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Chronic Pulmonary Aspregillosis (CPA)
  • George Dimopoulos MD, PhD, FCCP, FCCM
  • Prof Critical Care Medicine
  • Critical Care Department,
  • University Hospital ATTIKON at Haidari,
  • Medical School, National and Kapodistrian
    University of Athens, Greece

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA)History
  • 1842 Edinburgh, UK
  • 1st report of CPA as a fatal condition
  • 1938 France
  • radiological description of aspergilloma
    described as a
  • mega-mycetome intra-bronchiectasique
  • 1957 London, UK
  • 1st CPA complicating tuberculosis (TB) treated
    with amphotericin
  • 1960s London, UK
  • Aspergillus antibody has been discovered
  • Early 1980s
  • term semi-invasive pulmonary aspergillosis/CPA
  • 2003
  • Criteria for the diagnosis and categorisation of

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) Risk
factors for CPA development
  • The predominant risk factors
  • Tuberculosis
  • Non Tuberculous Mycobacterium infection
  • Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA)
  • COPD
  • Prior pneumothorax
  • Treated lung cancer
  • Less common risk factors
  • Fibrocystic sarcoidosis
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Pneumoconiosis
  • Progressive massive fibrosis in silicosis

Smith NL et al Eur Respir J 2011 37 865872,
Kato T, et al. Chest 2002 121 118127, Parakh
UK et al Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2005 47
199203, Lachkar S
et al. Rev Mal Respir 2007 24 943953, Bal A
et al Mycoses 2008 51 35735
Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) Clinical
phenotypes of CPA
Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) Definitions
  1. Single pulmonary cavity containing a fungal ball
  2. Serological/microbiological evidence implicating
    Aspergillus spp. in a non-immunocompromised
    patient with minor or no symptoms
  3. No radiological progression over at least 3
    months of observation.

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) Definitions
  • Invasive aspergillosis- mildly immuno-compromised
    patients, occurring over 13 months
  • Variable radiological features including
    cavitation, nodules, progressive consolidation
    with abscess formation.
  • Biopsy- hyphae in invading lung tissue,
    Aspergillus GM antigen in blood (or respiratory

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) Definitions
  1. One or more pulmonary cavities possibly
    containing one or more aspergillomas or irregular
    intraluminal material
  2. Serological / microbiological evidence
    implicating Aspergillus spp.
  3. Significant pulmonary and/or systemic symptoms
  4. Radiological progression (new cavities,
    increasing pericavitary infiltrates or increasing
    fibrosis) over at least 3 months of observation.

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) Definitions
  1. Severe fibrotic destruction of at least two lobes
    of lung complicating CCPA leading
    to a major loss of lung function
  2. Usually the fibrosis is manifest as
    consolidation, but large cavities with
    surrounding fibrosis may be seen.

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) Definitions
Aspergillus nodules
  1. One or more nodules which may or may
    not cavitate
  2. They may mimic tuberculoma, carcinoma
    of the lung, coccidioidomycosis etc
  3. Definitively diagnosed on histology.
  4. Tissue invasion is not demonstrated,
    although necrosis is frequent.

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
  • Diagnosis of CPA combination of characteristics
  • a consistent appearance in thoracic imaging (CT)
  • direct evidence of Aspergillus infection or
    immunological response to Aspergillus spp
  • exclusion of alternative diagnoses
  • The findings must be present for at least 3
  • Patients are usually not immunocompromised

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis
(CPA) CPA-Differential Diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis
  • the diagnosis does not excude CPA
  • Depending on geographical loacation
  • pulmonary histoplasmosis,
  • and coccidioidomycosis
  • Conventional bacteria

    Str. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae,
    Staphylococcus aureus,
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, anaerobic

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA- Key
  • Respiratory samples for patients with cavitary or
    nodular pulmonary infiltrate in
    non-immunocompromised patients
  • Direct microscopy for hyphae
  • Fungal culture (sputum or BAL)
  • Histology
  • Fungal cultures (transthoracic aspiration)
  • Aspergillus PCR (respiratory secretion)
  • Bacterial cultures (sputum or BAL)

