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Yaws: Causes, Symptoms, Daignosis, Prevention and Treatment


Yaws is a chronic contagious non-venereal disease that belongs to a group of chronic bacterial infections that is caused by treponemes. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Yaws: Causes, Symptoms, Daignosis, Prevention and Treatment

  • Yaws is a chronic contagious non-venereal
    disease which belongs to a group of chronic
    bacterial infections (endemic treponematoses,
    nonvenereal spirochetal diseases) that is caused
    by treponemes.Yaws is the most common of all
    and occurs basically in the hot, humid and
    tropical areas of Africa, Central and South
    America, the Caribbean, Indian peninsula and the
    equatorial islands of South-East Asia.Generally
    yaws is caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies
    pertenue. Yaws is not a fatal disease, but it
    causes disabilities and visible deformities of
    the face and extremities further contributing to
    stigma and discrimination.It affects the skin,
    bone and cartilage if left untreated it can lead
    to disorders of the nose and bones of the leg.
    However, the disease can be cured and prevented
    by a single dose of antibiotics.

Causes of Yaws
  • Yaws is caused by Treponema pertenue which
    closely resembles to T.pallidium. It is a slender
    spirochete that is serologically
    indistinguishable from the spirochete T.pallidium
    which causes syphilis. The agents found in the
    epidermis of the lesions, lymph glands, spleen
    and bone marrow. The organism rapidly dies
    outside the tissues.Reservoir of infection -
    Man is the only known reservoir of yaws. Clinical
    lesions relapse 2-3 times or more during the
    first 5 years of infections and serve as source
    for new infections.The most latent cases are
    found in clusters centered on an infectious case.

Causes of Yaws
  • There are frequent relapses in latent
    casesTransmission - Yaws is transferred via
    direct (person-to-person), non-sexual contact
    with the fluid from the lesion of an infected
    person to an uninfected persons via minor
    injuries.Most lesions occur on the limbs. The
    initial lesion of yaws is filled with the
    bacteria. The incubation period is 990 days
    (average 21 days).About 75 of people affected
    from yaws are children under 15 years old (peak
    incidence occurs in children aged 610 years).
    Males and females are equally affected.

Diagnosis of Yaws
  • Yaws simulates the lesions of scabies, impetigo,
    skin tuberculosis, tinea versicolor, tropical
    ulcer, leprosy and psoriasis. It may also
    accompany these diseases. Penicillin treatment is
    very useful in differential diagnosis because of
    miraculous relief seen in yaws but not in other
    skin diseases.Most latent and incubating cases
    are found in clusters around an infectious case
    and can usually be diagnosed by epidemiological

Symptoms of Yaws
  • There are two basic stages of yaws early
    (infectious) and late (non-infectious).In the
    starting phase of yaws, an initial papilloma (a
    circular, solid swelling on the skin, with no
    visible fluid) is developed at the site of entry
    of the bacterium. This papilloma is full of
    organisms and may persist for 36 months followed
    by natural healing. Nocturnal bone pain and bone
    lesions may also occur in the early stage. These
    primary skin lesions (Early Yaws) usually occur
    in children and adolescents in endemic
    areas.Late yaws appears after 5 years of the
    initial infection and is characterized by
    disfigurement of the nose and bones, and
    thickening and cracking of the palms of the hand
    and soles of the feet. These complications on the
    soles of the feet make it difficult for patients
    to walk. Late yaws are non-infectious but may
    make a person disabled.

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