A SUSTAINABLE APPROACH FOR MANAGEMENT OF SOIL BORNE PATHOGENS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

A SUSTAINABLE APPROACH FOR MANAGEMENT OF SOIL BORNE PATHOGENS

Description:

Soil borne pathogens cause a significant economic losses in agricultural production all over the world. The disease caused by these pathogens are difficult to predict, detect, diagnose and successfully control. A sustainable management approaches are very important to minimize the activity of these pathogens. There are various method to manage the soil borne pathogens such as cultural methods, physical methods, chemical methods, biological methods and growing a resistant varieties. The effective control of the soil borne pathogens is possible only through detailed study on survival and dissemination of these pathogens. Effect of environmental conditions, role of cultural practices and host resistance and susceptibility will play a major role in disease management. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:126
Slides: 66
Provided by: 8083618001
Tags:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: A SUSTAINABLE APPROACH FOR MANAGEMENT OF SOIL BORNE PATHOGENS


1
(No Transcript)
2
CREDIT SEMINAR ON
A SUSTAINABLE APPROACH FOR MANAGEMENT OF SOIL
BORNE PATHOGENS
PRESENTED BY PRAKASH MANI KUMAR M.Sc. (Ag), 3rd
sem M/PP/94/2016-17 Deptt. of Plant Pathology
3
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
WHY PLANT DISEASE OCCURS?
PRINCIPLES OF PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT
CULTURAL METHOD OF DISEASE CONTROL
PHYSICAL METHOD OF DISEASE CONTROL
BIOLOGICAL METHOD OF DISEASE CONTROL
CHEMICAL METHOD OF DISEASE CONTROL
HOST RESISTANCE IN DISEASE MANAGEMENT
CONCLUSION
4
INTRODUCTION
5
The application of sustainable practice in the
category of Agriculture, business, society,
environment and in personal life by manage them
in the way that will be benefit current and
future generation
6
PREDOMINANT SOILBORNE PATHOGENS
  • FUNGI- Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani,
    Fusarium sp, Pythium, Phytophthora etc.
  • BACTERIA- Erwinia, Raltsonia, Rhizomonas,
    Agrobacterium, Streptomyces etc.
  • VIRUS- Wheat mosaic virus
  • NEMATODES- Meloidogyne, Heterodera, Longidorus,
    Paratrichodorus, Trichodorus etc.

(Veena et al., 2014)
7
WHY PLANT DISEASE OCCUR..?
8
favourable
ENVIRONMENT
Susceptible
Virulent
TIME
Disease
9
PRINCIPLES OF PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT
10
(No Transcript)
11
Practices for sustainable management of soil
borne plant disease
Cultural method
Physical method
Biological method
Chemical method
Host resistance
12
1.CULTURAL PRACTICES
13
Cultural practices involves all the activities
carried out on the farm before, during and after
planting of crops. They are grouped into
pre-planting, planting and post-planting
operation.
Cultural practices involves the principle of
  • Avoidance
  • eradication
  • exclusion

14
CULTURAL METHODS INCLUDES
Depth of sowing
Mix cropping
15
CROP ROTATION
16
  • Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series
    of dissimilar or different types of crops in the
    same area in sequenced seasons.
  • When the same crop is grown in the same field
    year after year then many diseases build up in
    the soil.
  • Rotation to a non-susceptible crop can break this
    cycle by reducing pathogen levels.
  • It help in the control of those pathogens which
    are survive long time in the soil without a host.

