought that summarizes
    everything in a nut-shell.
  • Answer
  • Land reform usually refers to redistribution of
    land from the rich to the poor. More broadly, it
    includes regulation of ownership, operation,
    leasing, sales, and inheritance of land. In an
    agrarian economy like India with great scarcity,
    and an unequal distribution, of land, coupled
    with a large mass of the rural population below
    the poverty line, there are compelling economic
    and political arguments for land reform. Not
    surprisingly, it received top priority on the
    policy agenda at the time of Independence. In
    the decades following independence India passed a
    significant body of land reform legislation. The
    1949 Constitution left the adoption and
    implementation of land and tenancy reforms to
    state governments. This led to a lot of
    variation in the implementation of these reforms
    across states and over time, a fact that has
    been utilized in empirical studies trying to
    understand the causes and effects of land reform.
  • The major objectives of land reforms in India
    included
  • Restructuring of agrarian relations to achieve an
    egalitarian structure
  • Elimination of exploitation in land relations

42
  • reform measures are ambivalent and there are
    large gaps between policy and legislation and
    between legislation and implementation. One can
    safely say that
  • Land reform measures were conceived boldly but
    were implemented badly
  • Q2. Extensive growth of information technology
    has changed the communication conscious human
    society into, an information global community.-
    Elaborate. (10)
  • Approach
  • Highlight the importance of information and
    communication in todays world.
  • Discuss how it is creating a paradigm shift in
    the way things are perceived and conducted.
  • Try to end your answer by invoking some sense of
    caution.
  • Answer
  • In the past few decades there has been a
    revolution in computing and communications, and
    all indications are that technological progress
    and use of information technology will continue
    at a rapid pace. Accompanying and supporting the
    dramatic increases in the power and use of new
    information technologies has been the declining
    cost of communications as a result of both
    technological improvements and increased
    competition.
  • One of the most significant outcomes of the
    progress of information technology is probably
    electronic commerce over the Internet, a new way
    of conducting business. Though only a few years
    old, it may radically alter economic activities
    and the social environment. Already, it affects
    such large sectors as communications, finance
    and retail trade and might expand to areas such
    as education and health services. It implies the
    seamless application of information and
    communication technology along the entire value
    chain of a business that is conducted
    electronically.
  • With the advent of Technology, world has observed
    a great change in the life of human being. It is
    true that technology is transforming various
    aspects of our life all over the world by leaps
    and bounds, and it seems that masses of India
    are not going to be excluded from the benevolence
    of this so called

43
  • Q3. Highlight the various causes responsible for
    the spread of left wing extremism. Suggest a
  • methodology and strategy that the Indian state
    should adopt against Naxalism. (15)
  • Approach
  • Highlight the various reasons for the spread and
    growth of Naxalism in India.
  • Try to provide a strategy to counter Left wing
    Extremism.
  • Answer
  • Naxalites owing allegiance to the Communist Party
    of India (Maoist) have been waging a deadly
    insurrection against the Indian state with the
    ultimate objective of capturing political power
    through protracted armed struggle and area-wise
    seizure of power.
  • According to official sources, the influence of
    the Naxalites exists in 162 districts across 14
    States in varying degrees. Further, there have
    been reports to suggest the Maoists are making
    fervent attempts to penetrate the industrial
    towns. Whats probably worrying the government is
    that the Naxals are targeting the poor to get
    their recruits and there is no dearth of the poor
    in India.
  • The spread of Naxalism is an indication of the
    sense of desperation and alienation that is
    sweeping over of large sections of our nation
    who have been not only systematically
    marginalized but cruelly exploited and
    dispossessed in their last homelandsthe central
    Indian adivasis have been described as the
  • original autochthonous people of India meaning
    that their presence in India pre-dated the
    Dravidians, the Aryans and whoever else settled
    in this countrythese are the real swadeshi
    products of India, in whose presence all others
    are foreign. These are ancient people with moral
    rights and claims thousands
  • of years old. They were here first and should
    come first in our regardUnfortunately like
    indigenous people all over the world the
    Indias adivasis too have been savaged and
    ravaged by later people
  • claiming to be more civilized.

