Drug Allergy: Overview of symptoms, causes and more - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Drug Allergy: Overview of symptoms, causes and more

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A drug allergy is an allergic reaction to a drug or medication. An allergic reaction means that your immune system identifies the drug as foreign and acts to eliminate it from your body. Your immune system responds to foreign substances in multiple ways, all of which lead to increased inflammation. These inflammatory responses may cause you to have symptoms such as rash, fever or breathing difficulties. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Drug Allergy: Overview of symptoms, causes and more


1
Drug Allergy
2
Drug Allergy
  • A drug allergy is an allergic reaction to a drug
    or medication. An allergic reaction means that
    your immune system identifies the drug as foreign
    and acts to eliminate it from your body. Your
    immune system responds to foreign substances in
    multiple ways, all of which lead to
    increased inflammation. These inflammatory
    responses may cause you to have symptoms such as
    rash, fever or breathing difficulties.  Any
    medication is capable of inducing a drug allergy.
    However, a drug allergy is more likely with
    certain medications. It is not one of the common
    forms of allergies. A drug allergy is different
    from both drug side effects and drug toxicity.

3
Causes of a drug allergy
  • A drug allergy occurs when your immune system
    mistakenly identifies a drug as a harmful
    substance- a viral or bacterial infection.
    Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction,
    some drugs are more commonly associated with
    allergies including
  • Antibiotics, such as penicillin
  • Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Chemotherapy drugs for treating cancer
  • Medications for autoimmune diseases, such
    as rheumatoid arthritis
  • Corticosteroid creams or lotions
  • Medications for people with HIV or AIDS
  • Bee pollen products
  • Echinacea

4
Prevention of a drug allergy
  • If you have a drug allergy, the best prevention
    is to avoid the problem drug. If your drug
    allergy has caused anaphylaxis or other severe
    reactions, you need to carry emergency
    epinephrine.

5
Symptoms
  • You may be suffering from a drug allergy if you
    depict the following signs and symptoms 
  • Skin rash
  • Hives
  • Itching of skin or eyes
  • Fever
  • Facial swelling
  • Joint aches or swelling
  • Tender lymph nodes
  • Shortness of breath

6
Symptoms
Continue
  • Anaphylaxis is a severe form of drug allergy and
    also a life-threatening condition, symptoms of
    which include 
  • Tightening of the throat that causes breathing
    difficulty
  • Extremely low blood pressure
  • Weak, rapid pulse
  • Swelling of the lips, mouth, or eyelids
  • Abdominal pain
  • Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhoea
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Confusion
  • Loss of consciousness

7
Treatments
  • If you have an allergic reaction to a drug, the
    first step is to stop taking that medication. You
    may also need additional medication to ease any
    uncomfortable symptoms. There are several
    medications available to treat drug allergies,
    such as 
  • Antihistamines For mild symptoms such as a rash,
    hives, and itching, over-the-counter
    antihistamines can be effective. These drugs may
    cause drowsiness.
  • Bronchodilator A bronchodilator can help when
    main symptoms include wheezing or coughing.
  • Corticosteroids Corticosteroids can be taken by
    mouth, intravenous injection, or applied directly
    to the skin. They act more slowly than
    antihistamines, but last longer and can provide
    relief from some of the more serious symptoms of
    a drug allergy.
  • Epinephrine In acute anaphylaxis cases,
    epinephrine should be taken by injection as soon
    as possible.

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