Eg- Fusarium Sp
17
ROTATION PERIODS TO REDUCE VEGETABLE SOIL-BORNE
DISEASES
VEGETABLES DISEASE YEAR OF ROTATION
Asperagus Fusarium rot (F. proliferatum) 8
Beans Root rot (F. phaseoli) 3-4
Cabbage Club root (Plasmodiophora brassicae) 7
Cabbage Black leg (Phoma lingum) 3-4
Cabbage Black rot (X. compestris) 2-3
Muskmelon Fusarium wilt (F. melonis) 5
Parsnip Root canker  (Itersonilia pastinacae) 2
Peas Root rot (Aphanomyces euteiches f. sp. Pisi) 3-4
Peas Fusarium wilt (F. oxysporium) 5
Pumpkin Black rot (Didymella bryoniae) 2
Radish Club root (Plasmodiophora brassicae) 7
18
MIXED CROPPING
19
PATHOGEN MAIN CROP SECOND CROP EFFECCT REFERENCE
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Chick pea Linseed Reduce disease incidence Agrawal et al., 2002
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Chick pea Linseed Reduce disease incidence Otten et al., 2005
Rhizoctonia solani Radish Mustard Reduce disease progress Otten et al., 2005
Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici Wheat Grasses Reduce disease severity and incidence in bioassay Gutteridge et al., 2006
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum Watermelon Rice Reduced wilt Renet et al., 2007
20
DATE OF SOWING
21
  • Early and delayed sowing of crops enables it
    escape critical period of disease incidence.
  • Peas and chickpea sown in October usually suffer
    heavily from root rot and wilt (a complex of
    Fusarium, Rhizoctonia and Sclerotium). When these
    crops are sown late, the diseases are not so
    severe or almost absent.
  • Avoiding cool and cloudy days for planting will
    help to reduce red rot of sugarcane. Late sowing
    of winter wheat and barley is considered to be
    the most effective measures in reducing take all
    disease of wheat.

22
Effect of planting dates on days to first
symptoms appearances, vine mass and tuber yield
of potato at Chitwan, Nepal.
DATE OF PLANTING DAYS TO 1ST SYMPTOMS APPEARANCE (DAP) VINE MASS(t ha-1) TUBER YIELD(t ha-1)
25th October 40.33 6.77 16.65
4th November 30.00 4.28 9.171
14th November 26.33 3.01 6.695
24th November 24.92 2.66 5.457
(Gaire et al., 2014)
23
NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT
24
  • It influence the health of plants and their
    susceptibility to disease.
  • It play an important role in supreesion of
    disease.
  • Plants suffering a nutrient stress will be more
    susceptible to disease.
  • It makes plant more tolerant or resistant to
    disease.
  • The nutrient status of the soil and the use of
    particular fertilizers and ammendments can have
    significant impacts on the pathogens
    environment.

25
HOW CAN MINERAL NUTRITION PREVENT PLANT
DISEASE.?  
Mineral nutrition can affect two primary
resistance mechanism
a) Formation of mechanical barrier
Eg- thickness of cell wall
b) Synthesis of natural defence compounds
Eg- phytoalexins, antioxidants and flavanoids
26
Effect of form of N on Plant Diseases
CROP DISEASE NO3-N NH4-N
Corn Stalk rot (Fusarium) Increase Decrease
Corn Root rot (Pythium) Increase Decrease
Soybean Root rot (Aphanomyces) Decrease Increase
Soybean Cyst nematode (Heterodera) Increase Decrease
Wheat Root rot (Fusarium) Decrease Increase
Wheat Take all (Ophiobolus) Increase Decrease
Cotton Root rot (Phymatotrichum) Increase Decrease
Cotton Wilt (Fusarium) Decrease Increase
(Huber et al., 2007)
27
EFFECT OF K, N AND Ca ON SEVERITY OF
PHYTOPHTHORA DISEASE
PATHOGEN HOST/DISEASE FACTOR EFFECT
Phytophthora infestans Potato late blight K Decrease
Phytophthora infestans Potato late blight High K High N Increase
P. capsici Pepper blight K Decrease
P. drechsleri Pigeon pea blight High K Low N Decrease
P. parasitica Citrus gummosis High K Low Ca Increase
(Paul, 1983)
28
EFFECT OF S ON DIFFERENT DISEASES
HOST PLANT DISEASES EFFECT OF S
Cotton, tomato Fusarium wilt, Verticillium wilt Decrease
Crucifers Club root Decrease
Potato Common scab, late blight, Stem canker Decrease
Soybean Rhizoctonia root rot Decrease
(Huber et al., 2015)
29
ROLE OF MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCY ON SOIL-BORNE
DISEASES
MICRONUTRIENT DIFFICIENCY DISEASE PATHOGEN
Boron(Bo) Tomato Wilt Verticillium alboatrum
Boron(Bo) Beans Root rot Fusarium solani
Zinc(Zn) Take all of wheat G. Graminis var. tritici
Zinc(Zn) Rhizoctonia Root rot Rhizoctonia solani
Manganese(Mn) Take all of wheat G. Graminis var. tritici
(Kausadikar et al., 2006)
30
SOIL AMENDMENT (COMPOST)
31
  • Compost increase the chemical and physical
    quality of the soil.
  • It also increase the diversity of bacteria and
    fungi in the soil.
  • Compost encourages healthy plants that are better
    equipped to fight off disease and increase in
    yield.
  • Root rot caused by Pythium and Phytophthora are
    generally supressed by the high numbers and
    diversity of beneficial microbes found in the
    compost.

