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Thrombocythemia: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Thrombocythemia is an unusual blood clotting disorder that causes bone marrow to produce too many platelets. Thrombocythemia disorder is also known as essential thrombocythemia. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Thrombocythemia: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment


1
Thrombocythemia
2
Thrombocythemia
  • Thrombocythemia is an unusual blood clotting
    disorder that causes bone marrow to produce too
    many platelets. Thrombocythemia disorder is also
    known as essential thrombocythemia. Bone marrow
    present inside your bone is responsible for the
    production of red blood cells, white blood cells,
    and platelets. White blood cells fights
    infection, red blood cells carry oxygen and
    nutrients, and platelets ensure blood clotting.
    Blood clots are formed to prevent the excessive
    flow of blood after an injury. The patients with
    thrombocythemia experience blood clot for no
    particular reason. Unusual blood clotting, blocks
    the normal flow of blood to the brain, kidneys,
    liver, heart and other key organs.
    Thrombocythemia is most common among women and
    people over the age of 50. There are two types of
    thrombocythemia primary thrombocythemia and
    secondary thrombocythemia.

3
Causes of Thrombocythemia
  • The exact cause of thrombocythemia is still
    unknown. However, the most common cause of
    thrombocythemia may be genetic. The alteration in
    the gene 2 (JAK2) may result in the abnormal
    growth of platelets in the bone marrow. A normal
    platelet count in the body is 150,000 to 450,000
    platelets per micro filter of blood. Iron
    or vitamin deficiency, trauma, infection
    or kidney failure can also cause thrombocythemia.

4
Symptoms
  • Thrombocythemia usually does not cause any
    symptoms. The most common symptom of
    thrombocythemia is formation of blood clot, which
    mostly appear in the hands, feet, and brain. The
    symptoms of this bone marrow disorderdepend upon
    the location of the blood clot. Common symptoms
    may include 
  • Extreme weakness
  • Chest pain
  • Burning sensation in hands or feet
  • Numbness in feet or hands
  • Eye problems
  • Enlarged spleen
  • Dizziness
  • Bloody urine

5
Symptoms
Continue
  • Bloody stool
  • Gum bleeding
  • Nose bleeding
  • Shortness of breath

6
Diagnosis of Thrombocythemia
  • A doctor will start a diagnosis by asking a
    patient about their symptoms, medical history and
    may perform a physical exam. After that, a doctor
    will order a diagnostic test to know the exact
    cause and the severity of the problem.
    The diagnostic tests will include Complete
    Blood Count (CBC)- To measure the number of
    platelets in your blood. Genetic test- To
    detect if thrombocythemia is inherited or
    not. Blood smear test- To determine the
    condition of your platelets. Bone marrow
    aspiration- This test involves taking a sample of
    bone marrow tissue in the liquid form. This is
    later examined under the microscope.

7
Treatments
  • There is no permanent cure for the
    thrombocythemia. There are treatments, which can
    provide relief from the symptoms. The treatment
    of thrombocythemia varies from a person to
    person. The doctor will decide the treatment
    based on the patients current condition.
    Patients who are over the age of 60 are smokers,
    have diabetes or heart disease are highly
    recommended to consider immediate treatment.
    Treatment may involve 
  • Antibiotics and aspirin to prevent blood from
    clotting.
  • Medications to slow down the excessive production
    of platelets in the bone marrow.
  • Plateletpheresis- It is a procedure to remove
    platelets directly from the blood.

8
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