Gingivitis: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment (1) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Gingivitis: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment (1)


Gingivitis is a gum disease caused by bacterial infection of the tissues surrounding the gums and teeth. The growth of bacteria in these areas is mainly triggered by the lack of proper oral hygiene. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gingivitis: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment (1)

  • Gingivitis is a gum disease caused by bacterial
    infection of the tissues surrounding the gums and
    teeth. The growth of bacteria in these areas is
    mainly triggered by the lack of proper oral
    hygiene. The sugary and starchy components
    present in our food react with the bacteria
    present inside the mouth to form a soft, sticky,
    colourless film, known as plaque. Regular
    brushing and flossing helps to eliminate this
    plaque. In case it is not cleaned properly, it
    hardens to form tartar, which becomes a breeding
    ground for bacteria. Hormonal changes can also
    be responsible for gingivitis during pregnancy.
    Other factors that can contribute towards
    gingivitis are poor nutrition and side effects of
    medicines. Early signs of this disease are not
    painful, but as it progresses, the gums may hurt
    a lot.

Causes of Gingivitis
  • Aggressive tooth brushing
  • Blood disorders like leukaemia
  • Deficiency in vitamins especially Vitamin C
  • Dry mouth
  • Formation of plaque that can cause tooth decay
    and gum infection
  • Hormonal changes (especially during
    pregnancy, puberty, and menopause) which makes
    the blood tissues in the gums to be more
    vulnerable to bacterial infection
  • Incorrect dental prosthetic
  • Malocclusion (improper positioning of the upper
    and lower teeth when the jaw is closed)
  • Medications that can cause gum disease such as
    anti-seizure drugs

Causes of Gingivitis
  • Mouth breathing that leaves the gums unprotected
    and can cause irritation and inflammation
  • Overlapping, crooked, or rotated teeth
  • Poor dental hygiene
  • Poor nutrition and eating habits that increase
    plaque formation
  • Stress that can cause damage to the immune system
  • Smoking or use of tobacco products
  • Reaction to oral contraceptives
  • Weakened circulation due to diabetes mellitus
    which affects the ability of the gums to heal

  • The bacteria that grow in tartar tend to irritate
    the gum at the base of the teeth, called gingiva,
    which in turn, gives rise to a number of annoying
    symptoms. Gingivitis is commonly known
    as bleeding gums. Therefore, one of the most
    obvious signs is that the gums start bleeding
    easily. It is a particularly common occurrence
    while brushing or flossing.
  • Red and swollen gums is another clear sign of
    gingivitis. If the gums are badly inflamed, then
    they turn soft and puffy. Occasionally, the gums
    may become extremely tender and sensitive.
  • When the gums are healthy, then their tissue is
    firm, and they are pale pink in colour. If
    infected, the colour changes to bright red or
    purplish red.
  • Receding gums is another problem faced by people
    suffering from gingivitis.
  • Sometimes, mouth sores may develop on the gum
  • All the above mentioned symptoms could be
    accompanied by bad breath, or a bad taste in the
    mouth due to the growth of bacteria in the mouth.

Diagnosis of Gingivitis
  • Based on the signs and symptoms you show or tell
    your dentist, he or she will usually do an
    examination of the gums for any swelling,
    bleeding, and also checking the teeth for
    movement and any sensitivity. To be able to
    determine the severity of the disease, a
    periodontal probe (a tiny ruler that is inserted
    into teeth pockets) is used - the deeper the
    pockets, the more serious the disease. Your bite
    will also be assessed and full mouth X-rays will
    be done to determine the level of underlying bone
    and if any bone is lost. After the examination,
    the dentist or periodontist will give
    recommendations on how the gingivitis can be
    treated because there are different treatment
    options depending on the stage or severity of the
    disease. However, your dentist may also recommend
    a medical evaluation to determine any health
    problems if the cause of the gingivitis is still
    not clear.

  • If you observe any signs of gingivitis, you must
    visit a dentist as soon as possible for proper
    treatment. The first step of treatment is deep
    dental cleaning to remove plaque and tartar
    hidden under the gums. Various specialized dental
    instruments are used for this purpose, and the
    technique is called scaling. It may cause some
    discomfort as the gums are already tender because
    of tartar build up. Sometimes, misaligned teeth
    or poorly fitted crowns make it difficult to
    clean the plaque with brushing. If any such
    problem is responsible for causing gingivitis,
    then it needs to be corrected. The treatment
    should be followed by adequate dental care at
    home. Your dentist may even suggest some changes
    in brushing and flossing techniques. He may also
    prescribe an antiseptic mouth rinse to control
    any further growth of bacteria.

  • Diet is also an important factor in the cure of
    this disease. You should eat crispy fibrous
    foods, such as apples and carrots that can
    massage the gums well and keep them healthy. Rich
    sources of vitamin C, such as citrus fruits, can
    also cure gingivitis. You must stay away from
    sugary foods and high fat foods because they
    promote plaque formation. The signs of
    gingivitis are often mild and we tend to ignore
    them. If left untreated, then it can lead to a
    more serious form of gum disease and even tooth
    loss. Recurrence of the signs can be prevented
    with good oral care. Brush your teeth with a
    soft-bristled toothbrush twice a day. Regular
    flossing is also important as it removes trapped
    food particles from those areas where a
    toothbrush cannot reach. Thus, the chances of
    plaque formation are reduced to a great extent.

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