32
SOME CASE STUDY OF SUPRESSION OF SOIL BORNE
PATHOGEN BY USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF COMPOST
COMPOST MATERIAL DISEASE SUPRESSION OBSERVED EFFECT REFERENCES
Hardwood bark Pythium ultimum in cucumber plant Hardwood bark centre pile(high temperature, gt60C) was conducive and after 3-4 days at 25C became suppressive. Suppression was due to mesophilic organism, great microbial activity and low levels of nutrients, importance of microbiostasis. Chen et al., 1988
Compost municipal waste Phytophthora nicotianae in citrus seedling Disease decreased increasing proportions of one CMW(20 v/v) Widmer et al., 1998
Grape marc compost (GMC), Cork compost(CC) Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Lycopersici (Fusarium wilt of tomato) GMC was the most suppressive, CC was intermediate and peat and vermiculite were conducive media. Heated GMC was still moderately suppressive. Importance of pH,ß-glucosidase activity and microbial populations. Borrero et al., 2004
33
COMPOST MATERIAL DISEASE SUPRESSION OBSERVED EFFECT REFERENCES
Mature bio solid compost (sewage sludge and yard waste) Sclerotina rolfsii in bean plant Prolonged compost curing negates suppressiveness. Combination of microbial populations and the chemical environment were responsible for pathogen suppression. Danon et al., 2007
Cork compost and light peat Verticillium wilt of tomato Cork compost was suppressive in comparision with peat. This compost had higher microbial activity and biomass. Borrero et al., 2002
Grape marc extracted olive press cake (GMEPC), Olive tree leavesolive mill waste water (OLOMW) and spent mushroom compost(SMC) Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. radices lycopersici in tomato plants The three composts were highly suppressive and suppression is related to the presence of specific microorganism Ntougias et al., 2008 Kavroulakis et al., 2010
34
COVER CROPS
35
  • They are non-host crops sown with the purpose
    of making soil borne pathogens waste their
    infection potential before the susceptible main
    crop is grown.
  • It will increase soil microbial diversity by
    enhancing the soil microflora
  • Create unfavourable environment
  • Mustard and Brassica (Broccoli) helps to reduce
    the load of soil borne pathogens.


  • (Divyarani et al., 2013)

36
DEPTH OF SOWING
37
  • The depth of sowing has important effect on
    pathogen that attack seedling.
  • By delaying the emergence of seedling, deep
    sowing may help to increase the resistance of a
    susceptible crop to pathogen
  • Deep sowing is advisable in case of disease
    caused by Fusarium and Rhizoctonia sp.


