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Best Breast Cancer Surgery Hospitals in India

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Breast cancer starts once cells within the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells typically kind a tumor which will usually be seen on an x-ray or felt as a lump. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Best Breast Cancer Surgery Hospitals in India


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Best Breast Cancer Surgery Hospitals in India
What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts once
cells within the breast begin to grow out of
control. Thesecells typically kind a tumor which
will usually be seen on an x-ray or felt as
alump. The neoplasm is malignant (cancer) if
the cells will grow into (invade)surrounding
tissues or unfold (metastasize) to distant areas
of the body. Breastcancer happens nearly
entirely in ladies, however men will get breast
cancer, too.Cells in nearly any a part of the
body will become cancer and may spread to
alternative areas of the body. to be told a lot
of concerning whats cancer and the way all
cancers begin and spread, see our section on
Cancer Basics.
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Breast Cancer Signs and Symptoms- Knowing how
your breasts normally look and feel is an
important part of breast health. Finding breast
cancer as early as possible gives you a better
chance of successful treatment. But knowing what
to look for does not take the place of having
regular mammograms and other screening tests.
Screening tests can help find breast cancer in
its early stages, even before any symptoms
appear. The most common symptom of breast cancer
is a new lump or mass. A painless, hard mass that
has irregular edges is more likely to be cancer,
but breast cancers can be tender, soft, or
rounded. They can even be painful. For this
reason, it is important to have any new breast
mass or lump or breast change checked by a health
care provider experienced in diagnosing breast
diseases.
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  • Other possible symptoms of breast cancer include
  • Swelling of all or part of a breast (even if no
    distinct lump is felt)
  • Skin irritation or dimpling
  • Breast or nipple pain
  • Nipple retraction (turning inward)
  • Redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple
    or breast skin
  • Nipple discharge (other than breast milk)
  • Sometimes a breast cancer can spread to lymph
    nodes under the arm or around the collar bone
    and cause a lump or swelling there, even before
    the original tumor in the breast tissue is large
    enough to be felt. Swollen lymph nodes should
    also be checked by a health care provider.
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Although any of these symptoms can be caused by
things other than breast cancer, if you have
them, they should be reported to a health care
provider so that he or she can find the
cause. Because mammograms do not find every
breast cancer, it is important for you to be
aware of changes in your breasts and to know the
signs and symptoms of breast cancer.
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What tests do physicians use to diagnose breast
cancer? Although breast cancer can be diagnosed
by the above signs and symptoms, the use of
screening mammography has made it possible to
detect many of the cancers early before they
cause any symptoms. Women should have the
opportunity to begin annual screening between
40-44 years of age. Women age 45 and older should
have a screening mammogram every year until age
54. Women 55 years of age and older should have
biennial screening or have the opportunity to
continue screening annually. Women should
continue screening mammography as long as their
overall health is good and they have a life
expectancy of 10 years or longer.
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Mammograms are a very good screening tool for
breast cancer. As in any test, mammograms have
limitations and will miss some cancers. An
individuals family history and mammogram and
breast exam results should be discussed with a
health-care provider. Women at high risk
(greater than 20 lifetime risk) should get an
MRI and a mammogram every year. Women at moderate
risk (15-20) should talk to their doctor about
the benefits and limitations of adding MRI
screening to their yearly mammogram
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How are breast cancer stages determined? Staging
is the process of determining the extent of the
cancer and its spread in the body. Together with
the type of cancer, staging is used to determine
the appropriate therapy and to predict chances
for survival. To determine if the cancer has
spread, several different imaging techniques can
be used. Chest X-ray It looks for spread of the
cancer to the lung. Mammograms More detailed and
additional mammograms provide more images of the
breast and may locate other abnormalities.
  • Computerized tomography (CT scan) These
    specialized X-rays are used to look at different
    parts of your body to determine if the breast
    cancer has spread. It could include a CT of the
    brain, lungs, or any other area of concern.
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  • Bone scan A bone scan determines if the cancer
    has spread (metastasized) to the bones. Low level
    radioactive material is injected into the
    bloodstream, and over a few hours, images are
    taken to determine if there is uptake in certain
    bone areas, indicating metastasis.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET scan) A
    radioactive material is injected that is absorbed
    preferentially by rapidly growing cells (such as
    cancer cells). The PET scanner then locates these
    areas in your body.
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What are breast cancer treatments? Radiation
therapy Radiation therapy destroys cancer cells
with high energy rays. There are two ways to
administer radiation therapy. External beam
radiation This is the usual way radiation therapy
is given for breast cancer. A beam of radiation
is focused onto the affected area by an external
machine. The extent of the treatment is
determined by a health-care team and is based on
the surgical procedure performed and whether
lymph nodes were affected or not. The local area
will usually be marked after the radiation team
has determined the exact location for the
treatments. Usually, the treatment is given five
days a week for five to six weeks.
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Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is treatment of cancers
with medications that travel through the
bloodstream to the cancer cells. These
medications are given either by intravenous
injection or by mouth. Chemotherapy can have
different indications and may be performed in
different settings as follows Adjuvant
chemotherapy If surgery has removed all the
visible cancer, there is still the possibility
that cancer cells have broken off or are left
behind. If chemotherapy is given to assure that
these small amounts of cells are killed as well,
it is called adjunct chemotherapy. Chemotherapy
is not given in all cases, since some women have
a very low risk of recurrence even without
chemotherapy, depending upon the tumor type and
characteristics. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy If
chemotherapy is given before surgery, it is
referred to as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Although
there seems to be no advantage to long-term
survival whether the therapy is given before or
after surgery, there are advantages to see if the
cancer responds to the therapy and by shrinking
the cancer before surgical removal. Chemotherapy
for advanced cancer If the cancer has
metastasized to distant sites in the body,
chemotherapy can be used for treatment. In this
case, the health-care team will need to determine
the most appropriate length of treatment.
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There are many different chemotherapeutic agents
that are either given alone or in combination.
Usually, these drugs are given in cycles with
certain treatment intervals followed by a rest
period. The cycle length and rest intervals
differ from drug to drug. Alternative
treatments Whenever a disease has the potential
for much harm and death, physicians search for
alternative treatments. As a patient or the loved
one of a patient, there may be an inclination to
try everything and leave no option unexplored.
The danger in this approach is usually found in
the fact that the patient might not avail
themselves of existing, proven therapies. One
should discuss any interest in alternative
treatments with a health-care team and together
explore the different options.
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