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Title: Scientific Report Writing Tips


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Guidelines for Reporting Scientific Studies Why
do you need them?
2
Reporting of Scientific Studies
  • Accurate reporting of scientific studies is most
    important. Researchers use the studies as a base
    for their own research.
  • Clinicians use them to plan the right treatment
    for the patients.
  • The government health agencies use them to design
    impactful preventive and treatment strategies.
  • Thus, if you dont report the results accurately
    in the scientific publications, they wont
    provide any value to the society and all your
    hard work will go waste.

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So, several guidelines are introduced to ensure
the results are reported in an accurate manner.
Here, we will discuss the eleven guidelines that
are commonly used for reporting various types of
scientific studies.
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1) PRISMA
  • PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic
    Reviews and Meta-analyses) is a guideline for
    proper reporting of systematic reviews and
    meta-analyses.
  • It is also useful for critical appraisal of a
    published systematic review. 
  • The PRISMA statement comprises a checklist of 27
    items, which are divided into the categories of
    title, abstract, introduction, methods, results,
    discussion and funding.
  • It also advocates the use of a flow diagram to
    present the results in an effective manner.

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2) CONSORT
  • CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting
    Trials) is a statement that guides the reporting
    of randomized controlled trials.
  • The statement was first developed in 1996 to
    remove any bias in reporting the results of
    randomized clinical trials. 
  • It comprises a 25-item checklist and is divided
    into categories like title and abstract,
    introduction, methods, results, discussion, and
    other information.

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3) STROBE
  • STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of
    Observational studies in Epidemiology) is a
    guideline for reporting observational studies
    like cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional
    studies.
  • The observational studies previous to the
    development of STROBE didnt explain the
    confounding variables nor had any reporting on
    the method of selecting the study and control
    groups. 

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  • To overcome this inadequacy, STROBE came into
    being in 2004.
  • It comprises a 22-item checklist under the
    headings of title and abstract, introduction,
    methods, results, discussion, and other
    information. 
  • For genetic association studies, STROBE has been
    extended to STREGA (Strengthening the Reporting
    of Genetic Association studies).

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4) STARD 
  • STARD (Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic
    accuracy studies) has been developed for accurate
    reporting of diagnostic and prognostic studies.
  • A survey about the diagnostic studies published
    in medical journals between 1978 and 1993
    revealed poor or mediocre quality. 

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  • They lacked a proper study design, proper method,
    and difficulty in evaluating their results.
  • Thereafter, STARD came forth with the checklist
    of 25 items under the following headlines
    title/abstract/keywords, introduction, methods,
    results, and discussion.
  • A flow diagram is recommended to report the
    methods used for patient recruitment and the
    order in which the tests are carried out.

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5) SPIRIT 
  • SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items Recommendations
    for Interventional Trials) was created in 2007
    for the reporting of scientific trial
    protocols as many of them lacked information on
    primary outcome, treatment allocation methods,
    and the use of blinding in randomized trials.
  • It includes 33 items divided into the following
    domains administrative information,
    introduction, methods, ethics and dissemination,
    and appendices. It recommends a protocol in a
    specified format which includes a table of
    contents, section headings, glossary, and list of
    references.

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6) CARE 
  • CARE (Consensus-based Clinical Case Reporting) is
    developed to increase the accuracy, transparency,
    and usefulness of case reports.

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7) SRQR
  • SRQR (Standards for reporting qualitative
    research) is formulated to define the standards
    for reporting qualitative research and preserve
    the requisite flexibility to accommodate various
    paradigms, approaches, and methods used in them.
  • Consisting of 21 items, it requires the authors
    to define and explain the key elements of each
    item and provide examples from recently published
    articles.

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8) SQUIRE
  • SQUIRE (Standards for Quality Improvement
    Reporting Excellence) guidelines provide a
    framework to report any new study conducted for
    improving the healthcare of the community.

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9) CHEERS 
  • CHEERS (Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation
    Reporting Standards) is an attempt to consolidate
    and update previous health economic evaluation
    guidelines into a useful reporting guidance.
  • It is a user-friendly 24 item checklist with
    recommendations divided into following
    categories title and abstract, introduction,
    methods, results, discussion, and other
    information.

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10) ARRIVE
  • ARRIVE (Animal Research Reporting of In Vivo
    Experiments) has been laid down to report any
    area of bioscience research that uses laboratory
    animals, to improve the quality of information
    published and reduce the number of animal studies.

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11) AGREE Reporting Checklist
  • AGREE Reporting Checklist can be used by practice
    guideline developers, guideline users, funders,
    peer reviewers, and journal editors to
    improve the comprehension, completeness, and
    transparency of reporting in practice guidelines.

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  • The purpose of having these reporting guidelines
    in scientific research is to create a manual for
    the authors to follow and promote total
    transparency, accurate reporting, and easier
    assessment of the validity of reported research
    findings.
  • Though it has been accomplished to some degree,
    but still much needs to be done. Its time
    that scientific editors, authors, and journal
    reviewers assemble to figure out how to best use
    these reporting guidelines.
  • For expert scientific manuscript preparation use
    our scientific writing services team to get your
    research published.

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Know More
E-mail project_at_cognibrain.com
Phone 044-49595223 URL https//www.cognibrain.
com/
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