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
Microscopy, culture and PCR
  • Aspergillus spp
  • in sputum not diagnostic
  • in BAL consistent with infection, including CPA
  • Microscopy
  • sputum or bronchoscopy specimens often reveals
    fungi, but
    has not been systematically studied
  • Culture-positive rates 5681
  • Respiratory samples cultured on media specific
    for fungi have a higher yield than bacterial
    culture plates
  • Positive cultures during antifungal therapy are
    consistent with azole resistance
  • Molecular detection methods, such as PCR, are
    more sensitive than

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
Antigens / Galactomannan (GM)
Study Parameters Sensitivity Specificity
Izumikawa K et al Med Mycol 2012 50 811817. BAL (cut-off level of 0.4) Serum (cut-off level of 0.7 ) 77.2 66.7 77.0 63.5
Kono Y, et al Respir Med 2013 1071094-1100 BAL (cut-off level gt0.5) 85.7 76.3
Shin B et al J Infect 2014 68 494499. . Serum 23
BAL and not serum GM should be used in diagnosis
of CPA
Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
Galactomannan / better in BAL than in blood
Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
  • All patients suspected of having CPA should be
    tested for A. fumigatus IgG
    antibody or precipitins
  • False negative results do occur
  • If the clinical suspicion is high
  • Aspergillus fumigatus IgE test especially in
    asthmatic and cystic fibrosis patients and an
    alternative IgG test should be performed, with
    consideration given to other means of achieving
    the diagnosis (sputum culture and PCR,
    Aspergillus antigen, percutaneous
    biopsy/aspiration etc.)
  • Antibody titres slowly fall with successful
    therapy but rarely become undetectable
  • A sharply rising antibody titre sign of
    therapeutic failure or relapse
  • Cross-reactivity with other fungi, such as
    Histoplasma or Coccidioides spp. may affect some

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
  • Findings after biopsy or resection of lesions
  • Definitive distinction between (SAIA) subacute
    invasive aspergillosis and CCPA and better
    definition of the tissue
    response to Aspergillus infection
  • Chronic inflammatory reaction
  • Septate hyphae may be found in a resected
    cavity, sometimes
    filling and obliterating it with
  • Granuloma
  • Fibrosis surrounding or mixed with
    inflammatory infiltrate
  • SAIA
  • Hyphae in lung parenchyma with acute
    inflammatory or necrotic tissue response

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
Radiological diagnosis
  • CxR
  • the first imaging modality for the suspicion and
    diagnosis of CPA
  • CT of the thorax
  • provides better definition and location of
    imaging abnormalities
    as well as their distribution and extent
  • CT- angiography
  • is required at least for the baseline CT scan
    prior to therapy
  • is useful to evaluate new haemoptysis, and in
    failure treatment
  • use of average intensity projection
    post-processing of a CT could create slabs of
    variable thickness akin to a chest radiograph
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • doesnt appear to be useful

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
Imaging findings
  • Combination of the findings
  • related to underlying lung disorders
  • and changes secondary to Aspergillus infection
    itself reflecting
    the chronic inflammatory and immune response
    to Aspergillus spp
  • CPA most commonly develops in..
  • a pre-existent bronchopulmonary or less usually
    pleural cavity
  • but also
  • directly causes the formation and expansion of
    new cavities or
    nodule and rarely alveolar consolidation
  • Changes secondary to the Aspergillus infection
    itself range from
  • the appearance of a fungus ball within a lung
    (single or simple aspergilloma)
  • to complex pleuroparenchymal features related to
    a progressive destructive cavitary disease

Godet C et al. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis
an update on diagnosis and treatment. Respiration
2014 88 162174
Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
Imaging findings / distinctive hallmarks
  • New and/or expanding cavities
  • variable wall thickness in the setting of chronic
    lung disease
  • with or without intracavitary fungal ball
  • with pleural thickening and
  • marked parenchymal destruction and/ or fibrosis
  • Aspergillus empyema may be seen
  • Enlargement of bronchial or non-bronchial
    systemic arteries
  • Pseudo-aneurysms leading to sometimes fatal

