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Tips on Using Gerunds & Infinitives

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Tips on Using Gerunds & Infinitives [ ]. LearningPundits helps Job Seekers make great CVs [ ] , master English Grammar and Vocabulary [ ] , ace Aptitude Tests [ ], speak fluently in a Group Discussion [ ] and perform well in Interviews [ ] We also conduct weekly online contests on Aptitude and English [ ]. We also allow Job Seekers to apply for Jobs [ ] – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Tips on Using Gerunds & Infinitives


1
16 TIPS on USING GERUNDS INFINITIVES
  • Grammar Rules and Tips for using Gerunds
    Infinitives

2
What are Gerunds Infinitives?
  • Gerunds and Infinitives are types of Non-Finite
    verbs.
  • Non-Finite Verb Verbs that have no separate
    subject and do not show tense (i.e.) these verbs
    are not conjugated in relation to a subject.
  • Example I like to give him money today. (here
    like has I as its subject so it is a Finite
    verb but to give has no subject and limitation
    of number so it is a Non-Finite verb)
  • Types and Functions of Non-Finite Verb
  • Infinitives. She comes here to swim. (functions
    as a noun, adjective or adverb)
  • Gerunds . She does not like swimming. (functions
    as a noun)
  • Participle. She participates in swimming events.
    (functions as an adjective)

3
Tips on using Gerund
4
Tip 1 Subject-Object
Tip 2 Gerund vs Infinitive, Participle
Gerund vs Infinitive Some verbs can be followed
by both a gerund or an infinitive (being used as
a noun) without causing a change in
meaning. Infinitive I like to swim. (general/
habit) Gerund I like swimming. (general/
habit) Infinitive I like to swim today. (note
the meaning has changed from previous two
examples) Gerund vs Participle Gerunds always
functions as nouns, whereas participles function
as adjectives. Participle Barking dogs seldom
bite. (barking functioning as adjective to
dog) Gerund We can hear the barking.
(barking, functioning as a noun, is the sound
heard by us)
  • Subject Gerunds can appear at the beginning of a
    sentence when used as a subject.
  • Smoking is injurious to health.
  • Object Gerunds can act as an object following
    the verb.
  • Dinesh quit smoking a year ago.

5
Tip 3 To Gerund
Tip 4 Preposition Gerund
Preposition Gerund is used after certain
verbs and phrases that are followed by
appropriate prepositions (in, on, from, of)
instead of to. She restrains from making any
statement. He is confident of winning. He
rebuked you for coming late. (showing cause for
the action) The book is for reading. (showing
purpose for which the subject is used)
  • To Gerund used after certain verbs and phrases
    like be used to, with a view to, accustomed to,
    owing to, given to, look forward to, prone to, in
    addition to, etc.
  • He is used to swimming early in the morning.
  • She is accustomed to speaking in English in
    school.
  • Naveen comes here with a view to studying.

6
Tip 5 Direct Gerund
Tip 6 Possessive Noun/ Pronoun Gerund
  • Direct Gerund certain verbs are followed
    directly by gerunds (e.g.) avoid, love, like,
    dislike, prefer, consider, finish, miss, imagine,
    regret etc.
  • She enjoys to ride riding on the hills.
  • Paul avoids using chemicals on the vegetables he
    grows.
  • Give up, Put off, Set about Phrasal verbs like
    these ones are followed by Direct Gerund.
  • The coach called off practicing for the day.
  • Tom looked into finding a new job.

Possessive Noun/ pronoun gerund The noun or
pronoun before a gerund should be in possessive
case. Shweta insisted on Rahuls coming with
her. I did not like his singing.
7
Tips on using Infinitive
8
Tip 1 Subject-Object, How Infinitive
Tip 2 Noun, Adverb, Adjective
As a Noun To dance was her passion. (The
infinitive to dance is the subject of the verb
was.) As an Adjective Give him an ornament to
polish. (The infinitive to polish functions as
an adjective and modifies ornament.) As an
Adverb He will complete the mission to set an
example. (The infinitive to set modifies the
verb will complete. This means it is functioning
as an adverb.) .
  • Subject Infinitive can appear at the beginning
    of a sentence when used as a subject.
  • To visit the Taj Mahal is my life-long dream.
  • Object Infinitive can act as an object following
    the verb.Nilesh always forgets to eat.
  • How to Infinitive When used with verbs of
    manner/method like teach, show, explain, learn,
    know, discover, wonder etc, the infinitive is
    used as how to.
  • He knows how to colour with crayons.

9
Tip 4 Need, Dare
Tip 3 Too, Very Enough
Need, Dare When these two words are used as
auxiliaries in negative and interrogative
sentences, Direct infinitive, thats infinitive
without to, is used after them. He need not
work hard. He needs to work hard. Need he
work there now? Do you need to work there
now?
  • Too when used with too, the infinitive denotes
    negative meaning.
  • She is too tired to help me. (meaning she cant
    help me)
  • Very when used with very, the infinitive
    expresses affirmative meaning.
  • We are very happy to see you.
  • Enough when used with enough, the infinitive
    expresses affirmative meaning
  • I've had enough food to eat.

