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Assessing the Technology Landscape


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Title: Assessing the Technology Landscape

Assessing the Technology Landscape
Lecture 2
BSIT-6th Inam Ul Haq,
  • Chapter 1 (Book) Enterprise Integration An
    Architecture for Enterprise Application Systems

Table of Contents
  • Legacy Systems
  • Data Warehousing
  • Enterprise Application Integration
  • Electronics Commerce
  • Web Enabled Applications
  • Extensible Markup Language (XML)
  • Workflow Management
  • Distributed Objects
  • Components
  • Unified Modeling Language (UML)
  • Digital Signatures
  • Wireless Interface Devices
  • Knowledge Management
  • Agent Technology
  • Interactive Voice
  • Model Driven Architecture (MDA)

Legacy Systems
  • We cannot understand the impact of new technology
    without considering it with respect to legacy
  • old or previous systems.
  • Systems built with older technology cannot simply
    be redeployed using the new technology.
  • Requires rework
  • Business data are captured in different forms,
    given different names, and computed in different
  • The rapid evolution of technology and products
    resulted in the definition of a new architecture
    for each new client-server system.
  • E.g. WordPress or Joomla needs new plugins
    (Akismet for spams)
  • Enterprise-level analysis, planning, and decision
    making must gather data from many independent
    local systems.
  • These cross-enterprise functions often face both
    technical challenges and inconsistencies in the
  • Restructuring may come in a variety of forms such
    as outsourcing, acquisitions or the creation of
    new business units to pursue business
  • Offshoring is the relocation of a business
    process from one country to another (Wikipedia).
  • Read related terms https//
  • An Acquisition organization is responsible for
    acquisition management of multiple software
    development efforts (e.g. multiple programs).
  • Top managers of major corporations are frustrated
    by their information systems
  • They have difficulty getting information about
    how the business is running.

Data Warehousing (Enterprise Data Warehousing)
  • A system used for reporting and data analysis.
    DWs are central repositories of integrated data
    from one or more disparate sources. Examples of
    reports could range from annual and quarterly
    comparisons and trends to detailed daily sales
    analysis. (Wikipedia)
  • See difference between DW Data Mart
  • Used in decision support because of multiple
    business functions.
  • Online analytical processing (OLAP) tools provide
    much more sophisticated analyses of relationships
    and trends. explore a key challenge from the

Enterprise Application Integration
  • Enterprise application integration (EAI) also
    involves the capture and transformation of data,
    but for a different purpose.
  • Integrates COTS applications. commercial off the
    shelf, e.g. MS Office

Electronic Commerce
  • The Internet opened the door for enterprises to
    communicate directly with their end customers.
  • Buyer-seller relationships can be established
    where they were noteven considered in the
    past.B2B, B2C

Web-Enabled Applications
  • Early efforts to provide Web access to
    applications were driven by the need to provide
    access to customers.
  • Making applications Web-enabled, as depicted in
    Figure 1.4, resolves asignificant portion of the
    difficulties involved in accessing information
    acrossthe enterprise.

Extensible Markup Language (XML)
  • XML is a preferred medium for the exchange of
    data both between enterprises and between systems
    within an enterprise.
  • Human readable format, check https//en.wikipedia
  • Refinement of HTML and compatible with it, passes
    through firewalls, more supports e-commerce than
    EDI (electronic document interchange)

Workflow Management
  • (sometimes called business process management
    systems) active for many years
  • Used for automation of business process
  • in small organizations for managing the flow of
    documentsbetween activities performed by humans.
  • Fits in with the move from batch processing to
    event-based processing, where business
    transactions are processed as they occur.

  • Object technology for many years has held the
    promise of enabling the development of reusable
  • At the same time, considerable progress has been
    made in the development of components that
    perform computational functions for user
    interfaces, communications, and operating
  • Such products have greatly enhanced the ability
    of application developers to implement
    sophisticated systems.

UML (Unified Modeling Language)
  • A specification language adopted by the OMG
  • Provides a number of visualizations and
    diagramming techniques.
  • E.g. use cases, class diagrams, sequence
    diagrams, structure diagrams etc.

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
  • Security has become an increasingly critical
    element of enterprise systems.
  • This technology is used by Secure Sockets Layer
    (SSL) communications over the Internet to provide
  • Both the sender and the receiver can authenticate
    each other with their digital certificates.

Digital Signatures
  • A digital signature functions essentially the
    same as a handwritten signature on a paper
    document, when attached to an eDocument.
  • Digital signatures employ public key technology.
  • The signature authenticates the document by
    validating the signer's identity, and it prevents
    the signer from repudiating the document because
    only the signer's public key can decrypt the
  • This technology is used by Secure Sockets Layer
    (SSL) communications over the Internet to provide
    security. Both the sender and the receiver can
    authenticate each other with their digital

Wireless Interface Devices
  • Cellular phones have become commonplace.
  • It enables new forms of Internet purchases, and
    it freesemployees to conduct business anywhere
    and at any time.

Knowledge Management
  • Involves the capture, cataloging, retrieval, and
    application of enterprise knowledge.
  • In product design ease of use, maintainability,
    reliability,efficiency and so on are kept in
  • 300 hours of videos are being uploaded on YouTube
    per minute
  • On average 350 million photos are uploaded
    daily to Facebook

Agent Technology
  • A software agent is an autonomous program that
    senses and reacts to its environment according to
    its own internal rules of operation.
  • Provides basis for Artificial Intelligence. E.g.
    automated car driving
  • Its environment may include information about the
    actions of other agents.
  • E.g. automated port handling system
  • Unlike a conventional application, the agent
    itself will determine if, when, and how it will
    perform its function. (AI)
  • Agent technology is still in its infancy.

Interactive Voice
  • The widespread use of hand-held devices,
    particularly cell phones, is likely to change
    this. Users do not want to carry around keyboards
    and large displays.
  • Voice input and output also enable hands- and
    eyes-free operation in activities and
    environments that are not conducive to
    conventional terminal interaction.
  • Visit gt tech for disable,
    tech for age

Model Driven Architecture
  • MDA provides the ability to specify applications
    and standards as Platform Independent Models
    (PIM) that can be mapped to evolving technical
  • Tools provide the ability to transform a PIM
    specification to executable code.
  • Standard mappings will enable independently
    developed applications and components to be

  • Slide no. 4 explore a key challenge from the
  • See difference between DW Data Mart
  • Explore OLAP tools, EDI, Digital Certificate, SSL
  • What is COTS applications?
  • Advantages of XML?
  • What does repudiating means?
  • Define model driven architecture for ecommerce
  • Read the book, chapter no. 2