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
Imaging findings / Aspergilloma
  • Prior to Aspergilloma formation
  • fungal growth on the interior surface of the
  • a distinctive appearance of a bumpy or irregular
    interior cavity
  • An aspergilloma typically starts as
  • a surface infection following colonisation in a
    lung cavity
    or a bronchiectasis
  • an upper-lobe, solid, round or oval intracavitary
    mass, partially
    surrounded by a crescent of air, the
    air-crescent sign, mobile
    on prone position
  • a fixed and immobile, irregular sponge-work
    filling the cavity
    and containing air spaces
  • Calcification may be seen
  • Fungus balls do not enhance after IV injection of
    contrast media
  • Adjacent pleural thickening is often observed
  • Aspergilloma may coexist with any underlying
  • There are some mimics of aspergilloma including
    necrotic lung carcinoma

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
Imaging findings/ Aspergilloma
Cavity with irregular edge and aspergilloma
Apical pleural thickening bordering
the cavity Axial view with lung window at
the level of the left upper
  • Aspergilloma in CCPA
  • air-crescent sign
  • a thick-walled and slightly
    irregular cavity.

(No Transcript)
Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
Imaging findings / Multiple aspergillomas
  • Female 34 years old, medical history of TB
  • Anti-TB treatment for 12 months (1996)
  • Recurrent heamoptysis (since 2000)
  • Respiratory fuctioning tests mild obstruction
  • Rx PO itraconazole for 3 months

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
Imaging findings / CCPA
  • Typical appearances of CCPA
  • unilateral or bilateral areas of consolidation
  • multiple expanding usually thick-walled cavities
    that may contain
    one or more aspergillomas
  • concomitant pleural thickening of variable extent
  • Thickened pleura
  • frequently associated with abnormally dense extra
    pleural fat
  • may not be differentiated in some cases from the
    neighbouring alveolar consolidation or the wall
    of the cavities.
  • Asymmetric findings
  • predominantly located in the areas with
    pre-existing anomalies
    related to the underlying pulmonary
  • Radiological evolution
  • slower and may take several years
  • Differential diagnosis
  • TB, NTM, histoplasmosis, actinomycosis,
    coccidioidomycosis and
    lung carcinoma

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
Imaging findings / CCPA
CCPA a) 2007 and b) 2012. Left in both
images A large cavity with pleural thickening
with additional small cavities and contraction of
the left upper lobe. Right side Interval
development of a large cavity, with some pleural
thickening. Neither cavity contains a fungal ball
  • CCPA (axial view) at the level of RUL
  • Multiple cavities
  • Fungus ball lying within the largest one.
  • The wall of the cavities cannot be distinguished
    from the thickened
    pleura or the neighbouring
    alveolar consolidation
  • The extra pleural fat is hyperattenuated (white

Lung window
Mediastinal window
A COPD patient with history of TBC and steroids
treatment. Antibiotic treatment for infectious
exacerbation. Bronchial secretions and Ag GM
Aspergillus ()
Treatment with Voriconazole Duration of therapy
6 months Final diagnosis CCPA
Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
Imaging findings / CFPA
  • CFPA terminal evolution of CCPA
  • When CCPA remains untreated
  • Resulting in extensive pulmonary fibrosis
  • The fibrosis may be limited to one or both upper
    lobes but also commonly involves the whole
  • There is no distinctive feature of fibrosis
    related to CPA, other than the cavitation and
    fungal balls seen in close proximity

