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Basal ganglia disease : causes, symptoms, treatment and diagnosis

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Basal ganglia disease refers to a group of physical dysfunctions that occur when the group of nuclei in the brain known as the basal ganglia fail to properly initiate movements. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basal ganglia disease : causes, symptoms, treatment and diagnosis


1
BASAL GANGLIA DYSFUNCTION
  • SYMPTOMS CAUSES DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT

2
INTRODUCTION TO BASAL GANLIA DYSFUNCTION
  • The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group
    of nuclei of varied origin in the brains of
    vertebrates that act as a cohesive functional
    unit. They are situated at the base of the
    forebrain and are strongly connected with the
    cerebral cortex, thalamus, and other brain
    areas. 
  • Basal ganglia disease refers to a group of
    physical dysfunctions that occur when the group
    of nuclei in the brain known as the basal ganglia
    fail to properly initiate movements. 

3
CAUSES OF BASAL GANLIA DYSFUNCTION
  • Conditions that cause injury to the brain can
    damage the basal ganglia include
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Drug overdose
  • Head injury
  • Liver disease
  • Infection
  • Metabolic problems
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Poisoning with copper, manganese, or other heavy
    metals

4
CONTINUE - CAUSES OF BASAL GANLIA DYSFUNCTION
  • Side effects of certain medications
  • Stroke
  • Tumours
  • Brain disorders associated with basalganglia
    dysfunction include 
  • Dystonia
  • Huntington's disease
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Progressive supranuclear palsy
  • Wilson's disease

5
SYMPTOMS OF BASAL GANLIA DYSFUNCTION
  • Damage to the basal ganglia cells may cause
    problems with one's ability to control speech,
    movement, and posture. This combination of
    symptoms is called Parkinsonism. A person with
    basal ganglia dysfunction may have difficulty
    starting, stopping, or sustaining movement.
    Depending on which area is affected, there may
    also be problems with memory and other thought
    processes. Generally, symptoms vary and may
    include 

6
CONTINUE - SYMPTOMS OF BASAL GANLIA DYSFUNCTION
  • Movement changes, such as involuntary or slowed
    movements
  • Increased muscle tone
  • Muscle spasms and muscle rigidity
  • Problems finding words
  • Tremor
  • Uncontrollable, repeated movements, speech, or
    cries
  • Walking difficulty

7
TESTS FOR BASAL GANGLIA DYSFUNCTION
  • The doctor will examine you and ask questions
    about your symptoms and medical history. Blood
    and imaging tests may be needed. These may
    include CT and MRI scan of the head
  • Genetic testing
  • Magnetic resonance angiography to look at the
    blood vessels in the neck and brain
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) to look at the
    metabolism of the brain
  • Blood tests to check blood sugar, thyroid
    function, liver function, and iron and copper
    levels

8
TREATMENTS FOR BASAL GANLIA DYSFUNCTION
  • Post diagnoses, the doctor will look for the
    exact cause of the disorder and start treatment
    of basal ganglia dysfunction accordingly.
  • The outlook for a person with basal ganglia
    dysfunction depends on how well a person does
    depends on the cause of the dysfunction. Some
    causes are reversible, while others require
    lifelong treatment.

9
CONTINUE - TREATMENT FOR BASAL GANLIA
DYSFUNCTION
  • When you start experiencing well a person does
    depends on the cause of the dysfunction. Some
    causes are reversible, while others require
    lifelong treatment its time to ring your doctor.
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