44
for the nation in the near future. We surely
cannot afford to lose human life and resources to
such unrest caused by a lack of proper strategy.
  • Q4. Mobilizing is the method of assembling and
    organizing things to use immediately or for
    achieving a collective goal.- In the light of
    the above statement present a systematic account
    on the mobilization of natural resources in
    India. (15)
  • Approach
  • Highlight the importance of Mobilization of
    resources.
  • Try to highlight the vulnerabilities and link it
    to growth and development.
  • Answer

45
  • Mobilizing is the process of assembling and
    organizing things for ready use or for a
    achieving a collective goal. Mobilization of
    resources means the freeing up of locked
    resources.
  • Every country has economic resources within its
    territory known as domestic resources. But often
    they might not be available for collective use.
    The percentage of resources used when compared to
    the potential is often very low. For a country
    to grow, identification and mobilization of its
    resources is necessary. It should be available
    for easy use and for central and state level
    planning.
  • Types of Resources of India
  • Natural Resources Coal, Petroleum, Natural Gas,
    Water, Spectrum etc.
  • Human Resources The labour force and
    intellectual capacity of a nation.
  • The proper utilization of these resources leads
    to generation of economic resources savings,
    investment capital, tax etc. The natural resource
    sector has been passing through a challenging
    phase in India. Blanket bans and clearance
    delays have brought it to a non-sustainable
    position today. Even with an abundance of rich
    mineral reserves and resources, we are not able
    to capitalise on it for our economic strength.
    However in India mobilization has not taken the
    desired shape due to host of reasons like- lack
    of technology, lack of capital, improper and
    unsustainable extraction techniques, bad
    distribution, lack of innovation, over emphasis
    on top-down planning etc.
  • For instance water, a vital natural resource and
    precious commodity, is essential for multiplicity
    of purposes, viz., drinking, agriculture, power
    generation, transportation and waste disposal. In
    chemical processes industrial water is used as a
    reaction medium, a solvent, a scrubbing medium
    and a heat transfer agent. As a source of life
    for man, plants and animals, it is indispensable
    and cannot be replaced by any other solvent.
    However India has not utilized its water
    potential and many parts of the country suffer
    from water scarcity.
  • Degradation of natural resources has a direct
    negative bearing on livelihoods of poor people.
    However, experience from India shows that
    improvements in resource productivity per se
    cannot be equated with poverty reduction. As an
    example, several years of watershed development
    programmes has illustrated that the poor have
    often been excluded from accessing gains in
    productivity as well as related decision- making
    processes.
  • Understanding poverty and vulnerability, and
    particularly the link between natural resource
    management and poverty, would be an essential
    pre-requisite to achieve growth and prosperity.
    Poverty analysis needs to be built into project
    design and mechanisms developed to identify and
    include the poor, address their concerns and
    link this to strategic and policy issues. Hence
    when it comes to mobilization and utilization of
    natural resources in India power should be
    invested in local and regional government. The
    people should be made in charge of natural
    resources through responsible institutions. Lack
    of mobilization of the natural resources can
    derail the economy and create social tensions.

46
EDEN IAS
Educational Development Enrichment
Network STEPS DAILY MAINS ANSWER
WRITING NAME_____________________________________
__________________________________ DATE__________
__________________________________________________
____________ SUBJECT____________________________
________________________________________
INVIGILATORS SIGNATURE
CANDIDATES SIGNATURE
11-B/8, FIRST FLOOR TEWARI HOUSE, OPPOSITE METRO
PILLAR NO. 137 PUSA ROAD, KAROL BAGH, NEW
DELHI CONTACT 011-40197652 9315215980
9315227819 Email edenias96_at_gmail.com
connect.edenias_at_gmail.com website www.edenias.com
47
  • INSTRUCTIONS FOR CANDIDATES
  • Please read each of the following instructions
    carefully before attempting questions
  • There are FOUR questions printed in ENGLISH.
  • All the questions are compulsory.
  • The number of marks carried by a question is
    indicated against it.
  • Word limit in the questions, wherever specified
    should be adhered to.
  • Content is more important than length.
  • Any page or portion of the page, left blank in
    the Question-cum-Answer(QCA) Booklet must be
    clearly struck off.