38
2. PHYSICAL METHODS
39
  • It inactivate and immobilized the pathogen
  • It creat a barrier in between pathogen and host
    plant and also their vector.
  • Plastic or net covering of row crops may protect
    the crop from infection by preventing pathogens
    or vectors from reaching the plants.
  • Most commonly used physical agents for
    controlling plant diseases are
  • Temperature (high and low)
  • Dry air
  • Light wavelength

40
SOIL SOLARIZATION
41
  • Soil solarisation is a method of heating soil by
    covering it with transparent polythene sheet
    during hot period to control soil borne diseases.
  • It trap solar energy and this energy cause
    physical, chemical and biological changes in
    soil.
  • Eg- control of Verticillium and Fusarium diseases
    in vegetable crops in Israel, control of
    Verticillium dahlias in orchard in California,
    USA and control of chickpea and pigeonpea wilt in
    India.

42
SOME DISEASES ARE CONTROL BY SOIL SOLARIZATION
CROP DISEASE PATHOGEN
Tomato Didymello stem rot Didymella lycopersici
Cucumber Fusarium wilt Fusarium oxysporium
Cotton Fusarium wilt Fusarium oxysporium
Onion Pink root Plosmodiophoro brassicae
Peanut Pod rot Pythium myrothecium
Tomato Canker Clavibacter michiganensis
Potato Scab Streptomyces scabies
(Vegetable research and information centre,
University of California)
43
HEAT STERILIZATION
44
  • is a farming technique that sterilizes soil
    with steam in open fields or greenhouses.
  • Soil sterilization provides secure and quick
    relief of soils from substances and organisms
    harmful to plants such as
  • bacteria
  • viruses
  • fungi
  • Nematodes
  • It can generally achieved by heat produced
    electrically than supplied by steam or hot water.

Eg- 50C- Nematode and some Oomycetes are killed
60-70C- most pathogenic bacteria and
fungi
45
FLOODING
46
  • Prolonged water logging leads to lack of oxygen
    and accumulate CO2.
  • Flooding the field to eliminate soil borne plant
    pathogen in both physical and cultural method.

47
PLANT DISEASE CONTROLLED BY FLOODING
PATHOGEN DISEASE
Alternaria porri f.sp. solani Alternaria blight of tomato and potato
Alternaria dauci Blight of carrot
Aphelenchoides besseyi White tip of rice
F. Oxysporium f. sp. cubens Wilt of banana
Verticillium dahlia Wilt of cotton
Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae Black shank of tobacco
Meloidogyne sp. Root knot of celery
Sclerotiana sclerotiorum White mold of vegetables
Pyrenophora teres Canker and blight of barley
(Stover, 1955 Rotein and Palti, 1969 Tarr,
1972 Palti, 1981)
48
3. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
49
TWO WAYS OF DISEASE SUPRESSION
By Symbiotic association
By Antagonistic association
50
Antagonistic association
Bio control agents suppress disease causing
organism in following ways
  • Competition Beneficial organism out-compete
    disease causing plant pathogens in the search for
    nutrients or colonization space in specific
    habitats such as the root zones. Increased
    competition prevents pathogens from becoming
    established and multiplying to levels that cause
    plant disease.
  • Antibiotics and secretions produced by some
    microorganisms inhibit the growth of plant
    pathogen.
  • Eg- Antibiotic production is common
    in soil-dwelling bacteria and fungi. For
    example, zwittermicin a production by
    B. cereus against Phytophthora Root rot in
    alfalfa
  • Predation and parasitism of plant pathogen by
    bio control agents (where beneficial microbes use
    pathogen as a food)

51
(No Transcript)
52
USE OF TRICHODERMA IN DISEASE CONTROL
CROP DISEASE PATHOGEN
Elephant foot yam Collar rot Sclerotium rolfsii
Chilli, Tomato, Brinjal Damping off Pythium, Phytopthora, Fusarium
Ginger, Turmeric, Onion Rhizome rot Pythium, Phytopthora, Fusarium
Banana, Cotton, Tomato, Brinjal Wilt Fusarium oxysporium
(Ranasingh et al., 2006)
53
Symbiotic association
  • In this association beneficial microorganism
    protect the host plant from pathogen by keeping
    an association with the host plant of pathogen.