CFPA with atelectasis and fibrosis of the whole
left lung, secondary to untreated CCPA. The
cavity contains strands of Aspergillus.
Denning DW et al Clin Infect Dis 2003 37 Suppl.
3, S265S280.
Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
Imaging findings / Aspergillus nodules
Very similar in appearance to malignancy,
coccidioidal nodules, NTM and actinomycosis as
well as rheumatoid nodules Rounded in
appearance with low attenuation or cavitation
within. Single or multiple and have an area of
central cavitation.
Nodule of the right, upper lobe, with irregular
and slightly spiculated borders
Aspergillus nodules, of variable size and
borders, and a fungus ball filling a cavity with
a wall of variable thickness in a patient with
pre-existing bronchiectasis and cicatricial
atelectasis of the middle lobe.
Yoon SH et al Acta Radiol 2011 52 756761, Lim
J et al. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2010 14
16351640, Baik JJ et al. Respirology 1999 4
Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
Imaging findings / SAIA
Absence of any prior cavitary lesion is usual
Usually a single area of consolidation is found
in an upper lobe which progresses over days or
weeks with cavitation Sometimes the
predominant feature is a thin walled cavity that
expands over 13 months Pleural thickening
and fungus balls may occur as well as
pneumothorax and pleural effusion An
air-crescent sign may be seen, a probable sign
of the development of necrosis, thereby an
indication of the worsening of the disease
  1. Dual cavity with moderately thick walls
  2. External irregular edge
  3. Some material within the cavity on
    an almost
    normal lung background.

Greene R. Med Mycol 2005 43 Suppl. 1,
S147S154, Baxter CG et al Thorax 2011 66
638640, Franquet T et al. Radiographics 2001
21 825837, Rajalingham S, J Med Case Rep 2012
6 62, Schweer KE et al Dtsch Med Wochenschr
2014 139 22422247.
Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA- A case
  • 19/7/2013 Admission to the hospital
  • Haemoptysis
  • Cavity lession
  • Checked for TB
  • () Mantoux
  • Positive galactomannan antigen bronchial
  • CT angiography. Absence of visible bleeding site
  • Voriconazole
  • 18/10/2013 New bleeding
  • 18/03/2014 Discontinuous treatment for
  • Aspergilossis

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA- A case
  • Male 69 yrs
  • 28/01/2015 3 episodes of massive haemoptysis
    06.02.2015 Admission to ICU due to
  • massive haemoptysis
  • aspiration
  • desaturation
  • loss of consciousness
  • Intubation- mechanical ventilation
  • 2006 prostate cancer, prostatectomy
  • 2013 radiotherapy 03-23/05/2013
  • 2013 nephrotic syndrome / AKF
  • kidney biopsy ? diffuse proliferative

  • IGC immunocomplex associated

    immunodifficiency /chronic thrombotic

    microangiopathy possibly due to radiotherapy
  • Methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide.
  • Oral methylprednisolone

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA- A case
During the next two years
  • Therapeutic interventions in summary
  • Voriconazole 07/13-03/14 (9 months)
  • Patient stops therapy for 4 months
  • Restarted voriconazole 07/14 stops in 10/14 (3
  • Patient stops therapy again for 2 months
  • Haemoptysis 04/01/15 voriconazole was restarted
  • New episode of haemoptysis
  • Admission to the Internal Medicine Clinic
  • Symptoms
  • Weakness
  • Weight loss
  • Haemoptysis
  • Tests
  • 8 CT and CTA
  • Never embolized

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA- A case
  • Admission to ICU 06/02/2015
  • Sedation
  • Analgesia
  • Intubation - Ensuring airway
  • Diagnostic tests performed
  • TB / Nocardia (-)
  • Biopsy nasal mucosa (-)
  • GM serum and bronchial aspirates ()
  • Precipitins IgG 6.5 / IgM 0.4 / IgA 1.1
  • Biopsy bronchial mucosa (-)
  • Lung Biopsy (Confers aspergillosis)
  • Voriconazole
  • Patient problems
  • Frequently hemoptysis
  • Imminent airway
  • Inadequate ventilation and
  • Actions performed
  • Double lumen intubation tube
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Early tracheostomy day 5

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA- A case
06/03 Surgical removal of the cavity Patient
returned to the ICU
16/03 surgical stump opens bronchopulmonary
27/04 surgical closure of broncho- pulmonary
fistula with pericardial patch
Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA- A case
  • The patient after 4 months of hospitalization
    in the ICU died due to septic shock
    and multiorgan failure (MOF)

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
Imaging findings / SAIA
Female patient with leukemia ARDS / Resp
failure Intubation Mechanical Ventilation BAL
Aspergillus / GM () Voriconazole Death Autopsy
Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA-
  • Treatment with Antifungals
  • Surgical treatment
  • Treatment of hemoptysis
  • Local cavity therapy
  • Corticosteroids
  • INF-?