10
Tip 5 Let, Bid Know, Hear, Help, Watch
Tip 6 Had better, As, Why Not, But, Except
  • Bid, Know, Make, Help, feel, Hear, watch See
    when these words are used in Active Voice, they
    are followed by Direct Infinitive.
  • I made the student write an essay. (active
    voice-direct infinitive, so no to used before
    write)
  • The student was made to write an essay. (passive
    voice- infinitive, to is used before write)
  • Let is followed by Direct Infinitive both in
    active and passive voice.
  • Her parents let her go to cinema. (passive)
  • Let's go out for a walk tonight. (active)

Had better, Had rather, Would better, Would
rather, As soon, Sooner than these phrases are
followed by Direct Infinitive. We had better to
take some warm clothing. Why, Why not is
followed by the Direct Infinitive when making
suggestions. Why not buy a new bed? Why to
wait until tomorrow? But, Than, Except, And, As,
For Direct Infinitive is used with these
words. He did nothing but to sleep.
11
Tip 7 Perfect Infinitive
Tip 8 Continuous Infinitive
  • Perfect Infinitive is used if the action
    expressed by the Infinitive precedes the action
    of the Finite verb OR in Third conditional
    sentences.
  • He admitted to have uttered those words.
    (uttered happened before he admitted)
  • She seems to have quit her job.
  • She was sorry to have missed the show.
  • He reported to have lost the file.
  • Before I turn 40, I want to have written a book.
    (third conditional)

Appear, Seem, Believe, Consider, Think, Report,
Happen, Arrange, Pretend, Hope, Say Continuous
Infinitive is used with these verbs when needed.
I happened to be waiting for the bus when the
accident happened. You'd better be working on
your report when I get there. (to removed as
followed by would rather) You must be joking!
(to removed as followed by modal verb must)
12
Tip 10 With, By, As, In
Tip 9 Should, Could May, Might, Must
With, By, As, In all these and other
prepositions are used with the infinitive when
the infinitive qualifies the noun. She gave me a
pen to write with. They offered me a bed to
sleep in.
  • Will, Would, Can, Could, Must, May, Might all
    these modal verbs are followed by Direct
    infinitive, without to.
  • We should be hurrying. (with continuous
    infinitive form)
  • Someone must have broken the window and climbed
    in. (with perfect infinitive form)
  • They might have been talking before you came in.
    (with perfect continuous infinitive form)
  • Alice could be given a prize for her artwork.
    (with passive infinitive form)

13
Spot the Errors
14
Spot the Error
  • He is addicted to watch TV continuously.
  • Please give me a pen to write.
  • She is reported to work in Chandigarh nowadays.
  • You should avoid to drive at night.
  • I have no house to live.

15
Spot the Error
  • He is addicted to watch TV continuously.
  • He is addicted to watching TV continuously.
  • Please give me a pen to write.
  • Please give me a pen to write with.
  • She is reported to work in Chandigarh nowadays.
  • She is reported to be working in Chandigarh
    nowadays.
  • You should avoid to drive at night.
  • You should avoid driving at night.
  • I have no house to live.
  • I have no house to live in.

16
Spot the Error
  • He is enough ill to go out.
  • She is prone to injure herself.
  • I still remember to meet you last year in Mumbai.
  • It is no use to wait for her.
  • She confessed to cheat in the exam.

17
Spot the Error
  • He is enough ill to go out.
  • He is too ill to go out.
  • She is prone to injure herself.
  • She is prone to injuring herself.
  • I still remember to meet you last year in Mumbai.
  • I still remember to have met you last year in
    Mumbai.
  • It is no use to wait for her.
  • It is no use waiting for her.
  • She confessed to cheat in the exam.
  • She confessed to have cheated in the exam.

18
Spot the Error
Why not to rest now? Shiela is bent to go to
Hyderabad next week. My mother taught me how
cook food. The machine is for to measure
weight. I will have him to finish the food
completely.
19
Spot the Error
  • Why not to rest now?
  • Why not rest now?
  • Shiela is bent to go to Hyderabad next
    week.Shiela is bent on going to Hyderabad next
    week.
  • My mother taught me how cook food.
  • My mother taught me how to cook food.
  • The machine is for to measure weight.The machine
    is for measuring weight.
  • I will have him to finish the food completely.
  • I will have him finish the food completely.

20
Spot the Error
  • He dare not to go to the park at night.
  • The train is expected leaving the station in five
    minutes.
  • The trainer let him to take a break.
  • He has given up to play sitar.
  • She might to come tomorrow.

21
Spot the Error
  • He dare not to go to the park at night.
  • He dare not go to the park at night.
  • The train is expected leaving the station in five
    minutes.
  • The train is expected to leave the station in
    five minutes.
  • The trainer let him to take a break.
  • The trainer let him take a break.
  • He has given up to play sitar.
  • He has given up playing sitar.
  • She might to come tomorrow.
  • She might come tomorrow.

22
About Us
  • LearningPundits helps Job Seekers make great CVs,
    master English Grammar and Vocabulary , ace
    Aptitude Tests , speak fluently in a Group
    Discussion and perform well in Interviews.
  • We also conduct weekly online contests on
    Aptitude and English. Job Seekers can also apply
    for jobs on LearningPundits.
  • You can read more about Tips on Gerunds
    Infinitives.
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