Glomerular Diseases: Glomerulosclerosis and Glomerulonephritis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Glomerular Diseases: Glomerulosclerosis and Glomerulonephritis


Diseases that injure the glomeruli, the tiny filtering units within the kidney where blood is cleaned, are called Glomerular diseases. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Glomerular Diseases: Glomerulosclerosis and Glomerulonephritis

Glomerular Diseases
Glomerular Diseases
  • Diseases that injure the glomeruli, the tiny
    filtering units within the kidney where blood is
    cleaned, are called Glomerular diseases. Glomeru
    lar disease reduces the kidneys ability to
    maintain a balance of specific substances in the
    blood stream. The kidneys job is to filter the
    bad toxins in the blood from the good proteins
    and red blood cells. Glomerular disease causes
    the kidney to begin to retain the bad toxins and
    release the proteins and red blood cells from the
    body. Laboratory analysis of the urine from
    people who have glomerular disease often shows
    protein in the urine (proteinuria) and sometimes
    blood in the urine (hematuria). Glomerular
    diseases include many conditions with a variety
    of genetic and environmental causes. Most
    Glomerular diseases have specific names but might
    also be referred to as either Glomerulonephriti
    s It describes the inflammation of the membrane
    tissue in the glomerulus of the kidney that
    serves as a filter, separating wastes and extra
    fluid from the blood. Glomerulosclerosis It
    describes the scarring or permanent damage to the
    tiny blood vessels within the kidney.

Causes of glomerular disease
  • Glomerular disease can be caused by numerous
    conditions and diseases including infection of
    the kidneys due to an infection that occurs
    throughout the body such as streptococcus
    bacteria that can cause the overproduction of
    antibodies that circulate through the blood and
    invade the glomeruli causing damage. Other
    causes of glomerular disease include taking a
    drug that is toxic to the kidneys, and chronic
    medical conditions including diabetes and lupus.
    While the progression of certain types of kidney
    disease can be slowed down, when damage occurs to
    the glomeruli it is irreversible.

  • The symptoms of glomerular disease include the
    primary symptom of high levels of protein present
    in the urine or "proteinuria". Other symptoms of
    glomerular disease consist of blood in the urine
    or "hematuria" that may visible to the naked eye
    ("gross hematuria") or may only be visible under
    a microscope during laboratory testing of the
    urine ("microscopic hematuria"),
    "hypoproteinemia" which is a low level of protein
    in the blood, "reduced glomerular filtration
    rate" which is an insufficient amount of waste
    products being removed from the blood., and
    "edema" which is swelling that occurs in
    different parts of the body - typically the
    hands, legs, and feet.

  • In many cases an individual may not be aware
    that they have this condition due to the fact
    that many of these symptoms cannot be detected
    unless laboratory tests are done however, in some
    cases there are visible signs that may be present
    which include urine that appears to be foamy
    which can be caused by proteinuria, blood may
    give the urine a pinkish colour and edema may
    occur which is swelling typically of the hands,
    feet, or ankles and generally occurs near the end
    of the day and may also be noticeable upon
    wakening in the morning with swelling around the
    area of the eyes.

Diagnosis of glomerular disease
  • Patients with glomerular disease have
    significant amounts of protein in the urine,
    which may be referred to as "nephrotic range" if
    levels are very high. Red blood cells in the
    urine are a frequent finding as well,
    particularly in some forms of glomerular disease.
    Urinalysis provides information about kidney
    damage by indicating levels of protein and red
    blood cells in the urine. Blood tests measure the
    levels of waste products such as creatinine and
    urea nitrogen to determine whether the filtering
    capacity of the kidneys is impaired. If these lab
    tests indicate kidney damage, the doctor may
    recommend ultrasound or an X ray to see whether
    the shape or size of the kidneys is abnormal.
    These tests are called renal imaging. But since
    glomerular disease causes problems at the
    cellular level, the doctor will probably also
    recommend a kidney biopsy - a procedure in which
    a needle is used to extract small pieces of
    tissue for examination with different types of
    microscopes, each of which shows a different
    aspect of the tissue. A biopsy may be helpful in
    confirming glomerular disease and identifying the

  • There are many forms of treatment that can be
    given when an individual is in the early stages
    of chronic kidney disease or CKD and varies
    widely based upon the specific disease that is
    causing the kidneys to fail.It is essential if
    you are experiencing any of the symptoms or signs
    that may indicate a problem with the urinary
    tract or kidneys that you schedule an appointment
    as soon as possible with your primary care
    physician so that you can be evaluated and
    potentially avoid CKD or its further progression
    that can lead to kidney failure.

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