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA
Treatment with antifungals
  • PO triazole therapy
  • Patients type of disease or clinical phenotype
    and eligibility for
    surgical treatment
  • Main target QUALITY OF LIFE
  • CCPA Voriconazole or itraconazole PO
  • Duration at least 4-6 months, slow
  • CFPA Long-term itraconazole PO ?
    stabilizing patients
  • SAIA Treatment as in IPA
  • IV administration
  • WHERE ?

    Progressive disease, PO failure, intolerant
    of triazoles, resistance
  • IV Micafungin 150mg/day vs Voriconazole (response
    to treatment vs 60 vs 53),
    Liposomal AmB 3 mg/kg/ day, Caspofungin 5070

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA
Surgical treatment
  • Aspergilloma in patients with adequate
    pulmonary function
  • Full resection without spillage of fungal
    elements into the pleural space.
  • Recurrence of disease and haemoptysis are rare in
    simple aspergilloma
  • CCPA carries a lower success rate
  • Surgery in all patients with severe haemoptysis
  • Careful patient selection to avoid peri- and
    post-operative complications
  • Bullectomy, segmentectomy, sublobar resection,
    wedge resection, lobectomy,
    pleurectomy, pneumonectomy
  • Post-operative complications
  • persistent air-leak, empyema, pneumonia, wound
    infection, bronchopleural fistula, respiratory
    failure, massive haemorrhage, and death
  • Catheter embolisation of bronchial arteries
  • prior to surgery and a bridge towards selective

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA Local
cavity therapy
  • Aim to control recurrent haemoptysis if
    surgical treatment is not an option in those
    without a haemorrhagic diathesis when systemic
    use of antifungals is ineffective or prevented by
  • Instillation of antifungals through
  • an endobronchial catheter under bronchoscopic
  • via a percutaneous transthoracic needle or
  • catheter placed into the aspergilloma cavity
  • Antifungals
  • Amphotericin B (as paste or solution), the drug
    of choice (50 mg in 20 mL 5 Dextrose solution)
  • azoles (miconazole, itraconazole)
  • sodium iodide and nystatin (as paste with
    amphotericin B).
  • Complications
  • cough, chest pain, pneumothorax or endobronchial
  • Short-term response rates 70 to 100.

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA
Therapies for haemoptysis
  • Mild, moderate or life-threatening haemoptysis
  • CCPA and simple aspergilloma usually
  • Tranexamic acid (typically 500 mg three times
  • Moderate or severe haemoptysis
  • Embolisation either as a temporising measure
    before surgery or as a
    definitive treatment
  • Complications of embolisation
  • chest wall pain, stroke with cortical blindness
    or impaired vision
  • chest wall or spinal cord infarction, as well as
    renal impairment and allergic reactions to the
    contrast dye.

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA
Corticosteroids / IFN-?
  • Patients with underlying diseases
  • sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, COPD, ABPA or
    asthma may be dependent on corticosteroids
  • Prednisolone 530 mg/day may carefully be
    considered for symptom control
    only if are adequately treated with antifungals
  • ?nterferon (IFN)-? deficiency
  • Impaired production of IFN-? and IL-12 necessary
    to produce IFN-?
  • IFN-? substitution (Adjunctive therapy) with
    5060 µg subcutaneously, three times weekly
  • Clinical improvement

Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CPA) CPA
Follow up
  • After resection surgery of Aspergillus nodule
  • Single and completely excised aspergilloma
  • The patient does not require antifungal therapy
    unless immunocompromised
  • A single nodule not completely resected
  • Quantitative Aspergillus IgG serology,
    inflammatory markers and radiology
  • at 3-monthly intervals to determine if
    antifungal therapy required
  • Multiple nodules
  • Antifungals ? reduction in size of most or all
    nodules over time
  • An increase in size may represent another
    disease process, such as a malignancy
  • Close radiological follow-up (initially 3
  • To ensure there has been no progression
  • In all cases, corticosteroid exposure should be