NOTE
Candidates performance in the test would be
evaluated on the basis of five parameters
viz. 1.Understanding of the Questions. 2.Quality
of Content in the Answers. 3.Decipherment of the
Command. 4.Structuring of Arguements.
5.Presentation and Conclusion.
FEEDBACK
48
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
A man does what he must - in spite of personal
consequences, in spite of obstacles, dangers and
pressures - and that is the basis of all human
morality and ethics.-Analyse.
Q. 1
10
49
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
Action indeed is the sole medium of expression
for ethics.-Elucidate.
Q. 2
10
50
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
51
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Ethics is knowing the difference between what
you have a right to do and what is right to
do.-Comment. 10
Candidates must not write on this margin
Q. 3
52
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
It has been reported in media that in a remote
village in Chhattisgarh people belonging to a
particular community still practice manual
scavenging. After being inquired they told the
media persons that they have been practicing it
for ages and it has been their traditional
occupation. Some others argue as they lack any
other source of regular livelihood, they are
left with no other alternative. Most of them are
unaware of the Prohibition of Employment (As
Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation) Act,
2013.
Q. 4
a) Suppose you are the Social Welfare Development
Officer of the district then what steps will you
take?
20
b) Discuss the various ethical dimensions of such
a problem.
53
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
54
EDEN IAS
STEPS
Candidates must not write on this margin
55
EDEN IAS
(MODEL ANSWERS) STEPS 21/06/2018- (General
Studies-IV)
  • Q1) A man does what he must - in spite of
    personal consequences, in spite of obstacles,
    dangers and pressures - and that is the basis of
    all human morality and ethics.-Analyse. (10)
  • Approach
  • Try to explain the statement, highlight the
    different key words used in the question
  • Try to show that how ethical behaviour and
    morality is inextricably linked to the
    statement.
  • Finally try to provide some examples quoting
    moral and/or social thinkers.
  • Answer
  • "A man does what he must - in spite of personal
    consequences, in spite of obstacles and dangers
    and pressures - and that is the basis of all
    human morality." - John F. Kennedy
  • Ethics is the philosophical treatise which
    studies human behaviour and tries to determine
    what is right or wrong behaviour. It is also
    called moral philosophy. That there is in man a
    spontaneous awareness of a distinction between
    right and wrong behaviour is an indubitable
    fact, the internal value system and ethics only
    explores that part of the human mind.
  • Ethics as a speculative science is based on the
    foundations of the moral behavior of man. Moral
    consciousness is an undeniable fact of human
    experience. The moral and ethical sensibility is
    something essential for the peaceful society and
    the work.
  • Socrates equated knowledge with virtue, which
    ultimately leads to ethical conduct. He believed
    that the only life worth living was one that was
    rigorously examined. He looked for principles
    and actions that were worth living by, creating
    an ethical base upon which decisions should be
    made. The base of all ethical conduct is
    righteousness and humanity. A man must be ready
    to withstand against allurement, inducement or
    coercion if he has to exhibit ethical conduct.
    His internal construct should always guide the
    moral compass towards morality and ethics.
  • Q2) Action indeed is the sole medium of
    expression for ethics.-Elucidate. (10) Approach

56
  • Try to clarify the statement in unequivocal terms
    that how action is the only medium of expression
    of ethics.
  • Try to give some examples from your own
    experiences.
  • Before you conclude try to juxtapose your
    arguments with some thoughts drawn from
    moral/social thinkers.
  • Answer
  • All definitions of ethics suggest that it focuses
    on human actions and their morality. It is
    concerned with the morality of human behavior.
    But first it is important to separate human
    actions from their morality. The major focus of
    ethics is on human actions this also happens to
    be the starting point for most legal systems.
    They are primarily interested in human actions
    and, following that, in their legality or
    illegality. Ethics, then, does not concern
    itself with the actions of animals. Furthermore,
    ethics focuses only on people's deliberate human
    actions, and not on undeliberate actions or
    actions done because of ignorance. The
    distinction here is between what philosophers
    call an actus humanus (deliberate human action)
    and an actus hominis (undeliberate action). What
    is it that makes an action human? What are the
    principal ingredients of a human action? Lawyers
    also focus on this issue. Deontologists use
    criteria to arrive at the notion of a human
    action while teleologists reflect on the merits
    of a particular action. Both may arrive at the
    same conclusion, but they also may not.
    Scholastic philosophers maintain that three
    requirements must be concurrently present for any
    action to be ethical and human
  • There must be some knowledge involved
  • There must be voluntariness present
  • The action must be freely done by keeping the
    ethical principles at the core.
  • Ethics focuses not only on human action but also
    on its morality. Once we decide that an action is
    human, then that action becomes subject matter
    for ethics. It is an important function of ethics
    to figure out whether particular human actions
    are moral or not. Morality involves the
    examination of human action to decide if it is
    good, bad or indifferentto figure out if it is
    right or wrong, good or bad.
  • Ethics is in fact a reverence of life as quoted
    by Albert Schweitzer, and therefore it is not
    always necessary that action needs to take place
    in order to express ethics. Ethics can exist
    within the soul/mind of an individual, and
    therefore it is not always the action part that
    defines it.
  • Q3) Ethics is knowing the difference between
    what you have a right to do and what is right to
    do.-Comment. (10)
  • Approach
  • Try to highlight various kinds of rights that the
    society or law confers upon you.

