Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack): Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack): Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Myocardial Infarction is a medical term used to define the heart attack. Myocardial infarction occurs when the flow of blood to the heart is blocked. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack): Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment


1
Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack)
2
Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack)
  • Myocardial Infarction is a medical term used to
    define heart attack. Myocardial infarction occurs
    when the flow of blood to the heart is blocked. A
    heart attack can damage the tissues of the heart,
    which can result in sudden death of a person. The
    duration of heart attack depends upon patient to
    patient, sometimes a person dies immediately
    after the symptoms occur. 

3
Causes of Myocardial infarction 
  • Due to buildup of plaque, the oxygen and
    nutrient rich blood is not able to reach to the
    heart. The buildup of plaque in the artery that
    supplies blood to the heart becomes narrow. The
    lack of blood supply to the heart affects its
    overall functioning. There are numerous factors
    that may contribute in the development of plaque
    in the artery. Some of the factors that cause
    Myocardial infarction are listed below  High
    Level of Bad Cholesterol- Bad cholesterol or LDL
    can stick to artery walls and produce plaque.
    Plaque obstructs the proper flow of blood to the
    heart.  Trans fats and saturated fats- Both
    these fats contribute in the development of
    plaque in the coronary arteries. These fats are
    present in abundance in our day-to-day foods,
    such as ghee, butter, meat, and cheese. These
    fats increase the amount of bad cholesterol in
    the body, which eventually leads in plaque
    buildup. 

4
Risk factors of Myocardial infarction 
  • There are various risk factors associated with
    Myocardial infarction some of them are 
  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol
  • Age
  • High blood pressure
  • Age
  • Physical inactivity

5
Symptoms
  • The most common symptoms of Myocardial
    infarction or heart attack is sudden and
    severe pain in the chest. The pain during the
    heart attack can spread to neck, jaw, arms, and
    abdomen. The chest pain during the Myocardial
    infarction can be described as burning, pressing,
    heavy, stabbing or squeezing. However, not all
    people who have heart attack experience the same
    symptoms. Some common symptoms of Myocardial
    infarction are 
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Profuse sweating
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Dizziness
  • Cough
  • Pain in the rib cage
  • Lightheadedness

6
Diagnosis of Myocardial infarction 
  • At first, a cardiologist will use stethoscope to
    check if there are any irregularities with the
    heartbeat. A physical test will determine whether
    a patient had a heart attack or not. To know more
    about the condition the doctor will order
    diagnostic tests, which may include
  • Angiography
  • Stress test
  • Electrocardiogram
  • Echocardiogram
  • Radionuclide imaging
  • Blood tests

7
Treatments
  • The patient of Myocardial infarction needs
    immediate treatment. The treatment of Myocardial
    infarction depends upon the patients condition.
    As soon as possible, the patient must be given an
    oxygen mask for easy breathing and medicines to
    reduce the pain. If the patient's heart has
    stopped beating, first preference is to revive
    the heartbeat. A cardiologist may use reperfusion
    therapy when immediate treatment is
    required.  Blood thinner and nitroglycerin will
    be, given to the patient to prevent the blood
    clotting and to widen the blood vessels. Other
    medicines such as beta-blockers and ACE
    inhibitors are given to calm down the high blood
    pressure and relax the heart muscle. A doctor may
    also perform surgical procedures such as
    angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting to
    remove the blockage from the arteries.

8
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