Example- Mycorrhiza
54
Mycorrhizal Fungi and Disease Suppression
MYCORRHIZA it is an association between fungi
and root of higher plants
It is considered as the most beneficial
root-inhabiting organisms, which forms a fungal
mat over the root and protect the root of plant
from the attack of soil borne pathogen.
55
(No Transcript)
56
Example
Protection from the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum
was shown in a field study using a cool-season
annual grass and mycorrhizal fungi. In this study
the disease was suppressed in mycorrhizae-colonize
d grass inoculated with the pathogen.
(Newsham et al., 1995)
in field studies with eggplant, fruit numbers
went from an average of 3.5 per plant to an
average of 5.8 per plant when inoculated with
Gigaspora margarita mycorrhizal fungi. Average
fruit weight per plant went from 258 grams to 437
grams. (Matsubara et al., 1995)
57
SOIL SUPPRESSIVE
58
EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENT PLANT PATHOGENS CONCEALED
BY DISEASE SUPPRESSIVE SOILS
PATHOGEN INVOLVED REFERENCE
Cyst nematode Heterodera sp. Kerry 1988 Westphal Becker, 1999
Streptomyces scabies Menzies, 1959
Fusarium oxysporum Stotzky Martin, 1963 Scher Baker, 1980
Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici Cook Rovira, 1976
Phytophthora cinnamomi Broadbent Baker, 1974
Plasmodiophora brassicae Murakami et al., 2000
Pythium sp. Hancock, 1977
Rhizoctonia solani Henis et al., 1978, 1979
59
4. CHEMICAL CONTROL
60
  • Chemical pesticides are generally used to protect
    plant surfaces from infection or to eradicate a
    pathogen that has already infected a plant.
  • A few chemical treatments, however, are aimed at
    eradicating or greatly reducing the inoculum
    before it comes in contact with the plant. They
    include soil treatments (such as fumigation),
    disinfestation of warehouses, sanitation of
    handling equipment, and control of insect vectors
    of pathogens
  • Chemicals in plant disease are used to create the
    toxic barrier between the host surface and
    pathogen.
  • These are applied in the soil as pre and post
    plant applications. Generally these treatments
    are being given
  • in high value cash crops.
  • Applied as soil fumigation, soil drenching and
    seed treatment.
  • Fungicides like prothiocarb, propamocarb and
    metalaxyl are useful to control the Oomycetes
    pathogens.
  • Fosetyl Al is the fungicide which controls the
    soilborne pathogens when it is used as foliar
    spray.

61
5. HOST PLANT RESISTANCE
62
Growing of resistance plants is one of the most
effective and economical method. Host plant
resistance not only reduces the crop losses but
lessens the expenditure incurred on disease
control as well as reduces the pollution hazards.
Resistance is of two types
i) Monogenic (Vertical)
ii) Polygenic (Horizontal)
63
RESISTANT VARIETIES OF SOME CROPS
CROP VARIETIES DISEASE
Tomato Big beef, Celebrity tomato, Sweet Chelsea Wilt, Nematode, Tobacco mosaic
Potato Elba Late blight(highly resistant)
Potato Kennbee, Sebago, Rosa Late blight (Moderate resistant)
Potato Meris bard Scab
Brinjal Arka anand Wilt
64
CONCLUSION
  • Management of soil-borne diseases is most
    successful and economical when all the required
    information pertaining to the crop, disease
    affecting it, history of these in the previous
    years, resistant levels of the host and
    environmental conditions to prevail is available.
  • Combination of disease management practices may
    have additive or synergistic effects and such an
    approach is especially desirable in the case of
    soilborne diseases which are entirely different
    epidemiologically.
  • All the management practices will be adopt in a
    proper way to minimize the soil borne pathogens.

65
For your attention...
About PowerShow.com