57
  • Ethics is the body of principles used to decide
    what behaviors are right, good and proper. Such
    principles (ethics) do not always dictate a
    single "moral" course of action, but provide a
    means of evaluating and deciding among competing
    options. Ethics is about putting principles into
    action. Consistency between what we say we value
    and what our actions say we value is a matter of
    integrity. Ethics is also about self-restraint,
    i.e., what we should not do
  • Not doing what you have the power to do. An act
    isnt proper simply because it is permissible or
    you can get away with it.
  • Not doing what you have the right to do. There is
    a big difference between what you have the right
    to do and what is right to do.
  • Not doing what you want to do. In the well-worn
    turn of phrase, an ethical person often chooses
    to do more than the law requires and less than
    the law allows.
  • It has been said that
  • Ethics is all about what we do when no one is
    looking. Ethics is knowing the difference
    between what you have a right to do and what is
    right to do.
  • Ethics is about creating an environment that
    supports the expression of ethical values while
    keeping in check non-ethical values. Is there a
    situation when you thought you had the right to
    do something but it was against the law or
    established policy? An example I can think of are
    people who chose to drink and drive, they know
    its against the law, but they feel that they
    have a right to still do it because they can
    handle it. Or, I can come into work a couple of
  • minutes late because I dont take my breaks. Its
    easy to justify why we break the little rules.
  • Suggestions for making ethical decisions
  • Identify the core ethical issue or issues
    involved
  • Make sure you understand the facts
  • Identify the main players in this issue and see
    if you can identify their interests
  • List the values at stake or in conflict in this
    matter
  • Examine the possible options and their likely
    consequences
  • Choose the option you think best caters for the
    values and principles you believe to be
    important
  • Give reasons (to yourself or others) why you have
    chosen this option and show
  • why it is a better resolution of the issue than
    the other options
  • Make your decision, but keep an open mind.

An action can be legally correct but ethically
wrong, The one common thread is what we do.
Ethics is all about actions and decisions. We
face many challenges in life and the way we
handle them speaks volumes about our character.
In the end, our character embodies our values and
is the sum of our behaviors.
58
  • Q4) It has been reported in media, that in a
    remote village in Chhattisgarh, people belonging
    to a particular community still practice manual
    scavenging. After being inquired they told the
    media persons that they have been practicing it
    for ages and it has been their traditional
    occupation. Some others argue as they lack any
    other source of regular livelihood, they are left
    with no other alternative. Most of them are
    unaware of the Prohibition of Employment (As
    Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation) Act,
    2013. (20)
  • Suppose you are the Social Welfare Development
    Officer of the district, then what steps will
    you take?
  • Discuss the various ethical dimensions of such a
    situation.
  • Approach
  • First highlight the various facts given in the
    question
  • Describe the different ethical values
  • Discuss the various stakeholders who are involved
  • Scrutinize the various ethical options that are
    available.
  • Answer
  • As a District Social Welfare Development officer,
    following steps can be adopted
  • Cleaning of septic tanks and sewers without
    protective gear is prohibited under Prohibition
    of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their
    Rehabilitation Act, 2013. This can be monitored
    through vigilance committees at sub-division and
    division level and implement the penal
    provisions of the Act, especially those regarding
    contractors and private persons who hire persons
    for doing such work without taking the
    precautions as mandated in the Act and rules
    framed under it.

59
  • the stakeholders are made aware of the benefits
    to be provided to the target group and motivated
    to provide all possible cooperation and
    assistance for rehabilitation of manual
    scavengers and their dependents.
  • Self Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of
    Manual Scavengers (SRMS), with the objective to
    rehabilit
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