Acute Kidney Injury (Renal Failure): Symptoms, Causes and Treatment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Acute Kidney Injury (Renal Failure): Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

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Every organ present inside our body performs specific functions, which are useful for balancing our health. The kidneys are paired organs of the excretory system that assist in the elimination of waste materials in the form of urine. Regulation of metabolites and secretion of specific hormones are other important functions performed by the kidneys. Acute Kidney Injury, also known as renal failure is marked by rapid loss of kidney function. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Acute Kidney Injury (Renal Failure): Symptoms, Causes and Treatment


1
Acute Kidney Injury
2
Acute Kidney Injury
  • Every organ present inside our body performs
    specific functions, which are useful for
    balancing our health. The kidneys are paired
    organs of the excretory system that assist in the
    elimination of waste materials in the form of
    urine. Regulation of metabolites and secretion of
    specific hormones are other important functions
    performed by the kidneys. Acute Kidney Injury,
    also known as renal failure is marked by rapid
    loss of kidney function.

3
Causes of Acute Kidney Injury
  • The causes of acute kidney injury are multiple.
    It is characterized by certain stages. The stages
    of acute kidney injury are classified on the
    basis of the decrease in the Glomerular
    Filtration Rate (GFR). Malfunctioning of kidneys
    can be diagnosed by analyzing the GFR. The
    decrease in GFR causes accumulation of metabolic
    waste inside the body, thereby leading to a rise
    in the level of toxicity. Acute kidney injury is
    the first stage and the last stage is known as
    chronic renal failure. The causes of rapid loss
    of kidney function are illustrated below 
  • Improper fluid balance
  • Elevated potassium levels
  • High blood urea nitrogen
  • High blood creatinine

4
Causes of Acute Kidney Injury
Continue
  • Enlargement of prostate gland
  • Exposure to toxins
  • Low volume of blood
  • Low urine production
  • Acute tubular necrosis
  • Interstitial nephritis
  • Acute nephritic syndrome
  • Clotting of kidney's blood vessels

5
Symptoms of Acute Kidney Injury
  • Diagnosis is carried out with blood tests and
    urine tests. The symptoms of acute renal
    failure are associated with a decrease in urine
    production and swelling in specific parts of the
    body. The symptoms are 
  • Decreased urine production
  • Decreased appetite
  • Swelling of ankle, hands, and feet
  • Bloody stools
  • High blood pressure
  • Bleeding of nose
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Bruising easily

6
Symptoms of Acute Kidney Injury
Continue
  • Metallic taste in mouth
  • Decreased sensation
  • Rapid hiccups
  • Seizures
  • Sluggish movements

7
Treatment for Acute Kidney Injury
  • The treatment starts once the kidney disease is
    confirmed. Some of the clinical tests include
    analysis of blood urea nitrogen, serum
    creatinine, and creatinine. Since acute kidney
    injury is the initial stage of the kidney
    failure, it can be treated completely with timely
    drug therapy. The treatment is aimed at restoring
    kidney function. Tablets are administered to
    regularize the blood pressure and prevent the
    occurrence of the seizures. One of the vital
    treatment options for regulating the normal
    function of the kidney is dialysis. Dialysis is
    one of the most promising treatment options for
    curing the complications of acute renal failure.
    There are two types of dialysis, namely
    haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. In this
    procedure, the dialyser takes over the function
    of the kidney and helps in removal of waste
    products from the body. It also regulates the
    blood pressure inside the body. However, chances
    of complete recovery from the chronic renal
    failure are very less, and it is actually a
    life-threatening condition. 

8
Diet responsible for Acute Kidney Injury
  • Excessive consumption of protein-rich foods is
    one of the reasons behind a number of kidney
    diseases. Thus, nephrologists advise a limited
    intake of protein. Food like meat, eggs, and
    dairy products should be avoided as much as
    possible while following an ideal acute kidney
    injury diet. Curtailing the consumption of
    protein-rich vegetables is also advised. Foods
    rich in complex carbohydrates like grains,
    cereals, and whole foods, are safe for health.
    Since kidney injury causes deposition of toxins
    and salts inside the body, external intake of
    salts is restricted. You should prepare recipes
    low in sodium, as a high sodium diet will cause
    water retention inside the body. Food items that
    are rich in potassium and phosphorous(cheese,
    baking powder, meat, almonds, etc.) should be
    consumed in minimal amounts. 

9
Diet responsible for Acute Kidney Injury
Continue
  • A person affected by acute kidney injury must
    follow the nephrologists advice when it comes to
    the use of medications, dialysis, and dietary
    guidelines. Timely diagnosis and treatment can
    certainly lower the risk of complications
    associated with the loss of kidney function.

10
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